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Full text of "The Aitareya Brahmanam of the Rigveda, containing the earliest speculations of the Brahmans on the meaning of the sacrificial prayers, and on the origin, performance and sense of the rites of the Vedic religion. Edited"

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The Sacred Books of the Hindus 

Translated by various Sanskrit Scholars 


Edited by Major B. D. Basu, I. M. S. (Retired) 

Extra Volume — +. 


Aitareya Brahmanam of the RIgveda, 












Superintendent of Sanscrit Studies in the Poona College, &c., &c. 






9 *^ /I r A 
(J' '^ ^ 4 'v> u 




Dr. Martin Hang's translation of ibe Aitareya BrUhmana has br?n nut 
of print for a long time, and so it has been reprinted as an extra volume in 
the series of the Sacred Books of the ^^lindns. To facilitate references to 
the original edition, paging of that edition has been given in Sqnaie 
brackets, thus [ ]. It has not been considered necessary to reprint the 
Sanskrit text, as better editions of that text are now available. 

Extracts 'from Professor Max Muller's review of this work are repro- 
duced below : — 

The Aitareya-brahmana, coufcaining the earliest speculations of the Brahmans on the 
meaning of their sacrificial prayers, and the purport of their ancient religious rites, is a 
work which could be properly edited nowhere but in India. It is only a small work of 
about two hundred pages, but it presupposes so thorough a familiarity with all the 
externals of the religion of the Brahmans, the various ofBces of their priests, the times 
and seasons of their sacred rites, the form of their innumerable sacrificial utensilSj and 
the preparation of their offerings, that no amount of Sanskrit scholarship, such as can 
be gained in England, would have been sufficient to unravel the intricate speculations 
concerning the matters which form the bulk of tho Aitareya-brahmana 

The ancient Indian ceremonial, however, is one of the most artificial and complicated 
forms of worship that can well be imagined ; and though its details are, no doubt, most 
minutely described in the Brahmauas and the Sutras, yet, without having seen the actual 
site on which the sacrifices are offered, the altars constructed for the occasion, the 
instruments employed by different priests — the tout- ensemble, in fact, of the sacred rites— 
the reader seems to deal with words, but with words only, and is unable to reproduce in 
his imagination the acts and facts which were intended to be conveyed by them 

Dr. Hang succeeded, however, at last in procuring the assistance of a real Doctor of 
Divinity, who had not only performed the minor Vedic sacrifices, such as the full and 
new moon offerings, but had officiated at some of the great Soma sacrifices, now very 
rarely to be seen in any part of India. He was induced, we are sorry to say, by very 
mercenary considerations, to perform the principal ceremonies in a secluded part of 
Dr. Hang's premises. This lasted five days, and the same assistance was afterwards ren- 
dered by the same worthy and some of his brethren whenever Dr. Haug was in any doubt 
as to the proper meaning of the ceremonial treatises which give the outlines of the Vedic 
sacrifices. Dr. Haug was actually allowed to taste that sacred beverage, the Soma, which 
gives health, wealth, wisdom, inspiration, nay immortality, to those who receive it from 
the hands of a twice-born priest 

After having gone through all these ordeals. Dr Haug may well say that his explana- 
tions of sacrificial terms, as given in the notes, can be relied upon as certain ; that they 
proceed from what he himself witnessed, and what he was able to learn from men who 
had inherited the kowledge from the most ancient times 

In the preface to his edition of the Aitareya-brahmina, Dr. Haug has thrown out 
some new ideas on the chronology of Vedic literature which deserve careful considera- 
tion. Beginning with the hymns of the Rig-veda, he admits, indeed, that there are in 
that collection ancient and modern hymns, but he doubts whether it will be possible to 
draw a sharp line between what has been called the Chhandas period, representing tho 
free growth of sacred poetry, and the Mantra period, during which the ancient hymns 
were supposed to have been collected and new ones added, chiefly intended for sacrificial 
purposes. Dr. Haug maintains that some hymns of a decidedly 5-acrificial character 
should be ascribed to the earliest period of Vedic poetry. He takes, for inBtanoo, the 
hymus describing tho horse-sacrifice, and ho concludeig from the fact that seven priests 


only are mentioned in it by name, and that none of them belongs to the class of the 
Udg&tars (singers) and Brahmans (superintendents), that this hymn was written before the 
estabiishmeut of these two classes of priests. As these priests are mentioned in other 
Vedic hymns, he concludes that the hymn describing the horse-sacrifice is of a very early 
date. Dr. Haug strengthens his case by a reference to the Zoroastrian ceremonial, in 
which, as he says, the chanters and superintendents are entirely unknown, whereas the 
other two classes, the Hotars (reciters) and Adhvaryus (assistants) are mentioned by the 
same names as Zaotar and Rathwiskare. The establishment of the two new classes of 
priests would, therefore, seem to have taken place in India after the Zoroastrians had 
separated from the Brahmans ; and Dr. Haug would ascribe the Vedic hymns in which no 
more than two classes of priests are mentioned to a period preceding, others in which the 
other two classes of priests are mentioned to a period succeeding, that ancient schism 

According to Dr. Haug, the period during which the Vedic hymns were composed 
extends from 1400 to 2000 B. o. The oldest hymns, hewever, and the sacrificial formulas 
he would place between 2000 and 2400 B. c. This period, corresponding to what has been 
called the Chhandas and Mantra poriods, would be succeeded by the Brahmana period, 
and Dr. Haug would place the bulk of the Brahmanas, all written in prose, between 1400 
and 1200 B. c. He does not attribute much weight to the distinction made by the BrSh- 
mans th3mselves between revealed and profane literature, and would place the Sfltras 
almost contemporaneous with the Brahmanas. The only fixed point from which he 
starts in his chronological arrangement is the date implied by the position of the 
solstitial points mentioned in a little treatise, the Jyotisa. a date which has been 
accurately fixed by the Rev. R. Main at 1186 B. c* Dr. Haug fully admits that such an 
observation was an absolute necessity for the Brahmans in regulating their calendar : 

This argument of Dr. Haug's seems correct as far as the date of the establishment of 
the ceremonial is concerned, and it is curious that several scholars who have lately 
written on the origin of the Vedic calendar, and the possibility of its foreign origin, should 
not have perceived the intimate relation between that calendar and the whole ceremonial 
system of the Brahmans. Dr. Haug is, no doubt, perfectly right when he claims the 
invention of the Naksatras, or the Lunar Zodiac of the Brahmans, if we may so call it, 
for India ; he may be right also when he assigns the twelfth century as the earliest date 
for the origin of that simple astronomical system on which the calendar of the Vedio 
festivals is founded. He calls the theories of others, who have lately tried to claim the 
first discovery of the Naksatras for China, Babylon, or some other Asiatic country, 
absurd, and takes no notice of the sanguine expectations of certain scholars, who imagine 
they will soon have discovered the very means of the Indian Naksatras in Babylonian 
inscriptions . But does it follow that, because the ceremonial presupposes an observation 
of the solstitial points in about the twelfth century, therefore the theological works in 
which that ceremonial is explained, commented upon, and furnished with all kinds of 
mysterious meanings, were composed at that early date ? We see no stringency whatever 
in this argument of Dr, Haug's, and we think it will be necessary to look for other 
anchors by which to fix the drifting wrecks of Vedic literature 

However intertsing the Brahmanas may be to students of Indian literature, they are 
of small interest to the general reader. The greater portion of them is simply twaddle, 
and what is worse, theological twiildle. No person who is not acquainted beforehand 
with the place which the BrShmanas fill in the history of the Indian mind, could read 
more than ten pages without being disgusted- To the historian, however, and to the 
philosopher, they are of infinite importance — to the former as a real link between the 
ancient and modern literature of India ; to the latter as a most important phase in the 
growth of human mind, in its passage from health to disease. 

* See preface to the foxirth volume of my edition of the Rigveda, 

P R E F A C K 

The present work is the first edition, and first translation of one 
of the most important works of the Brahmana literature 

The editing of the text and the translation of the numerous stories 
contained in the work was a comparatively easy task, and might have 
been carried out as well in Europe by any respectable Sanscrit scholar 
in possession of the necessary materials obtainable there. But the 
case stands different with the translation of the technical parts of the 
work and principally the numerous explanatory notes which are indis- 
pensable for an actual understanding of the book. Though Sayana's 
excellent Commentary, which I have used throughout, is a great help 
for making out the proper meaning of many an obscure word, or phrase, 
it is not sufficient for obtaining a complete insight into the real meaning 
of many terms and passages occurring in the work. Besides, a good many 
passages in the Commentary itself, though they may convey a correct 
meaning, are hardly intelligible to European Sanscrit scholars wha 
have no access to oral sources of information. The difficulties mainly 
lie in the large number of technical terms of the sacrificial art, which 
occur in all Brahmanas, and are, to those uninitiated into the mysteries of 
this certainly ancient craft, for the most part unintelligible. It is, there- 
fore, not surprising that no Sanscrit scholar as yet ever attempted the 
translation of the whole of a Brahmana j for the attempt would, in many 
essential points, have proved a failure. 

What might be expected in the explanation of sacrificial terms from 
scholars unaided by oral information, may be learnt from the three vol- 
umes hitherto published of the great Sanscrit Dictionary, compiled by 
Bcehtlingk and Roth. The explanations of these terms there given (as- 
well as those of many words of the Samhita) are nothing but guesses, 
having no other foundation than the individual opinion of a scholar who 
never made himself familiar with the sacrificial art, even as far as it would 
be possible in Europe, by a careful study of the commentaries on ih& 
Sfitras and Brahmanas, and who appears to have thought his own con- 
jectures to be superior to the opinions of the greatest divines of Hindustan^ 
who were especially trained for the sacrificial profession from times 
immemorial. These defects of a work which is in other respects a 


monument of gignatic toil and labour, and on account of its containing 
numerous references and quotations extremely useful to the small number 
of Sanscrit scholars who are able to make independent researches, have 
been already repeatedly pointed out by Professor Theodor Goldstucker, 
one of the most accurate Sanscrit scholars in Europe. Although his 
remarks excited the wrath principally of some savants at Berlin, who had 
tried to praise up the work as a masterpiece of perfection and ingenuity 
almost unparalleled in the history of lexicography, they are, nevertheless, 
though in some points too severe, not quite so undeserved and unjust, 
as the defenders of the Dictionary made them to appear. Goldstucker 
justly does not only find fault with its explanation of ritual terms, but 
with the meanings given to many words in the samhita. Though I am far 
from defending even the greater majority of Sayana's explanations of the 
more difficult words and sentences of the Samhita, it would have 
been at any rate advisable for the compilers of a Sanscrit Dictionary, 
which includes the Vedic words, to give Sayana's explanations along with 
their own. Even granted that all Sayana's explanations are only either 
guesses of his own, or of the great Bhat-tacharyas* before him, whose 
labours he principally used, they nevertheless deserve all attention as 
the opinions and observations of men who had a much deeper knowledge 
of the Sanscrit language in general, and the rites of the Vedic religion, 
than any European scholar has ever attained to., It is quite erroneous to 
presuppose, as the editors of the Dictionary appear to do, that Sayana 
himself made the majority of explanations in his Commentary. All 
Pandits who have any knowledge of the subject unanimously assert that 
he used a good many predecessors, and that comparatively few explana- 
tions are entirely his own. The so-called Kfiu^ika Bhasya is said to be 
moro ancient than that of Sjiyana, and also the Ravana Bhasya. Both 
are said to be still extant, but 1 have not yet been able to obtain copies 
of them. 

Seeing the great difficulties, nay impossibility, of attaining to any- 
thing like a real understanding of the sacrificial art from all the numerous 
books I had collected, 1 made the greatest efforts to obtain oral inforraa- 

* This is the name of those Hindu scholars who not only learn, as the Bhattas do, 
ouo of the Vedas completely by heart, but who study the meaning of each verse and word, 
so as to be able to give orally the explanation of any passage required. The number of 
this class of scholars who represent the Doctors of Hindu theology, is now very 
small. In this part of India, though there are many hundreds of parrotlike repeaters 
of the sacred texi:s, there is not a single one to be found. Some (three or four) are 
said to be at Benares. They are highly respected, and, as incarnations of Brihaspati— 
the Pandit of the Gods, at certain occasions regularly worshipped. 

tion from some of those few Brahmans who are known by the name of 
orotriyas, or Srautis, and who alone are the preservers of the sacrificial 
mysteries as they descended from the remotest times. The task was no 
easy one, and no European scholar in this country before me even suc- 
ceeded in it. This is not to be wondered at ; for the proper knowledge 
of the ritual is everywhere in India now rapidly dying out, and in many 
parts, chiefly in those under British rule, it has already died out. Besides, 
the communication of these mysteries to foreigners is regarded by old 
devout Brahmans (and they alone have the knowledge) as such a mon- 
strous profanation of their sacred creed, and fraught with the most serious 
consequences to their position, that they can only, after long efforts, and 
under payment of very handsome sums, be prevailed upon to give inform- 
ation. Notwithstanding, at length I succeeded in procuring the assistance 
of a Srauti, who not only had performed the small sacril&ces, such as 
the Dars^apurnamasa Isti, but who had even officiated as one of the 
llotars, or Udgatars, at several Soma sacrifices, which are now very rarely 
brought. In order to obtain a thorough understanding of the whole 
course of an Isti, and a Soma sacrifice? I induced him fabout 18 months 
ago) to show me in some secluded place in my premises, the principal 
ceremonies. After the place had been properly arranged, and the- neces- 
sary implements brought to the spot, the performance began. I noted 
carefully everything I saw during about five days, and always asked for 
explanation if I did not properly comprehend it. I was always referred 
to the Sutras and the Prayogas or pocket books of the sacrificial priest, 
so that no deception could take place. All information was conveyed to 
me by means of the Marathi language, of which I had by that time 
already acquired a sufficient knowledge for carrying on any conversation. 
In this way I obtained some sort of rough knowledge of the principal 
ceremonies (for they were generally only partially, in order to save time, 
and rapidly performed), which I completed afterwards by oral instruction, 
derived from the same and some other sacrificial priests, and Agnihotris, 
who had the s icriCcial operations performed on themselves and in their 
behalf. Thus I was enabled to understand the various Sutras, and 
consequently the technicalities of the Brahmanas. Therefore the explana- 
tions of sacrificial terms, as given in the notes, can be relied upon as 
certain ; for they are neither guesses of my own, nor of any other Hindu 
or European scholar, but proceed from what I have myself witnessed, 
and been taught by tlie only men who have inherited the knowledge 
from the most ancient times. My notes are therefore, for the most part, 
independent of Sayana, for I had almost as good sources as he himself 

had. He, however, does not appear to have troubled himself much with 
a minute study of the actual operations of the sacrificial priests, but 
derived all his knowledge almost entirely from the Siitras only. 

It had been easy for me to swell by accumulation of notes the work 
to double the size which it is now ; but I confined myself to give only 
what was necessary 


Poona, 22nd November 1863. 



i— ii 

Forewarcl by the Editor ... ... ' ... 

Preface ... .„ ... ... ... _^ iii— vi 

Contents ... ... ... ... ... ,., ^_^ vii— viii 

Introduction ... ... ... ... ... ... ^^^ j^ jy 


Chapter 1. The Diksaniya Isy, -with the Initiatory Rites ... ... 1—11 

Chapter 2. Prayaniya Isti ... ... ... ... .,. n jg 

Chapter 3, The buying and bringing of the Soma. The producing of Fire by 

friction. The Atithya Isti ... ... ... ... ... jg 28 

Chapter 4. The Pravargya Ceiemony. Upasajl and Tanunaptrara ... 28— 40 

Chapter 5. The ceremonies of carrying the fire, Soma and the offerings from 

their Places in the Prachina-vaiisa to the UttarS Vedi ... ... 40 — 48 


Chapter 1. The Animal Sacrifice ... ... « ... 49— 60 

Chapter 2. The remaining rites of the animal sacrifice. The PrStaranuv&ka 

of the Soma day ... ... ... ... ... 66— 76 

Chapter 3. The Apo Naptriyam Ceremony. The UpSmsu and Antaryama 
oblations. The Hotar has no share in the Bahis-pavamana meal. The 
libation for MitrS-Varuna to be mixed with milk. On the Purodas'as 
belonging to the libations. Havif-Pamkti. Aksara-pamkti. Narasamsa 
Pamkti. Savana-Pamkti ... ... ... ... ... 76— 86 

Chapter 4. The Dvidevatya Graha libations, i.e., the libations poured from 
the Aindravayava, Maitravaruna and Asvina Grahas. Rituyajas. The 
Silent Praise ... ... ... ... ... 86— 06 

Chapter 5. The different parts of the Ajya Sastra : AhS,va, Nivid, Sflkta ... 96—106 


Chapter 1. The Pra-uga Sastra. Vasatkara. The Nividg ... ... 107—119 

Chapter 2. The Marutvatiya and Niskevalya Sastras ... ... 1 19—136 

Chapter 3 The abstraction of Soma. Origin of the three libations. Evening 

libation. The Vaiavadeva and Agni-maruta b'astras ... ... 136—155 

Chapter 4. On the origin, meaning, and universal nature of the Agnii-toma as 

the model of other sacrifices. On the Chatustoma and Jyotit'toma ... 155—164 

Chapter 5. On the gradual recovery of the sacrifice when it was lost. "Vi'hat 
men are unfit to officiate as sacrificial priests. The offerings to the Devis 
and Devikas. The Ukthya sacrifice ... ... ... ... 164—172 

Chapter 1. On the Solasi and AtirStra sacrifices ... ... 173—181 

Chapter 2. The Asvina Sastra. The beginning day of the Gavam ayanam. 

The use of the Rathantara and Brihat S4mans and their kindreds. The 
Mahavrata day of the Sattra ... ... ... ••• 182—193 

Chapter 3. Salaha and Visuvan day of the Sattras, with the performance of 

the days preceding and following the Visuvan ... ••• 198—208 


CliAPTEti 4. The nviidasaha sacrifice. Its origin, and general rules for its per- 
formance. The initiatory rites — ...203-210 

Chapter 5. The two first days of the Dvadasaha sacrifice ... ... 210--215 

Chapter 1. The characteristics and Sastras of the third and fourth days of 

the Dvadab'aha ... ... ... ••• ••• 216— "IZl 

Chapter 2, The characteristics and Sastras of the fifth and sixth days of the 

Dvadasaha ... ... ... ■•• .•• ••■ 225—233 

Chapter 3. The characteristics and £astras of the seventh and eighth 

days ... ... ... ... ... •■• 234-240 

Chapter 4. The ninth and tenth days of the nvadas'ah, Conclu.sion of this 

sacrifice ... ... ... ... ... - 240-247 

Chapters. The Agnihotram. On the duties of the Brahmti priest ... ...247—257 


Chapter 1. On the offices of the Gravastut and SubrhamanyS. ... ... 258—262 

Chapter 2. On the feastras of the minor Hotri-priests atthe Sattras ...263—267 

Chapter 3. The hymns for lifting the Chamasa (Soma cups). The Prasthita 
Yajyas of the seven Hotars concluding this ceremony. Tlie two different 
kinds of Hotars. Explanation of some apparent anomalies in the per- 
formances of the minor Hotris. The Jagati hymns for Indra. The 
concluding verses of the minor Hotri-priests. On a peculiarity in the 
Sastras of the Achhav&ka ... ... ... ... 267—276 

Chapter 4. The Sampata hymns. The ValaVhilyas. The Dflrohanara ... 276—288 

Chapter 5. The so-called Silpas, viz,, the Nabhanedistha, Narasamsa, Val- 

akhilya, Sukirti, Vfisakapi, and Bvayamarut hymns. The Kuntapa Sastra 288—300 

Chapter 1. The distribution of the different parts of the sacrificial animal 

among the priests ... ... ... ... ... 301-302 

Chapter 2. The penances for mishaps to the performer of the Agnihotram ...302 — 314 
Chapter 3. The story of Sunahsepa ... ... ... ... 315—322 

Chapter 4, The preliminary rites of the RSjasflya sacrifice ... ... 323—330 

Chapter 5. On the sacrificial drink which the King has to taste, instead of 
Soma, according to the instruction given by Rama Margaveya to the King 
Yisvantara ... ... ... ... ... 330-^339 


Chapter 1. The Sastras and Stotras required at the Soma day of the Raja- \ 

sflya ... ... ... ... ... ... 340-344 ■* 

Chapter 2. Punarabisheka, or repetition of the inauguration ceremony ... Jj45— 353 

Chapters. The Mahabhiseka or grand inauguration ceremony of Indva ... 354—357 

Chapter 4, The Mahabhiseka ceremony performed on a King. What Risis 

performed it, and for what Kings they performed it ... ... 357—363 

Chapters, On the office of the Purohita, or house-priest. The Brahmanah 

parimara, i.e., dying around the Brahma ... ... ...363—369 


On the Mantras, Bi'dhmaxias, and SUtras, and their mutual relationship. 
Probable origin and age of the Mantras, and Brdhmai^as. 

The Veda, or Scripture of the Brahmans, consists, according to the 
opinion of the most eminent divines of Hindustan, of two principal parts, 
viz., Mantra and Brdhmanam. All that is regarded as revelation must 
be brought under these two heads. What of the revealed word is no 
Mantra, that is a Brahmanam ; and what is no ]5rahmanam, must be 
a Mantra. This is the line of argument followed by the Brahmanic 
theologians. But this does neither make clear what a Mantra is, nor 
what we have to understand by a Brahmanam. Both terms are technical, 
and their full bearing, and characteristic difference from one another, 
is to be comprehended only from a careful study of those works 
which bear either of these titles. The Brahmanical divines have, of 
course, not failed to give definitions of both, and shown what topics fall 
under the head of either. But, as Sayana (in his preface to his Comment- 
ary on the Aitareya Brahmanam) justly remarks, all definitions of either 
term which were attempted, are unsatisfactory. 

[2] "We have here nothing to do with the theological definitions of these 
two terms ; we are only concerned with their meaning, from a literary 
point of view. And this we can state without reference to Brahmanic 

Each of the four Vedas (Rik, Yajus, Saman, and Atharvan) has a Mantra, 
as well as a Brahmana portion. The difference between both may be 
briefly stated as follows : That part which contains the sacred prayers, 
the invocations of the different deities, the sacred verses for chanting 
at the sacrifices, the sacrificial formulas, blessings and curses, pro- 
nounced by priests is called mantra,^ i.e., the produce of thinking. This 
word is of a very early date ; for we find it in the Zend-Avesta in the 
form of manthra also. Its meaning there is that of a sacred prayer, 
or formula, to which a magical effect was ascribed, just as to the Vedic 
mantras. Zoroaster is called a manihran, i.e., a speaker of mantras, and 
one of the earliest names of the Scriptures of the Parsis, is manthra spenta^ 
i.e., the holy prayer (now corrupted to mansar spent). 

'See more about it iu Goldstiicker, " Panini, his Place in Sanscrit Literature," page 68. 

This fact clearly shows, that the term mantra in its proper meaning 
was already known at that early period, of Aryan history when the 
ancestors of the Brahmans and those of the Parsis (the ancient Iranians) 
lived as brother tribes peacefully together. This time was anterior to the 
combats of [3] the Devas and Asuras, which are so frequently mentioned 
in the Brahmanas, the former representing the Hindus, the latter the 

At this time the whole sacred knowledge was, no doubt, comprised 
by the term mantra. The Brahmanam was unknown ; and there is 
actually nowhere in the whole Zend-Avesta a word to be found which 
conveys the same or a similar meaning which has been attached to the 
word " Brahmanam " in the Indian Literature. 

The Brahmanam always presupposes the Mantra ; for without the 
latter it would have no meaning, nay, its very existence would be 
impossible. By " Brahmanam" we have always to understand that 
part of the Veda (Brahmanical revelation) which contains speculations 
on the meaning of the mantras, gives precepts for their application, 
relates stories of their origin in connection with that of sacrificial rites, 
and explains the secret meaning of the latter. It is, to say it in short, a 
kind of primitive theology and philosophy of the Brahmans. The objects 
for these theological, philosophical, grammatical, etymological, and 
metrical speculations were the Mantras, and the sacrifices, principally 
the great ones, for the performance of which the Brahmans were actually 
trained, a custom which has obtained almost up to the present day 
in some parts of India (such as Maharastra). 

C4l Etymologically the word is derived from hrahmdn^ which properly 

2 ,See my Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis, 
pp. 225-29. 

3 Brahman is derived from Brahma. This is an abstract noun, in the neuter gender, 
of a root brih (original from barh), to which the two meanings " to raise," and " to grow" 
are given by the Indian grammarians. The latter thought both meanings so irrecon- 
cilable that they substituted two roots brih. But there is certainly no necessity 
for that. What grows, becomes bigger, and higher and thus " rising in height," is 
a necessary consequence of growth. It is, however, very doubtful whether the root 
brih without a preposition (such as ud) can convey the meaning " to raise," The 
meaning " to grow" is at any rate the original one. Thus derived brahma means 
originally " growth." That this was the original sense of the word, can be proved from 
other reasons also. Brahma is the same word in every respect, as the haresma of the 
Zend-Avesta, the • /i * of Sanscrit, being changed according to the phonetical laws of 
the Zend grammar, into a sibilant. This means a bunch of twigs tied together by 
a reed which is used up to the present day by the Parsi priests when performing 
the Homa ceremony. The Brahmans use at all their sacrifices a bunch of kusa grass 
which is also tied together. They call it Veda (see Asv, sr. S. 1, 11 tedam patnyai praddya 

signifies the Brahma priest who must £5] know all Vedas, and understand 
the whole course and meannig of the sacrifice. He is supposed to be a 
perfect master of divinity, and has in this capacity to direct and 
superintend the sacrificial ceremonies. The most eminent of this class 
of priests laid down rules for the proper performance of sacrificial 
rites, explained them, and defended their own opinions, on such topics 
against those of their antagonists ; moreover, they delighted in specula- 
tions on matters of a more universal character, on this life, and that life, 
on the best means of securing wealth, progeny, fame, heaven, &c., on 
mind, soul, salvation, the Supreme Being ; the dictum of such a Brahma 
priest who passed as a great authority, was called a Brdhmanam. 

vdcliayet, i.e., aiter having handed over to the wife of the sacrificer that bunch of kusa 
grass which is called Veda, he should make her repeat this mantra, &c). Veda is a synony- 
mous word for hrahma ; for the latter term is often explained by veda (so does Kaiyata 
in his notes on Patau jali's explanation of Pauini's Sfitra 6, 3, 86, in the Mahabhasya), 
and thus identified with the designation of the whole body of saered knowledge of the 
Brahmans. In theNighanfcavas, the ancient collection of Vedic words, bralima occurs twice, 
once as a name for " food" (2, 7), and another time as that for " wealth." Both these 
meanings, principally the former, can easily be connected with that of " growth. "^ 
They appear to be founded on passages of the Brahmanas, where it is said that the Brahma 
is food. In the Samhita, however, these meanings are never to be met with ; but from* 
this circumstance it certainly does not follow that they never existed. The meaning 
attached to the word in the Samhit& appears to be that of " sacred hymn chant." Sayana 
explains it often by stotra, i.e. the performance of the Sama chanters (see his commentary 
on RigvedH, 7, 22, 9) or by stotrdni havijmicha (7, 23, 1), i.e. chants and offerings. This 
meaning is, however, not the original one, and does even in the Samhita hardly express 
its proper sense. It cannot bean equivalent either for mantra or samun or stotram, or 
havis, and if it appear to be used in one of these senses, it means their common source ; tov 
the hymn, repeated by the Hotar, as well as the chant of the S^ma singers and the obla- 
tions given to the fire by the Adhvaryu, are all equally made sacred by means of their- 
participation in the braJima. Such expressions as, " to make the brahma," " to stir upjthe 
brahma, " {hrahma iinvati) throw some light on its nature. They show ^as one may clearly 
see from such passages as Taittiriya Brahmanam 1, 1) that it was regarded as a latent 
power, like electricity, which was to be stirred up at the time of the performance of a 
ceremony. The apparatus were the sacred vessels, ar the hymns, or chants. So, at a 
certain ceremony at jbhe morning libation of the Soma feast, the Adhvaryu and Prati- 
pasthatSr put the two Grahas (Soma cups), called Sukra and Manthi (see Ait., Br. 3, 1) 
together, and address them in the following way, " Put, ye two ( Grahas) ! together the- 
Brahma ; may ye stir it up for me, " &c,, (Taittir. Br. 1, 1). This evidently means, that 
these two Grahas are put together for the purpose of eliciting the Brahma-power, and all 
the other powers, dependent upon it, such as the Ksattram, &c. The presence of the 
hruhma at every sacrifice is necessary ; for it is the invisible link connecting the cere- 
mony performed with the fruits wished for, such as sovereignty, leadership, cattle, 
food, &c. 

It is, as we have seen, symbolically represented by a bunch of kus'a grass, which is 
always wandering from one person to another, as long as the sacrifice lasts. It expresses. 


[6] Strictly speaking, only the rule regarding the performance of a parti- 
cular- rite, * or the authoritative opinion on a certain point of speculative 
theology went by this name, and we have accordingly in the works called 
Brahmanas, nothing more or less than collections of the dicta of those 
Brahma priests on the topics mentioned. Afterwards the term Brahmanam, 
which originally signified only a single dictum, was applied to the whole 

In a still more comprehensive sense we have to understand by 
*' BrA-hmana, " a whole kind of literature, including the so-called 
Aranyakas and Upanisads, 

Each Veda has a Brahmanam, or collectiou of the dicta of Brahma 
priests, of its own. But they also show in style, expression, line of argu- 
ment, and object and tendency of their speculations, such a close affinity, 
and even identity, that the common origin of all Brahmanas is indisputable. 
They owe mainly their origin to those Brahmans who constituted them- 
selves into regular sacrificial congregations, in order to perform the so-called 
Sattras or sacrificial sessions, some of which could last for many years. The 
legendary history of India knows of such sessions which are said to have 
lasted for one hundred, and even one thousand years.' Though these reports 
[7} are extravagant, they undoubtedly show that there was a time in Hin- 
dustan when large bodies of Brahmans spent almost their whole lives in 
sacrificing. This time is to be sought for at a very early period of Indian 
history ; for the Brahmanas with their frequent allusions and references 
to the Sattras of the Risis on the banks of the Sarasvati, and those held 
by the half-mythical Afigiras, and by the Adityas (a class of gods), or even 
by the cows, trees, snakes, &c., presuppose their existence from times 
immemorial. Likewise we find in the Mahabharata frequent mention made 
of these sacrificial sessions which constitute one of the characteristic fea- 
tures of the earliest Brahmanic settlements in the northwest of Hindustan. 
It is chiefly at these Sattras that we have to look for the development and 
refinement of the sacrificial art, and the establishment of certain rules 
regarding the performance of sacrificial ceremonies. 

the productive power in nature, which manifests itself in the growth of plants, and all 
other creatures. The sacrificer wishes by means of the mystical process of the sacrifice to 
get hold of it ; for only then he is sure of obtaining anything he might wish for. 

4 So are, for instance, the rules given for the repetition of the Diiroliaifam (4, 19) 
quoted as a " Brahmanam " (in 6, 25). See also 8, 2. 

5 See Mahabhdrata 3, 105,13, where a Sattra, I§tdkriia by name, is mentioned as 
lasting for one thousand years. 


When the Brahmanas were brought into that form, in which we 
possess them now, not only the whole kalpa {i.e. the way of performing th*e 
sacrificial ceremonies) was settled, save some minor points, but even the 
symbolical and mystical meaning of the majority of rites. It took, no 
doubt, many centuries before the almost endless number of rites and cere- 
monies, and their bewildering complications could form themselves into 
such a regular system of sacrificial rules, as we find already exhibited in 
the Brahmanas. For the Sutras which belong to each class of Brahmanas 
generally contain nothing novel, [8] no innovation in the sacrificial art ; 
they supply only the external form to a system which is already complete in 
the Brahmanas, and serve as text-books to the sacrificial priests. And even 
in their arrangement they follow often their Brahmanas to which they be- 
long. So for instance the fourth, fifth, and sixth Adhyayas of the Asvala- 
yana Sutras, which treat of the Aguistoma, Soma sacrifice, and its modi- 
fications, Ukthya, Sojai^i, and Atiratra, closely correspond to the three 
first books, and the two first chapters of the fourth, of the Aitareya 
Brahmanam ; and the seventh and eighth Adhyaya of those Sutras treat 
exactly of the same subjects, as the three last chapters of the fourth book, 
and the fifth and sixth books of our Brahmanam, viz., on the various 
parts of the Sattras, or sacrificial sessions, and the numerous recitations 
required for their performance. In many passages, the Aitareya Brah- 
manam and the Ai^valayana Sutras even literally agree. The latter could, 
from their very nature as a "string of rules" for the guidance of the 
sacrificial priests, dispense with almost all the numerous speculations of 
the meaning and effect of certain verses and rites, and all points of contro- 
versy in which some of the Brahmanas abound ; but as regards the actual 
performance of rites, what mantras were required at certain occasions, and 
in what way they were to be repeated, the Sutras must give much more 
detail and be far more complete than the Brahmanas. From this nature 
of both classes of works, and the relation in which they stand to one 
[9] another, it would not be difficult to show, that both might have ori- 
ginated at the same time. Panini distinguishes between old and new 
Brahmanas as well as between old and new Kalpa works (Sutras). The 
strict distinction between a Brahmana and Sutra period is, on a closer 
inquiry, hardly tenable. The Brahmanas were only more complete col- 
lections of the same traditional stock which was in existence on the 
sacrificial art and its meaning than the Sutras, which were compiled 
for practical purposes only. 

We may safely conclude from the complicated nature and the 
multitude of the Brahminical sacrifices which were already developed 


and almost complete at the time of the composition of the Vedic hymns, 
not only at that of the Brahmanas, that the compilation of sacrificial 
manuals containing all the rules for the actual performance of the duties 
of a certain class of priests (such as the Hotiis or repeaters of the Rik 
verses, the Udgatris, the chanters of the Rik verses, and the Adhvaryus, 
the manual labourers and sacred cooks), was quite necessary at a very 
early time, certainly not posterior to the collection of the Mantras and 
the dicta of the Brahma priests into separate works. 

The Sutras contain many special rules which will be in vain sought 
for in the Brahmanas, but which are there simply presupposed. So we 
do not find, for instance, the description of the Dar^apurnama isthi 
(the New and Full Moon sacrifice), or that of the Chaturmasya-isti, in the 
Aitareya Brahmanam, though their names are occasionally mentioned, but 
[10] we find them in the A^valayana Sutras. The recital of the Samidheni 
verses (required when kindling the fire at the commencement of any sac- 
rificial rite) is briefly mentioned in the Brahmanas, but minutely described 
in the Sutras (1, 2). That they were left out in the Brahmanam 
cannot be accounted for by assuming that their exposition was alien 
to the purpose of its author, or that they were unknown to him, but 
only by believing, that they were regarded as too trivial matters, too 
commonly known to deserve any special notice on his part. Certain 
modifications in repeating mantras (required at the great Soma sacri- 
fices), such as the Durolianani, the Nyuhkha, the peculiar construction 
and repetition of the Solasi and Vdlkhilya Sastras, &c., are in the 
Brahmanam almost as minutely and accurately described, as we find 
them in the Sutras (compare, for instance, Ait. Br. 4, 19 with As^v. 
Sr. S. 8, 2). This clearly shows that the authors of the Brahmanas knew 
as well all the details of the sacrificial art as the compilers of the 
Sutras. The circumstance that many such things, as the recital of the 
Samidheni verses, &c., were left out in the Brahmanam, though they 
are neither very simple to comprehend, nor were they unknown, entitles, 
us to assume that they were taught in separate treatises, which could be 
nothing else than works like the present Sutras. 

The Sutras which we possess at present are, no doubt, posterior to 
the Brahmanas to which they belong ; but there is every reason to 
believe that there were Sutras more ancient, and simple in their [11] style, 
which served the authors of the present ones as sources of information, and 
these works may have been co-eval with the majority of our Brahmanas. 

Although we cannot discover any material difference between the 
Brahmanas and the Sutras so as to regard the latter as developing and . 


systematizing the Ideas contained in the former, as is the case with 
the Vedanta philosophy in reference to tbe Upanisads, yet there 
exists one between the Brahmanas, and the Mantras and hymns. This 
difference is, however, not very great, and can be accounted for partially 
from other causes than that of age. Already the hymns presuppose a 
settled ritual, and contain many speculative ideas similar to those of 
the Brahmanas. 

Some scholars hold that the occurrence of sacrificial terms, or of 
philosophical and mystical ideas, are suggestive of the late date of the 
hymn in which they are found. But these circumstances do by no 
means afford any sure test as to the relative age of the Vedic hymns. 
One has even drawn a strict line of distinction between a Mantra and 
Chhandas period, assigning to the former all the sacrificial hymns, 
to the latter those expressive of religious and devotional feelings 
in general, without any reference to sacrificial rites. But I have grave 
doubts whether this distinction will prove tenable on further inquiries, 
chiefly if this question as to the age of a certain hymn is made entirely 
to depend upon what period (the Mantra or Chhandas period) it might 
belong to. There are sacrificial hymns which, to judge from their style 
and their general ideas, must [12] be as ancient as any which have been 
assigned to the Chhandas period. 

1 may instance here the hymn required at the horse-sacrifice 
(Rigveda, 1, 162; and the Nabhanedistha Sukta (10, 61 ; on its origin 
see Ait. Br. 5, 14). The former is assigned by Max Muller ^ to the 
Mantra period (between 1000-800) on no other ground but because of 
its containing technical terms of the sacrificial art. But this reason 
is certainly not sufficient to make it late. On the contrary, its rather 
unpolished style, its poor imagery, its beginning with the invocation of 
the most ancient triad of Indian gods, Mitra, Varuria, and Arijaman, 
the very names of which deities are even to be met with in kindred 
nations, such as the Iranians and Greeks, the mentioning of several 
sacrificial priests by obsolete and uncommon names,— all these circum- 
stances combined tend to show, that it is rather one of the earliest 
than one of the latest productions of Vedic poetry. We find in it the 
sacrificial art, if compared with its description in the Bramanas, in its 
infancy, yet containing all the germs of the latter system. Because of 
almost all incidents attendant upon a sacrifice being mentioned in this 
hymn, it affords us the best means for investigating into the extent 

History of Ancient Sanscrit Literature, page 553. 


and development of the sacrificial art at the time of its composition. 
Let us point out some of the most remarkable facts which may be 
elicited from it. 

[13] In the fifth verse the names of the performing priests are mentioned. 
They are only six in number, viz. Hotar, Adhvaryu, Avaydj^ Agnimiiidha, 
Grdvagrdhha, and ^arhstar. Four of these names are quite uncommon or 
obsolete. Avayaj is the Pratiprasthatar, Agnimindha (the fire-kindler), 
the Agnidhra, Gravagrabha the Gravastut, and Samstar the Maitravaruna 
of the Brahmanas. The small number of priests at the horse-sacrifice 
{asvamedha) , which was at later times, as we may learn from descriptions 
given of it in the epic poems, the greatest, most complicated and costly 
which the Brahmans used to perform, must surprise, principally if we 
consider, that the Agnistoma, which was the most simple Soma sacrifice, 
required for its performance already at the time of the Brahmaijas, and 
even anterior to it, sixteen officiating priests. 

There can be no doubt that in the most ancient times a comparatively 
small number of priests was sufficient for the performance of a simple 
animal or Soma sacrifice. The two most ancient offices were those of the 
Hotar and Adhvaryu ; they were known already when the ancient Iranians 
separated from the ancestors of the Hindus ; for we easily recognise them 
by the names Zota and Rathwi (now corrupted to Raspi) in the Zend- 

The Pratiprasthatar appears to have been an assistant of the Adh- 
varyu from a very remote time ; for we find the two As^vins called the 
two Adhvaryus (Ait. Br. 1, 18), by which expression we can only under- 
stand the Adhvaryu and [14] his constant assistant the Pratiprasthatar. 
That there was a plurality of Adhvaryus already at the time of the Risis, 
we may learn from several passages of the Samhita of the Rigveda 
(2, 37, 2; 8, 2, 4). 

The fourth priest here mentioned is the Agnidhra ; for by the term 
Agnimindha we can only understand him. His office appears to be very 
old and he is once mentioned by his very name Agnidhra in a Vedic 
Bong (2, 36, 4). Besides, we meet with the well-known formula which 
he has, as the protector of the sacrifice, to repeat as often as the Adhvaryu 
commences a set of oblations accompanied by the Anuvakya and Yajya 
mantras of the Hotar. This is astu srausat (1, 139, 1), which he has 
to repeat when the Adhvaryu calls upon him to do so, by. the formula 
6 sravayaJ' Before he repeats it, he takes a wooden sword, called 

' This formula is repeated just before the commencement of the so-ealled PrayAjas. 
Asval. fe'r. S, 1, 4, gives the following rules; Adyivaryur dsrdvayati pratydsrdvayed 


spkya* into his hand, and ties round it twelve stalks of kui^a grass, called 
idhmasannaJiandni (what is tied round the wood), making three knots 
(trisandhana). He must hold it up as long as the principal offerings last, 
from [15] the time of the beginning of the Pray^jas till the Svistakrit is 
over. The purpose of this act as explained by the ^rotriyas (sacrificial 
priests) of the present day is to keep the Raksasas and evil spirits away 
from the sacrifice. Now the whole ceremony, along with the formulas 
used, resembles so closely what is recorded in the Zend-Avesta of the 
angel ^raosha (now called Sero?h), that we can fairly conclude that the 
office, or at any rate, the duties, of the Agnidhra priests were already 
known to the Aryas before the Iranians separated from the Indians. 
Serosh, as may be seen from the Serosh Yasht (Ya^na 57), holds in his 
hand a sword {snaithis) in order to fight against the Devas, and to keep 
them away from the creation of Ormazd. He first spread the sacred 
grass or twigs ; he first repeated (frasrdvayat) the sacred prayers. His 
very name of ^raosha reminds of the call srau^at. One of the duties of 
the Agnidhra, or Agnit, was to kindle the fire. Such an office is known 
also to the Parsi ritual. It is that of the Atarevak^o, i. e. who feeds the 
fire, a name often applied to the Rathwi, in which we have recognised 
the Adhvaryu. 

The fifth priest is the Grdvagrdhha, a name no further mentioned 
in other Vedic books. Sayana identifies him with the Gravastut' of the 
ceremonial of the Brahmanas. The office of the latter is to repeat the 
Pavamanya verses when the Soma juice is being prepared. But the 
name Grdvagrabha [16] implies more, for it means, one who holds, or seizes 
the Gravanas^® (Soma squeezing stones). This is done by the Adhvaryu 
himself. In ancient times the Soma juice was very likely extracted by 
that priest who had to repeat the mantras for the purification of the Soma 
juice, that is, by the Gravastut. Such a priest who was engaged in the 
preparation of the Soma (Homa) juice is also known in the Zend-Avesta. 

dgnidhrah, i. e. the Adhvaryu calls, 6* sravaya, to which the Agnidhra responds by aStu 
sraM?at. Both formulas are mentioned or alluded to in two Sfitras of PSnini (8, 2, 91-92), 
who teaches that the first vowel in srdusat, and the first and second in o sravaya are 
to I e pronounced in the pluta way, i.e. with three moras. Regarding smusaf As'val. 
gives the same rule (aatu irdu§a^ iti aukaram pldvayan) ; but the prMiunciation of 
6 sravaya he does not particularly mention. 

* Other interpretations have been given of this word by European scholars. But 
being myself in possession of a sphya, and having seen its use at the sacrifice, I can 
prove beyond any doubt, that it is a wooden sword. 

• On his office, see 6, 1-2, pp. 879-80. 

'° See the note on the preparation of the Soma 7, 32 pp. 488-90. 


His name there is havanan,^^ i.e. one who makes or prepares the 
havana=savana "libation." 

The sixth priest mentioned in the Asivamedha hymn is the ^aihstar, 
i.e. the repeater of Sastras. This is no doubt the Maitravaruna of the 
later ritual, who is several times mentioned by the name of Prasdstar in 
other passages of the Samhita (1, 94, 6) and in the Brahmanas. Sayana 
takes the same view. 

Besides the names of the officiating priests, we have to examine some 
of the technical terms of the sacrificial art. In the 15th verse we find 
[17] the expressions, i^tam, vitam, abhigurtam, va^atkritam, which all refer 
to the repetition of the Yajya mautra by the Hotar when the Adhvaryu is 
ready to throw the offering into the fire. Istam is the technical term for 
pronouncing the Yajya mantra itself ; ahhigartam^ which is the same as 
agurtam, signifies the formula ye yajdmahe (generally called dgur) which 
always precedes the Yajya verse ; vaQatkritam is the pronunciation of 
the formula vdu§at at the end of the Yajya verse ; vitam refers to the 
formula Agne vihi, which follows the va^atkdra, and is itself followed 
by another va^atkdra (the so-called Anuvastkara). 

Let us now sum up the evidence furnished by this sacrificial hymn 
as bearing upon the history of the sacrificial art in its relationship to the 
mass of other Vedic songs on the one, and to the Brahmanas on the other, 

In examining the names of the officiating priests, we can here dis- 
cover only two classes instead of the four, known to other Vedic hymns, 
and principally to the Brahmanas. We have only Adhvaryus and Hotyis, 
but no Brahma priests, and no Udgatris (chanters). Without the two 
latter classes no solemn sacrifice at which Soma was used could be per- 
formed even at a time far anterior to the Brahmanas. There is no doubt, 
the introduction of each of these two classes marks a new epoch in the 
history of the sacrificial art, just as the separation of the offices of Adh- 

1' See Visparad 3,1. The term hauana occurs in the GathSs for Homa (Yasna, 10). 
That it means the same as the Vedic aauana with which it is identical follows unmistak- 
ably from the context. A fratare'm havdnem and an tiparem havanem, that is, a first and 
second libation, are even distinguished (Yasna 10, 2 ed. Westergaard). The fratarem 
havanem is the prdtah savanam, i.e. morning libation of the ritual books ; the uparem, i. e. 
latter, following, corresponds to the madhtjandina savanam. The Parsi priests prepare 
■up to the present day actually the Iloma juice twice when performing the Homa ceremony. 
The first preparation takes place before the Zota (the Hotar of the Brahmans^ appears ; 
the second commences at the beginning of the jiroper ceremony, and is finished along 
with it. The Zota drinks the Homa which was prepared first by the Raspi (Adhvaryu) ; 
that one prepared during the ceremony is thrown into a well as a kind of offeringi 

varya and Hotar in tke ante-Vedic times, indicates the first step in the 
development of the art of sacrificing. At that early time when the 
£18] Iranians left their Indian brethren on account of a bitter religious 
contest, which is known in the Brahmaijas as the struggle between the 
Devas and Asuras, already the offices of an Adhvaryu and Hotar were 
distinct, as we may learn from the Zend-Avesta, which exhibits the 
religion of the Asuras (Ahura religion, its professors calling themselves 
ahurotkesho =asura-diksd, i.e. initiated into the Asura rites). 

But the offices of Udgatris and that of the Brahma priests were not 
known to the Aryas at . that time ; they were introduced subsequently, 
after the separation. In many Vedic hymns we find, however, the duties 
principally of the former class (the chanters) mentioned. They are 
often juxtaposed with those of the Hotars. The term for the perform- 
ance of the Hotfi-priests is sarhs, to praise, recite ; that for that of the 
Udgatris stu or gdi to sing (see, for instance, Rigveda Sarhh (8, 1, 1 ; 
6, 62, 5; 6, 69, 2-3); besides the technical names uktha=Sastra and 
Stoma, sdma^ are frequently to be met with (see 8, 1, 15 ; 3, 3, 6 ; 6, 3 ; 
16, 9 ; 14, 11 ; 6, 2i, 7, &c.). Now the absence of all such terms, indica- 
tory of the functions of the Udgatris (chanters) in the As^vamedha hymn 
is certainly remarkable. Their not occuring might, perhaps, be accounted 
for by the supposition that the chanters were not required at the hoi so 
sacrifice. It is true, several smaller sacrifices, such as the Dar^apurna- 
masa, the Chaturmasya Istis and the animal sacrifice (if performed apart 
without forming part of a Soma sacrifice) are performed without any 
chanting ; [19] but for Soma sacrifices of whatever description, the chanters 
are as indispensable as the Hotars. That the Asvamedha was connected 
with a Soma sacrifice^* already at the time of the composition of the hymn 
in question, undoubtedly follows from the office of Grdvagtubha being 
mentioned in it ; for this priest is only required for the extracting of 
the Soma juice, and has nothing whatever to do with any other sacrificial 
rite. The mentioning of the Samstar (Maitravruna) is another indication 
that the Aslvamedha already at that early time was accompanied by a Soma 
sacrifice. For one of the principal duties of the Maitravaruna, who may 
be called the first assistant of the Hotar, is to repeat Sastras, which are 
only required at Soma sacrifices as the necessary accompaniments of all 

Besides the Udgatris, we miss the class of the Brahma priests, vis, 
Brahma, Brahmanachamsf , and Subrahmanya, whose services are required 

" According to Asval. fe'r. SQtras (10, b) there are three Soma days (sutyunii reyuirod 
for the horse sacrifice. 

at all great sacrifices. The Brahma cannot, even at small sacrifices, 
such as the Darsiapiirnamasa Isti, be dispensed with. The Brahmanft- 
chamsi aud Subrahmaniya are at Soma sacrifices as indispensable as the 
Maitravarnna ; the first has to repeat also Sastras for the chants, the 
latter to invite every day Indra to the Soma feast (see the note to 6, 3, pp. 

The introduction of the Brahma priest marks no doubt a new era in 
the history of the sacrificial art ; [20] for to judge from the nature of his 
duties as superintendent of the sacrifical ceremonies, he was only necessary 
at a time when the sacrifice had become already very complicated, and was 
liable to many mistakes. The origin of the oflice dates earlier than the 
Brahmanas. Unmistakeable traces of it are to be found already in the 
Samhita of the Rigveda. In one passage 1, 10, 1, the Brahma priests 
{hrahmdi^as) are juxtaposed with the Hotfis {arkinajjt) and Udgatfis (gdyat- 
rinah). They are there said to "raise Indra just as (one raises) a reed." 
Similarly we find together gdyata, chant, soTnsaio, praise, and hrahma 
krinuta make the Brahma (8, 32, 17). In 10, 91, 10 the Brahma is men- 
tioned along with other priests also, such as the Potar, Nestar, &c. The 
little work done by the Brahma priests, or rather their idleness, is men- 
tioned, 8, 92, 30, "do not be as lazy as a Brahmfi priest" (mo §u Irak- 
meva tandrayur hhuvali). That the Brahm^ priests were thus reproached 
may clearly be seen from Ait. Brahm. 5, 34. The Brahma priest 
is the speaker or expounder of religious matters (10, 71, 11 ; 317, 8), in 
which capacity they became the authors of the Brahmanas. That the 
Brahma was expected to know all secret things, may be inferred from 
several passages (10, 85, 3 ; 16 ; 35 ; 36). Brihaspati, the teacher of the 
gods, is also called hrahmd (10, 143, 3), and Agni is honoured with the 
same name (7, 7, 5), as well as his pious worshippers of old, the so-called 
Afigirasah (7, 42, 1). Sometimes the name signifies the Brahman as 
distinguished from the Ksattriyas hrahmarti rdjani vd (1, 108, 7). 
[211 It is certainly remarkable, that none of the Brahma priests is to be 
found among the priests enumerated in the A^vamedha hymn, and we 
may safely conclude, that their offices were not known at that time. 
The word brahma (neuter) itself occurs in it (in the seventeenth verse), 
" If any one, in order to make thee sit, did thee harm by kicking thee 
with his heels, or striking thee with a whip violently so that thou didst 
snort, I cause all to go oS from thee by means of the Brahma, just as 
I make flow (the drops of melted butter) by means of a Sruch (sacrificial 
spoon) over the piece which is among the ready-made offerings {adhvare§u). 
Brahma has here very likely its original meaning, " the sacrificial grass " 

or a certain bunch of it (see the note on pages 4, 5 of this Introduction). 
For the meaning " prayer," which is here given to it by Sayaija, does not 
snit the simile. In order to understand it fully, one has to bear in mind 
that the Adhvaryu after having cooked and made ready any offering 
(Purodajia or flesh, or Charu, &c.) generally pours from a Smch some drops 
of melted butter over it. Now the hrdhma by means of which the priest 
is to soothe all injury which the sacrificial horse may have received 
from kicking or striking, is compared with this fSrnch ; the drops of 
melted butter are then the several stalks of the bunch of the sacrificial 
grass, required at all sacrifices and their taking out, and throwing 
away (as is done at all sacrifices, see note 8 to page 79), is compared to 
the flowing of the drops from the sacrificial spoon. 

Not only is the number of priests less, but the [22] ceremonies are also 
more simple. It appears from verse 15th, that there was no Puronuvakya 
or introductory mantra required, but the Yajy4 alone was sufiicient. 
The latter consisted already of the same parts as in the Brahmanas, 
viz. the Agur, the Yajya mantra, the Va§atkara and Anuva§atkara 
(see note 32 to page 95, page 126, and note 11 to page 133-34). The 
Agur or the introductory formula, ye. yajdmahe, i.e., " what (gods are), 
those we worship by sacrificing," is very ancient, and seems to go back 
even beyond the properly so-called Vedic times ; for we meet it even 
with the same name already in the Zend-Avesta (see note 11 to page 
134) ; even a large number of the Parsi prayer formulas commence with 
it up to this day, viZ' yasdmaidL The Vasatkara or the call vdu^atj 
and the Anuva§atkara, or the second call vdu^at preceded by Agiii rihif 
i. e., " Agni eat (the food)," must be also very old, though we do not 
find any trace of them in the Parsi ritual, which circumstance can be, 
however, easily accounted for. The first call vdu^at being required 
in the very moment of the offering being thrown into the fire, and the 
second at once after it, there was no occasion for them at the Zoroastrian 
sacrifices ; for the priests are not allowed to throw flesh, or Homa, or 
even cakes into the fire ; they have only to show their offerings to the 
sacred element. In the vSamhita itself, the Vasatkara is frequently 
mentioned, and in hymns which show by no means a modern origin (see 
1, 14, 8 ; 120, 4 ; 21, 5 ; 7, 14, 3 ; 15, 6 ; 99, 7, &c) ; some of them appar- 
ently allude to the [23] Anu vasatkara, (so, for instance, 7, 156, semdm 
vetu va^athritim, ' may he eat this piece ' offered by the call vau^at ! vi 
(in Vlhi) being one of the characteristic terms of the Amiva^atdra). 

From all we have seen as yet it clearly follows that the As'vamedha 
hymn is by no means a late, but a very early, production of Vedic poetry. 


dnd tliat consequently a strict distinction between a Chhandas and 
Mantra period, making the former by about two hundred years older 
than the latter, is hardly admissible. 

The same result is to be gained from a more close examination of 
other pre-eminetly sacrificial hymns, which all would fall under the 
Mantra period. There being here no occasion to investigate into all 
hymns of that character, I will only here make some remarks on the 
Nabhanedisfcha hymns (10, 61-62). Their history is given in the Ait. 
Brdhm. itself (5, 14). They are traced to Manu, the progenitor of 
the human race, who gave them to his son, N^bhanedistha. He should 
communicate them to the Afigiras, for enabling them to perform success- 
fully the ceremonies of the sixth day (in the Salaha, \see note 9 to page 
279), and receive all their property as a sacrificial reward. 

This whole story appears to have no other foundation, * ^ but the two 
hymns themselves, principally the [24] latter. The first is very difficult 
to understand, the second is on the the whole simple. Both are by 
tradition ascribed to Nabhanedistha, the son of Manu, whose existence 
is very doubtful. They differ so much in style, that they cannont have 
the same author. Several traits of the legend, however, are to be found 
in them. The refrain of tbe first four verses of 10, 62 which is addressed 
to the Aigiras, " receive the son of Manu," re-occurs in the legend ; also 
the gift of a thousand. In a verse of the former (10, 61, 18) the word 
ndbhdnedi^tha occurs, but it does not mean there a human, but some 
divine, being. I give the 18th and 19th verses in translation. 

(18) " His relative, the wealthy Nabhanedistha who, directing hia 
thoughts towards thee, speaks on looking forward (as follows) 'this 
our navel is the highest ; as of ten as required I was behind him (the 
Nabhanedistha on earth).' " 

(19) " This is my navel, here is what resides with me ; these gods 
are mine ; I am everything. Those who are first born, and those who 
are born for a second time (by reproduction), — the cow milked that (seed) 
from the truth, ('and) they are born." ^* 

" It is to be found also with little difference in the Taittiriya Samhita 3, 1, 9, 4-6. 
Instead of the two Suktas (hymns) Manu there is said to have given his son a Brflhtnanam 
on a certain rite concerning the share of Rudra in the Soma libation, to help the 
Angiras to heaven. The " sixth day " is not mentioned in it. The man in a " blackish 
dress" of the Aitareya Br. is here called Rudra. 

'' The explanation given by Sfiyana of these difficult verses is very artificial. He 
tries to get out of the hymu everywhere the story told of Nabhauedihtha in the Ait. 
Br. 5, 14. 


From these two verses as well as from several others in it (princi- 
pally 2 and 5-8 describing Prajapati's illicit intercourse with his 
[25] daughter, see Ait. Br. 3, 33), we may clearly perceive that Nabhane- 
distha and the hymn in question refer to generation. This view is fully 
corroborated by the application of it at the sacrifice, as expounded by the 
Brahmanam, and as even pre-supposed in the hymn itself. 

We know from various passages of the Brahmanas, that one of the 
principal acts of the sacrificial priests was to make a new body to the 
sacrificer, and produce him anew by mantras, and various rites, by making 
him mystically undergo the same process to which he owed his natural 
life. So, for instance, the whole Pravargya ceremony (see note 1 to pages 
41-43), the Ajya and Pra-uga ^astras (see Ait. Br. 2, 35-38 ; 3, 2) of the 
morning libation, and the so-called Silpa Sastras (6, 27-31) of the 
Hotri-priests are intended for this purpose. Of the latter the two 
Nabhanedistha hymns form the two first parts, representing the seed 
effused, and its transformation to an embryo in its rudest state (see 6, 27). 
Nabhanedistha is the sperm when effused ; after having undergone some 
change in the womb, it is called Nara^amsa. ^ * That the hymn originally 
had such a mystical sense, is evident from the two first verses : 
[26] (1) ** May this awful Brahma, which he (Prajapati) thus skilfully 
pronounced in words at the congregation, at the assembly, fill the seven 
Hotars on the day of cooking (the sacrificial food), when his (the sarificer's) 
parents fand other) liberal men (the priests) are making (his body)." 

(2) " He established (as place) for the reception of his gift the altar 
(vedi), destroying and ejecting the enemy with his weapons. (After 
having thus made the place safe) he then hastily under a very loud cry 
poured forth his sperm in one continuous (stream). 

The meaning of these two verses can only be the following : the poet 
who was no doubt a sacrificial priest himself wishes, that the hymn which 
he regards as a revelation from Prajapati, who repeated it at the great 
sacrificial session which he is so frequently said to have held, may fill 
the seven Hotri-priests when they, with the same liberality as Prajapati 

" This idea must be very old ; for we find an unmistakeable trace of it in the Zoroastnan 
tradition. So we read in the Bundehesh (page 80 in Westergaard's edition of the Pehlevi 
text) that the angel Nerioseng {nerioseng yazd=narnsa7hsa yajata in Sanscrit) intercepted 
the three particles of sperm which Zoroaster is said to have once lost, and out of which 
the three great prophets, Oshadar (bdmi), Oshadar mdli, and Sosiosh are expected to spring 
at the end of the world. Nerioseng clothed the said sperms with lustre and strength 
(rosnas Zor), and handed them over to Andhit (the Persian Venus) to look at them. They 
are guarded against the attacks of the Devas (the Indian gods) by 999,999 Frohars 
(a kind of angels). 


(wben be poured forth his sperm) are like parents making by their hymns 

the new celestial body to the sacrificer. The place for reception of 
the seed poured out mystically in prayer by the Hotars, is the altar ; for 
standing near it (and even touching it with their feet) they repeat 
the mantras. The reason that they have to regard the Vedi as the safe 
receptacle of the seed, is to be sought for in the antecedent of Prajapati, 
who prepared it for the purpose, defending [27J it against the attacks of 
enemies. After having made it safe, he poured out his seed whence then 
all creatures sprang (see Ait. Br. 3, 34). 

Nabhanedistha is, according to the verses above quoted, the 
heavenly guardian of all germs of generation ; all gods, men, beasts, &c., 
come from him. His assistance is required when the sacrificial priests 
are producing the new celestial body of the sacrificer. He looks down 
from heaven at his relative, that is, the seeds containing the germ of 
new life poured out mystically by the Hotars in their prayers. His navel 
is the centre of all births in the universe ; as being nearest (' nearest to 
the navel ' is the literal meaning of ndhhdnedi^tha], he is the guardian of 
all seeds. Every seed on earth has only effect as far as he participates in it. 
"We have here the Zoroastrian idea of the Fravashis (Frohars) who are 
the prototypes of all things existing. ^ « The word nabhanedistha must be 
very old ; for we find it several times in the form nabdnazdista in 
the Zend Avesta. It is an epithet of the Fravashis (Yarfna, 1, 18. Yashts 
13, 156), and signifies the lineal descendants in future generations" 
(Vend. 4, 5-10 Westergaard). 

£281 Although the Nabhanedistha hymn (10, 61) is purely sacrificial, 
and composed at a time when the Risis already indulged in speculations 
on the mystical meaning of sacrificial rites, no trace can be found, to show 
that it is a modern composition. The circumstance, that it is already in 
the Aitareya Brahmanam traced to Manu, the progenitor of the human 
race, shows, that its origin is entirely lost in the depths of antiquity. 
The mentioning of Kak^van in verse 16, and the occurrence of the 
"seven Hotars " (in the 1st verse) are no proofs of a late origin. For 

" See my Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis, 
page 186. 

" This is the sense of uardm nabandzdistandm, in the fourth Prargard of the Vendidfid. 
In the passage in question, the punishment consequent on the breach of a promise is said 
to extend to so and so many nardm nabdnazdistandm, literally, men who are nearest 
the navel of the offender, that is, his lineal descendants. The Pehlevi translation gives in 
its notes about the same meaning to it. So it has for instance to 4, 5 the note : 300 sanat 
bttn ddresn " for three hundred years there will be danger (for the nahdnasdista»)." This 
is also the opinion of many Dastars. 


Kak§iv3n appears as a celebrated ^i§i, who was distinguisbed as 
a great chanter and Soma drinker in many other passages, principally 
in the first book (see Rigveda Samh. 1, 18, 1-2 ; 51, 13 ; 116, 7 ; 117, 6 ; 
4, 26, 1), who enjoyed the special favour of the Afivins. He is to the 
majority of the Vedic Risis whose hymns are kept, a personage of as 
remote an antiquity as Kdvya, Usanas, the Afigiras^ &c. The " seven 
Hotars "' * occur several times besides (3, 29, 14 ; 8, 49, 16), most of them 
with their very names, viz., Potar, Nestar, Agnid, Prasastar, &c., 
(1, 15, 2-5 ; 9 ; 1, 94, 6 ; 10, 91, 10). 

The second Nabhanedistha hymn is certainly later than the first, 
and contains the germs of the later legend on Nabhanedistha. The 
reason that it was also referred to him^ is certainly to be sought [291 ^or 
in the 4th verse, where is said, " This one (i.e. I) speaks through the 
navel, ^ ^ (imbhd), hails you in your residence ; hear, sons of 'the gods, ye 
Risis (to my speech)." The song is addressed to the Aigiras,. who are- 
requested to receive the poet. The gift of thousand is also mentioned. 

Let us, after this discussion regarding the antiquity of the Asva- 
medha and Nabhanedistha hymns, return to the general question od 
the relationship between the pre-eminently sacrificial mantras and the 
other production of Vedic poetry. 

If we look at the history of poetry with other nations, we nowhere 
find profane songs precede religious poetry. The latter owes its origin 
entirely to the practical worship of beings of a higher order, and must,, 
as every art does, go through many phases before it can arrive at any 
state of perfection and refinement. Now, in the collection of the hymns 
of the Rigveda, we find the religious poetry already so highly developed, 
the language so polished, the metres already so artificially composed, 
as to justify the assumption, that the songs which have reached our 
time, are not the earliest productions of the poetical genius, and the 
devout mind of the ancient Indians. Generations of poets and many 
family [30} schools in which sacred poetry was regularly taught, just as 
the art of the bards and scalds with the Celtic and Scandinavian 
nations, must have preceded that period to which we owe the present 

1® They are, according to the Brahraanas (see Ait. Br. G, 10-12), Hotar, Maitravaruna, 
Brahtnanachbaiiisi, Achhavaka, Potar, Nestar, and AgnidJira. 

" This expression appears to be strange. It implies a very ancient idea, which musfc 
have been current -yyith the Iranians and Indians alike. The uavel was regarded as 
the seat of an internal light, by means of which the seers received what they called 
revelation. It is tip to the present day a belief of the Parsi priests, that the Dasturs 
or High-priests have a fire in their navel, by means of which they can see things 
which are hidden. This reminds us of some phenomena in modern souinambulism. 


collection. If an old song was replaced by a new one, which appeared 
more beautiful and finished, the former was, in most cases, irrecoverably 
lost. Old and new poets are frequently mentioned in the hymns of the 
Rigveda ; but the more modern Risis of the Vedic period appear not 
to have regarded the productions of their predecessors with any particular 
reverence which might have induced them to keep their early relics. 

I^ow the question arises, are the finished and polished hymns of 
the Rigveda with their artificial metres the most ancient relics of the 
whole religious literature of the Brahmans, or are still more ancient 
pieces in the other Vedic writings to be found ? It is hardly credible, 
that the Brahmanical priests employed at their sacrifices in the earliest 
times hymns similar to those which were used when the ritual became 
settled. The first sacrifices were no doubt simple offerings performed 
without much ceremonial. A few appropriate solemn words, indicating 
the giver, the nature of the offering, the diety to which as well as the 
purpose for which it was offered, and addresses to the objects that 
were offered, were sufiicient. All this could be embodied in the sacri- 
ficial formulas known in later times principally by the name of Yajus, 
whilst the older one appears to have been Ydja (preserved in pra-ydja, 
anu-ydja, &c). The invocation of the deity by different names, [31] and 
its invitation to enjoy the meal prepared, may be equally old. It was 
justly regarded only as a kind of Yajus, and called T^igada''^ or Nivid. 
The latter term was principally applied to the enumeration of the 
titles, qualities, &c., of a particular deity, accompanied with an invitation. 
At the most ancient times it appears that all sacrificial formulas were 
spoken by the Hotar alone ; the Adhvaryu was only his assistant, who 
arranged the sacrificial compound, provided the impleioents, and per- 
formed all manual labour. It was only at the time when regular 
metrical verses and hymns were introduced into the ritual, that a part 
of the duties of the Hotar devolved on the Adhvaryu. There are, in 
the present ritual, traces to be found, that the Hotar actually must 
have performed part of the duties of the Adhvaryu. 

According to the ritual which appears to have been in force for 
the last three thousand years without undergoing any considerable 
change, it is one of the principal duties of the Adhvaryu to give orders 

'" See Madhusfldana's PrasthSnabheda in Weber's Indischc Htndien, i, page 14, and 
the Bhagavata rurana 12,6,52 (in the Bombay edition) where the yajurgana, i. <?. the 
series of Yajus mantras is called ■nigada. Madhiisudana comprises by this name, as 
it appears, principally the Praiisas or orders by the Adhvaryu to the other priests 
to do their respective duties. 


(prai^a) to most of the officiating priests, to perform their respective 
duties. Now at several occasions, especilly at the more solemn sacrifices, 
the order is to be given either by the Hotar himself, or his principal 
assistant, the Maitravarurja. So, for instance, the order to the slaugh- 
terers of the sacrificial animal, [32] -which is known by the name of 
Adhrigu-Praisa-mantra (see Ait. Br. 2, 6-7) is given by the Hotar himself, 
though the formulas of which it is composed have all characteristics 
of what was termed in the ritual Yajus, and consequently assigned 
to the Adhvaryu. At the Soma sacrifice all orders to the Hotar to 
repeat the Yajya mantra, before the libations are thrown into the fire, 
are to be given by the Maitravaruna, and not by the Adhvaryu. The 
formulas by which the gods are called to appear, the address to the 
fire when it is kindled are repeated by the Hotar, not by the Adhvaryu, 
though they cannot be termed rik, the repetition of which alone was 
in later times regarded as incumbent upon the Hotar. The later rule, 
" The Hotar performs his duties with the Rigveda" (in the introductory 
chapter to the Hiranyakei^i and Apastamba ^rauta Sutras) is therefore 
not quite correct. The Hotar himself even sacrifices on certain occasions 
what is, according to the later ritual, to be done by the Adhvaryu 
alone, or, when the offering is given as penance, by the Brahma. So, 
for instance, he sacrifices rdelted butter before repeating the An^vina 
Sastra (see the note to 4, 7, page 268), which is, as far as its principal 
parts are concerned, certainly very ancient. 

Now, if we compare the sacrificial formulas as contained in the 
Yajurveda, and principally the so-called Nigadas, and Nivids, preserved 
in the Brahmanas and Siitras with the bulk of the Rigveda hymns, we 
come to the conclusion, that the former are more ancient, and served the 
Risis as a kind of [33] sacred text, just as passages of the Bible suggest 
ideas to religious poets among Christians. That Vedic poets were per- 
fectly acquainted with several of such formulas and addresses which 
are still extant, can be proved beyond any doubt. 

Reserving a more detailed treatment of this- important question to 
a future occasion, I here instance only some of the most striking proofs. 

One reference to the Nivid inserted in the Vaidvadeva hymn at the 
Vaifivadeva Sastra, and my remarks on it (see pages 212-13), the reader 
will find, that the great Risi Visvamitra who with some of his sons are 
the poets of many hymns which we now possess (as, for instance, of tho 
whole third Mandala), knew this ancient sacrificial formula very well ; 
for one of its» sentences setting forth the number of deities is alluded to 
by him. 


Certain stereotyped formulas which occar in every Nivid, to what- 
ever deity it might be addressed, occih' in hymns and even commence 
them. I instance the hymn predam brahma (8, 37), which is certainly 
an allusion to the sentence which occurs in all Nivids, predam hralima 
predam hsattram (see note 25 on page 189.) That the coincidence is 
no mere chance follows from some other characteristic Nivid terms made 
use of in the hymn in question ; compare dvitha pra sunvataJji. with pre- 
dam sunvantam yajamdnam avatu in all Nivids, and k§attriya tvam 
avasi with predam k^attram (avatu). 

The Subrahmanya formulas, which is generally called a Nigada (see 
on it the note to 6, 3 on pages 383-84) [34] is unmistakably alluded .to 
in the hymn, 1, 51, principally in the first and thirteenth verses. In both, 
Indra is called me§a, a ram, and vrisarias vasya mend. 

The call of the Agnidhra, astu hdusat as well as the Agur address- 
ed to the Hotar, liotd yak§at, were known to the Risis, as we learn 
from 1, 139, 1. 10. 

The so-called Rituyajas which are extant in a particular collection 
of sacrificial formulas, called praisa silkta or prai§ddhyaya, occur even with 
their very words in several hymns, such as 1, 15; 2, 37. (On the Rituydjas, 
see note 35" on pages 135-36). 

The so-called Apri hymns are nothing but a poetical development 
of the more ancient Praytijas, and Anuyajas (compare the notes 12 on 
page 18 ; 14 on pages 81-82 ; and 25 on page 110.) 

Many hymns were directly composed not only for sacrificial pur- 
poses in general, but even for particular rites. This is principally the 
case with several hymns of Vis^vamitra. So, for instance, the whole of 
hymn 3, 8 aiijanti tvdvi adhvare (see about it. Ait. Br. 2, 2) refers only 
to the anointing, erecting, and decorating, of the sacrificial post ; 3, 21 
is evidently made for addressing the drops of melted butter which drip 
from the omentum, over which they were poured (see Ait. Br. 2, 12) ; 3 52, 
celebrates the offering of the Purodas^a consisting of fried grains, pap, 
&c., which belongs to each Soma libation (see Ait. Br. 2, 23.) 

The first ten hymns of the first book of the Rigveda Samahita contain, 
as it appears, the Soma ritual [35] of Madhuchhandas, the son of Vi^va- 
mitra. It provides, however, only for two libations, viz., the morning and 
midday. The first hymn has exactly the nature of an Ajya hymn, which 
forms the principal part of the first ^astra, the so-called Ajya. The 
second and third hymns contain the Pra-uga Sastra, which is the second 
at the morning libation, in all its particulars. The following seven 


hymns (4-10) aM celebrate Indra and it appears from some remarks in 
the Ait. Br. (3, 20, page 192), that in ancient times the midday libation 
belonged exclusively to Indra. The ritual for the evening libation is of 
BO peculiar a nature, and so complicated, that we must ascribe to it quite 
a different origin than to the two other libations. 

The hymns 12-23 appear to contain a more comprehensive ritual of 
the Kanva family, which is ancient. The 12th hymn (the first in this 
collection) is addressed to the Agni of the ancestors, the pravara, who 
must be invoked at the commencement of every sacrifice ; it contains 
three parts of the later ritual — (a) the pravara, {b) the invocation of Agni 
by the Nigada, and (c) the request to Agni to bring the gods (the so-called 
devdvahanam). The 13th is an apri Sukta containing the Prayajas, 
which accompany the very first offerings at every sacrifice. 

These three hymns were, it appears, appropriate to a simple Isti, 
as it precedes every greater sacrifice. The following hymns refer to the 
Soma sacrifice. The 15th is a Rituyaja hymn ; the Rituytijas always 
precede the Ajya Sastra. The hymns from [36] 16-19 contain a ritual for 
the midday libation, and in 20-22 we find the principal deities of the 
Sastras of the evening libation. 

The hymns from 44-50 in the first book by Praskanva, the son of 
Kanva, contain, if the Indra hymn (51) is also reckoned, all the principal 
deities, and metres of the As^vina Sastra, the former even in their proper 
order, vh., Agni, Usas, the Asvins, Surya, Indra (see Ait. Br. 4, 7-11). 

These instances, which could be easily greatly enlarged, will, I 
think, sviffice to show that the ritual of the Brahmanas in its main features 
was almost complete at the time when the principal Rishis, such as the 
Kanvas, Vii^vamitra, Vasistha, &c., lived. 

I must lay particular stress on the Nivids which I believe to be 
more ancient than almost all the hymns contained in the Rigveda. The 
principal ones (nine in number) are all to be found in the notes to my 
translation of the 3rd Paiichika ('book). That no attention has been paid 
as yet to these important documents by the few Vedic scholars in 
Europe, is principally owing to the circumstance of theii* not having been 
known to them. It being now generally believed, that the earliest relics 
of Vedic literature are to be found only in the Rigveda Sariihita, it is of 
course incumbent on me to state briefly the reasons why I refer the so- 
palled Nivid to a still more remote antiquity. 

The word nivid frequently occurs in the hymns, and even with 
the epithet purva or pHrvya, old [37] (see 1, 89, 3 ; 96, 2 ; 2, 36, 6.) The 


Marutvatiya Nivid^^ is, as it appears, even referred to by Vamadera 
(4, 18, 7, compared with note 25, on page 189) ; the repetition of 
the Nivids is juxtaposed with the performance of the chanters, and 
the recital of the Sastras (6, '67, 10). The Brahmanam regards the 
Nivids, particularly that one addressed to Agni, as those words of 
Prajapati, by means of which he created all beings (see Ait. Br. 2, 
33-34). That such an idea, which entirely coincides with the Zoroastrian 
of Ahuramazda (Ormazd) having created the world through the yathd- 
aM-vairyo prayer (see the 19th chapter of the Yaj^na), must be more 
ancient than the Brahmanas, we learn from a hymn of the old Bisi 
Kutsa, who is already in many Vedic songs looked upon as a sage of the 
remote past. He says (1, 96, 2) that Agni created by means of the 
" first Nivid " the creatures of the Manus (seepage 143). In 1, 89, 3-4, 
an old Nivid appears to be quoted. For the words which follow the 
sentence, " we call them with the old Nivid," bear quite the stamp 
of such a piece. 

Many Nivids, even the majority of them, are certainly lost. But 
the few pieces of this kind of religious literature which are still extant, 
are sufficient to show that they must be very ancient, and are not to be 
regarded as fabrications of the sacrificial priests at the times when the 
Brahmanas were composed. [38] Their style is, in the main, just the same 
in which the hymns are composed, and far more ancient than that of 
the Brahmanas. They contain, in short sentences, the principal names, 
epithets, and feats of the deity invoked. They have no regular metre, 
but a kind of rhythmus ; or even a parallelismus membrorum as the 
ancient Hebrew poetry. 

The circumstance that in the ritual such a paramount importance 
is attached to such half poetical, half prose pieces as the Nivids are (see 
particularly Ait. Br. 2, 33 ; 3, 10-11), clearly tends to prove, that they 
must have been regarded as very efficacious. This could be hardly 
accounted for at a time when beautiful and finished songs were forth- 
coming in abundance to serve the same purpose, had they not been very 
ancient, and their employment been sanctioned by the example of the 
most ancient Risis. 

We have already seen, that several of those Nivid formulas which 
we have now were known to some Vedic poets. I will give here a few 
more instances. The hymn to the Marutas by Visvamitra (3, 47) is 
evidently based on the Marutvatiya Nivids (se« them on page 189) ; the- 

'^ When the word nivid appears often in the plural, then the several pfidas, of which 
the Nivid consists, are to be understood. 


verse to Savitar (3, 54, 11) alludes to Savitri Nivids (see tliera on page 
208); the hymn to Dyavaprithivl (1, 160) is a poetical imitation of the 
Dyavapiithivi Nivids fpage 209) ; the Ribhu hymn (4, 33) resembles very 
much the Ribhu Nivids (page 210), &c. 

Another proof of the high antiquity of the Nivids is furnished 
by the Zend-Avesta. The many prayer [39] formulas in the Yailna which 
commence with nivae-ahayemi, i.e., I invite, are exactly of the same 
nature as the Nivids. 

The Nivids along with many so-called Yajus formulas which are 
preserved in the Yajurveda, the Nigadas, such as the Subrahmanya and 
the so-called Japa formulas (such as Ait. Br. 2, 38), which are muttered 
with a low voice only, are doubtless the most ancient pieces of Vedic 
poetry. The Risis tried their poetical talent first in the composition of 
Yajyas or verses recited at the occasion of an offering being thrown into 
the fire. Thence we meet so many verses requesting the deity to accept 
the offering, and taste it. These Yajyas were extended into little songs, 
which, on account of their finished form, were called suktam, i.e. well, 
beautifully spoken. The principal ideas for the Yajyas were furnished 
by the sacrificial formulas in which the Yajurveda abounds, and those of 
the hymns were suggested by the Nigadas and Nivids. There can be 
hardly any doubt, that the oldest hymns which we possess, are purely 
sacrificial, and made only for sacrificial purposes. Those which express 
more general ideas, or philosophical thoughts, or confessions of sins, 
such as many of those addressed to Varuna, are comparatively late. 

In order to illustrate that the development of the sacrificial and 
religious poetry of the ancient Brahmans took such a course as here 
described, I may adduce the similar one which we find with the Hebrews. 
The sacrificial ritual of Moses, as laid [40] down in the Leviticus, knows no 
rythmical sentences nor hymns which accompanied the oblations offered 
to Jehovah. It describes only such manual labour, as found with the 
Brahmans its place in the Yajurveda, and mentions but very few and 
simple formulas which the officiating priest appears to have spoken when 
throwing the offering into the fire of the altar. They differed, according 
to the occasion, but very little. The principal formula was Jl'Tnib nniD 
Hi^ nii't^ " a fire offering of pleasant smell for Jehovah," which exactly cor- 
responds ^ivith the Vedic agnaye, indrdya, &c. sxahd ! ^^ i.e. a good offering to 
Agni, Indra, &c. If it was the solemn holocaustum, then the word H^iy, i,e. 

-' The term svdhd is to be traced to the root dhd, to put, with a, to put in, into, and 
stands for svddhd (su-^ddhd). It means the gift which is thrown into the fire. 


bolocaUBtum, was used in addition (Leviticus 1, 9-13) ; if it was the so- 
called zebakh shlamim or sacrifice for continued welfare, the word DTv^ food, 
bread, was added (Levit. 3, 11) ; if it was a penance, the words Wtn DtL''S 
(Levit. 7, 5), " this is a penance," were required. When the priest 
absolved a sacrificer who brought an offering as a penance, he appears 
to have used a formula also, which is preserved in the so-frequently 
occuring sentence : ^b rhDT\ Wti)n l'Q?W '^nst^n?:! ^^b^ tQ^^ (Lev. iv, 25, 
31: v. 6, 10.) "and he (the priest) shall annul the sin which he has 
committed, so that he will be pardoned." ^ 

[41] If we compare these formulas with the psalms, which were composed 
and used for the worship of Jehovah, then we find exactly the same 
difference between both, as we discover between the Yajus formulas, 
Nivids, &c., and the finished hymns of the Rigveda Samhita. In 
the same way as there is a considerable interval of time between the 
establishment of the Mosaic ritual and the composition of the psalms, 
we are completely justified in supposing that a similar space of time 
intervened between the Brahmanical ritual with its sacrifical formulas, 
and the composition of the majority of the Vedic hymns. Between 
Moses and David there is an interval of five hundred years, and if ^ve 
assume a similar one between the simple Yajus formulas, and such 
finished hymns as those addressed to Varuna which M. MuUer ascribes 
to his Chhandas period, we shall not be in the wrong. 

Another proof that the purely sacrificial poetry is more ancient 
than either profane songs or hymns of a more general religious character, 
is furnished by the Shi-hing or Book of Odes of the Chinese. Of its 
four divisions, viz. huo-jung, i.e. popular songs of the different territories 
of ancient China, ta-ya and siao ya, i.e. imperial songs, to be used 
with music at the imperial festivals, and sung, i.e. hymns in honour 
of deceased emperors, and vassal kings, the latter, which are of a purely 
sacrificial character, are the most ancient pieces. The three last odes in 
this fourth division go back as far as the commencement of the Sliang 
dynasty, which ascended the dragon seat in [42] the year 1766 B.C., whilst 
almost all other pieces in the collection are composed from the earlier 
part of the reign of the Chou dynasty down almost to Confucius' time 
(from 1120 B.C. till about 600 B.C.) 

If we consider that the dillerence of time between the purely sacrifi- 
cial and non-sacrificial hymns of the Chinese thus amounts to about 

" The priest appears to have addressed these words to the sinner who was to be 
absolved in this manner, "1 annul the sin which thou hast committed, and thou shalt 
be pardoned." 


1,000 years, we would not be very wrong in presuming similar inter- 
vals to exist between the different hymns of the Rigveda. Risis like 
Kavya, Ut^anas, Kaksivat, Hiranyastupa, to whom several hymns are 
traced, were for the Kanvas, Vitlvamitra, Vasistha, &c.., as ancient per- 
sonages, as the emperors Tang (1765 B.C.) and Wuwang (1120 B.o.) 
to Confacious (born 551 b. c.) 

On account of the utter want of Indian chronology for the Vedic and 
post-Vedic times, it will be of course for ever impossible to fix exactly 
the age of the several hymns of the Rigveda, as can be done with most 
of the psalms and many of the odes of the Shi-king. But happily we 
possess at least one astronomical date which furnishes at any rate tlie ex- 
ternal proof of the high antiquity of Vedic literature, which considerably 
tends to strengthen the internal evidence of the same fact. I here mean 
the well known passage in the Jyotisam, or Vedic calendar, about the 
position of the solstitial points. The position ' there given carries us 
back to the year llSl according to Archdeacon Pratt's, and to 1186 
[43] B.C. according to the Rev. R. Main's calculations.^* The questions 
on the age of this little treatise and the origin of the Naksatra *" 
system, about which [44] there has been of late so much wrangling 
fimong the few Sanscrit scholars of Europe and America, are of 

•* See the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Beugal of the year 1862 pages 49-50. Max 
Miiller's Preface to the 4th Volume of his edition of the Rigveda Samhita,page Lxxxv. 

" There can be hardly any doubt, that the Naksatra system of the Indians, 
Chinese, Persians and Arabs is of a common origin, but it is very difficult to determine 
with what nation it oi-iginated. The original number was twenty-eight. I do not 
intend fully to discuss here the important question, but I wish only to direct attention 
to the circumstance overlooked as yet by all the writers on'the subject, that the terms 
which the Indians, Arabs, and Chinese use for expressing the idea " constellation" have 
in all the three languages, Sanscrit, Chinese, and Arabic, precisely the same meaning, 
viz. a place where to pass the night, a station. This is certainly no mere chance, 
but can only be accounted for by the supposition, that the framers of the Naksatra 
system regarded the several Naksatras as heavenly stations, or night quarters, where 
the travelling moon was believed to put on his journey through the heavens. Let U3 
examine these terms. 

The Chinese expression for Naksatra is Siu (spelt by Morrison suk and sew, by 
Medhurst sew with the third or departing tone). The character representing it which 
is to be found under the 40th radical, strokes 8 (see Morrison's Chinese Dictionary, 
Vol. 1 page 847) is composed of three signs, vis. that for a roof, that for man, and 
that for a hundred. Its original meaning therefore is " a place where a hundred men 
find shelter, a station or night quarters for a company of soldiers." The word is, as 
is the case with most of the words, used as a substantive, adjective, and verb. 

As a substantive it denotes " a resting place to pass the night at " with a road-house 
(hi shili), i.e. an inn, or a halting place in general ; such places were situated at the 
distance of every thirty Li. Thence it is metaphorically employed to -express the 



t45} minor importance compared with the fact and the age of the obsei> 
vation itself. That an astronomical observation was taken by the 

station on the heavens -where the travelling moon is snpposed to put up. In this 
sense the Chinese speak of dlli sMh pd siu "the tvpenty-ejgbt halting places" (on the 

As an objective it means post, former, i.e. the night^qnarters whichi -were jnst left. 

In the sense of a verb, but never in that of a suTjstantive, we find it frequently used 
in two of the so-called See-shu or four Classical books of the Chinese, vis. the Lun-yu 
(the Confucian Analects) and in Meng-tse. 

In order to show the use of this important Tpord in the Classical -writings, I here 
quote some instances : 

(a) intrans, to x>ass the night, to stop over night, Lun-yu 14, 41 ; tse hi siu yu Bhihrtnan, 
i.e. Tse-lu (one of the most ardent and zealous disciples of Confucius) passed the 
night at Shih-man ; 18. 7. 3 ibidem ; chih Tse-lu siu, i.e. he detained Tse-lu to pass 
the night (with him). Meng tse 2, 2, 11, 1 ; Meng-tse h'iu Tsi sia yu Ohan^ i. e. 
Meng-tse after having left Tsi, passed the night at Chow ; 2, 2, 12, 4, ibidem : yu 
sail siu olh heu chiih Choiu, yu yu sin i wei suh, i . e. When I, after having stopped for 
three nights left Chow, I thought in my mind my departure to be speedy still. 

(b) trans, to make pass the night, to keep over iiight. Lun-yu 10, 8, 8 : tse yu hung 
pU siu fa, when he (Confucius) sacrificed at the Duke's (assisted the Duke in 
sacrificing) he did not keep the (sacrificial) flesh over night. In this sense it 
is several times metaphorically used ; so Lun-yu 12. 2, 2 : Tse-lu vu siu no, i.e. 
Tse-lu never kept a promise over night (he carried it out at one, before he 
went to rest), 

(c) to have taken ^lp his quarters, to be at rest. Lun-yu 7, 26 : yih pit she siu, he 
(Confucius) shot, but not with an arrow and string at (animals) which were 
at rest (asleep). 

The Arabic word for the Nakshatras is Jd^ mansil phur. J;U^ mendeil, '* a place where 
to put up, qurters," from the root Jp^ to make a journey, to put up at a place as a 

This name for the constellations must be very ancient with the Semitic nations, 
for we find it already in the Old Testament (Book of the Kings ii. 23, 5) in the form 
n*)';^l)2 niaszaloth ; it has no proper etymology in Hebrew (for the root ^^^ nazal, to 
which alone it could be traced, means to floxo), and is apparently introduced as a foreign 
word from some other Semitic nation, probably the Babylonians. The Jewish commenta- 
tors had no clear conception of the proper meaning of the word ; they take it to 
mean star in general, and then the twelve signs o*' the Zodiac. But from the context 
of the passage in the Book of the Kings, just quoted, where it stands together with 
the moon and the ivhole host of the Jieauens (" ior the moon and the mazzalothandthe 
whole host of the heaven") it undoubtedly follows, that its meaning cannot be " star" in 
general, which idea is expressed by the " whole host of the heavens," but something 
particular in the heavens connected with the moon. The use of the same word in 
Arabic for expressing the idea of constellation, heavenly mansions of the moon, proves 
beyond any doubt, that the massaloth mean the same. 

Now the Sanscrit word naksatra has originally no other meaning than eitaer siu 
or vmvzil have. The arrangement of the meaning of this word which is ua-le in 
Boehtlinftk and Roth's Sanscrit Dictionary is insufBcient and treated with the same 
superficiality as the majority of the more difficult Vedic werds in that much-lauded 
work. Thoy make it to mean stor in general (sidus), the stars, and then constellation, 
station of thc.moon. But the very formation of the word by means of the suffix atra 


Brahmans as early aa the 12th century before Christ is proved be- 
yond any doubt by the date to be elicited from the observation 
itself. If astronomical calculations of past events are of any worth, 
we must accept as settled the date of the position of the solstitial [461 
points as recorded in the Jyotisam. To believe that such an observation 
was imported from some foreign country, Babylon or China, could be 
absurd, for there is nothing in it to show, that it cannot have been 
made in the north-western part of India, or a closely adjacent country. 
A regulation of the calendar by such observations was an absolute 
necessity for the Brahmans ; for the proper time of commencing and 
ending their sacrifices, principally the so-called Sattras or sacrificial 
sessions, could not be known without an accurate knowledge of the time 
of the sun's northern and southern progress. The knowledge of the 
calendar forms such an essential part of the ritual, that many import- 
ant conditions of the latter cannot be carried out without the former. 
The sacrifices are allowed to commence only at certain lucky constel- 
lations, and in certain months. So, for instance, as a rule, no great 
sacrifice can commence during the sun's southern progress (dak^irLciyana); 
for this is regarded up to the present day as an unlucky period by the 

indicates, that somethins; particular mast be attached to its meaning; compare patatro a 
wing, literally a means for flying, vadhatra a weapon, literally a means for striking, yajat- 
' ram the keeping of a sacrificial firCs literally the means or place for sacrificing ; o,matra, a 
drinking vessel, literally a place to which a thing goes which holds it. According to 
all analogy we can derive the word only from naks, which is a purely Vedic root, 
and means to "arrive at." Thus nafesatra etymologically means, either the means 
by which one arrives, or the place where one arrives, a station. This expresses 
most adequately the idea attached by the Indians to the Naksatras as mansions for 
the travelling moon. But even if we waive this derivation, and make it a compound 
Of nak (instead of naktd, see Rigveda 7, 71, 1) and satra=sattra, a session for the night, 
night quarters, we arrive at the same meaning. The latter derivation is, I think, 
even preferable to the former. The meanings of the word are to be classed as follows : 
(1) station, qurters where to pass the night. In this sense it is out of use ; (2) especially 
the stations on the heavens where the travelling moon is supposed to put up, the 
twenty-eight constellations ; (3) metonymiclly stars in general, the starry sphere (Rig- 
veda 7, 86, 1 : nnksatram papruth'ichcha bhi'ima, he spread the starry sphere, and the 
earth). The latter use is pre-eminently poetical, as poets always can use pars pro toto. 
The naksatras as stations of the moon were perfectly known to the Eisis, as every 
one can convince himself from the many passages in the Taitirlya Brahmanam, and the 
Atharvaveda. That these books are throughout much later than the songs of the Rigveda 
is just what I have strong reasons to doubt. The arrangement of the meanings of 
nak^atra as given here entirely coincides with all we know of the history of either 
the word siu in Chinese, or manzil, mnzzaloth in the Semitic languages. The Chinese, 
especially poets, used the word siu in the sense of star or stars in general, and so 
did the Rabbis in the Mishnah and the Talmud, according to the testimony of Juda ^ben 
Karish (see Geseuii Thesaurus Linguae Hebra?8e, et Chaldsere ii. page 869). 


Brahmans, in which, even to die is belived to be a misfortune. The 
great sacrifices take place generally in spring, in the months Ghaitra 
and Vaisdkha (April and May). The sattras which lasted for one year 
were, as one may learn from a careful perusal of the dth book of the 
Aitareya Brahmanam, nothing but an imitation of the sun's yearly 
course. They were divided into two distinct parts, each consisting of six 
months of thirty days each ; in the midst of both was the Visuvan, i.e. 
equator or central day, cutting the [47] whole Sattra into two halves. The 
ceremonies were in both the halves exactly the same ; but they were 
in the latter half performed in an inverted order. This represents the 
increase of the days in the northern, and their decrease in the southern 
progress ; for both increase and decrease take place exactly in the same 

In consideration that these Sattras were already at the time of the 
compilation of the J3rahmanas an old institution, we certainly can find 
nothing surprising in the circumstance, that the Indian astronomers 
made the observation above-mentioned so early as the 12th century 
B.C. For the Sattras are certainly as early as, if not earlier than, this 
time. Sattras lasting for sixty years appear even to have been known 
already to the authors of the Brahmanas (see page 287). 

Now that observation proves two things beyond doubt : (1) That the 
Indians had made already such a considerable progress in astronomical 
science, early in the 12th century, as to enable them to take such obser- 
vations ; (2) That by that time the whole ritual in its main features 
as laid down in the Brahmanas was complete. 

We do not hesitate therefore to assign the composition of the 
bulk of the Brahmanas to the years 1400-1200 B.C.; for the Samhita 
we require a period of at least 500-600 years, with an interval of about 
two hundred years between the end of the proper Brahmana period. 
Thus we obtain for the bulk of the Samhita the space from 1400-2000; 
the oldest hymns and [48] sacrificial formulas may be a few hundred years 
more ancient still, so that we would fix the very commencement of 
Vedic Literature between 2400-2000 b. o. If we consider the completely 
authenticated antiquity of several of the sacred books of the Chinese, 
such as the original documents, of which the Shu-king, or Book of 
History, is composed, and the antiquity of the sacrificial songs of the 
Shi-king, which all carry ua back to 1700-2200 B.C., it will certainly 
not be surprising that we assign a similar antiquity to the most an- 
cient parts of the Vedas. For there is nowhere any reason to show, 


'that tlie Vedas must be less ancient tlian th.e earliest parts of the sacred 
bpok& of the Chinese, but there is on the contrary much ground to believe, 
that they can fully lay claim to the same antiquity. Already at the 
time of the composition of the Brahmanas, which as we have seen, 
cannot be later than about 1200 B.C., the three principal Vedas, i.e. 
their respective S^imhitas, were believed to have proceeded directly from 
the mouth of Prajapati, the lord of the creatures, who occupies in the 
early Vedic mythology tiie same place which is, in the later writings, 
held by Brahmadeva. This could not have been the case, had they not 
been verj^ ancient. In a similar way, the Chinese ascribe the ground 
text of their most ancient and most sacred book, the Y-Jihig, i.e. Book of 
Changes, to a kind of revelation too, which was made to Fiihi, the Adam 
of the Chinese, by a Dragon horse, called Luvg-ma. 

Speculations on the nature of the sacrificial rites, [49] and cognate 
topics of a mystical character which form the proper sphere of the Brah- 
manas, commenced already during the Samhita period, as one may learn 
from such hymns as Rigveda 1, 95, and the so-called Vamana 
Sukta 1, 1G4. Even at the time of the composition of the present 
Brahmanas, there existed already some time-hallowed sayings, which 
resemble in every respect those dicta of the Brahma priests, of 
which the bulk of the Brahmanas consists. I instance here the Broli- 
modyam (Ait. Br. 5, 25), which was used already at that time at the 
conclusion of the tenth day's performance of the Dvadat^aha sacrifice. 
It is, therefore, very difficult to draw a strict line of separation between 
the period during which the hymns were composed, and that one which 
brought forward the speculations known by the name of Brahmanas. On 
a more close comparison of the mystical parts of the Samhita with the 
Brahmanas, one must come to the conclusion, that the latter were com- 
menced already during the period of the former. 

Let us say a few words on the divisicn made of the contents of the 
Brahmanas by the Indian divines and philosophers. According to the 
introductory chapters to the Hiranyakesiii (and Apastamba Sutras') the 
Brahmanas contain the following topics : — 

(1) Karmavidhdnam, or vidhi, i.e. rules on the performance of 
particular rites. To this class all those sentences in the Brahmanas are 
referred which contain an order expressed in the potential mood, such as 
yajeta, he ought to sacrifice ; samset, he ought [50] to repeat (such and 
such a verse) ; kurydt, he ought to proceed (in such or such a way), &c. 
This is the principal part of the Brahmanas, and has for the Brahmans 


about the same significance as in the Talmudic Literature the halokah 
has for the Jews ; it is simply authoritative. 

(2) Arthavdda, This term comprises the numerous explanatory 
remarks on the meaning of mantras and particular rites, the reasons 
■why a certain rite must be performed in a certain way. This is the 
speculative part, and is on account of its containing the germs of all 
Hindu philosophy, and even of grammar, of the greatest importance. 
There is nowhere anything like an approach to a regular system per- 
ceptible, but only occasional remarks bearing on philosophical and 
grammatical topics. For the history of grammar, the fifth Panchika 
of the Aitareya Brahmanam is of a particular interest. We learn from 
it, that at that time not only numerous attempts were made to explain 
the meaning of words by etymology, but that the Brahmans even had 
already commenced to analyse the forms of speech by making distinc- 
tions between singular and plural, present, past, and future tenses, &c. 
The idea of viukti or final absorption in the Supreme Being, as taught 
in the later Vedanta philosophy, is even with most of its particulars 
spoken out in several of those explanatory remarks. I allude here to 
the frequently occurring terras, sayujyatd junction, sarupata identity of 
form, salokatd identity of place, which mark in the later times different 
stages of the final beatitude. [51] The principal tendency of this part is, 
to show the close connection of the visible and invisible worlds, between 
things on earth, and their counterparts or prototypes in heaven. Pan- 
theistic ideas pervade all the Brahrnanas, and are already traceable in 
hymns of the Samhita. 

(3) Nindd, censure. This refers principally to the controversial 
remarks contained in all Brahmanas. There was amongst these ancient 
divines and metaphysicians often difference of opinion as to the perform- 
ance of a certain rite, or the choice of a particular mantra, or their 
meaning. One criticised the practice of the other, and condemned its 
application often in the strongest terms. The censure is generally 
introduced by the expression, "but this opinion is not to be attended to." 
The sacrificers are often cautioned from adopting such a malpractice, 
by the assertion that if a priest would proceed in such or such a way, 
the sacrificer would lose his life, be burned by the sacrificial fire, &c. 

(4) Samsd, i. e. praise, recommendation. This part comprises princi- 
pally those phrases which express that the performance of such or such a 
rite with the proper knowledge, produces the effect desired. They almost 
invariably contain the expression, ya evam veda, i.e. who has such a 


knowledge. The extreme frequency of this phrase in the Brahmaiias, 
and Upanisads, is probably the reason, that the whole sacred know- 
ledge was comprised afterwards only by the general term veda. Origi- 
nally [523 it appears to have applied to Brahmana like sentences and 
explanations only. 

(5) Purdkalpa, i. e. performance of sacrificial rites in former times. 
Under this head come the numerous stories of the fights of the Devas 
and Asuras, to which the origin of many rites is attributed, as also all 
legends on the sacrifices performed by the gods. This very interesting 
part forms the historical (or rather legendary) background of the whole 
sacrificial art. All rites were traced to the gods as their originators, 
or even to Prajapati, the Supreme Being, the Lord of creatures. We 
can derive one important historical fact from the legends on the figlit 
between the Devas and Asuras, viz., that the religious contest between 
the ancient Indians (represented by the Devas) and the Iranians (repre- 
sented by the Asuras, contained in the name Ahuramazda = Ormazd) took 
place long before the time of the composition of the Brahmanas, that 
is, before the 12th century B.C. This is another proof corroborative of 
the high antiquity ascribed by Grecian writers to Zarathustra f Zoroaster), 
the prophet of the Asura nation (Iranians), who did manfully battle 
against idolatry and the worship of the Devas, branded by him as 
"devils." That contest which must have been lasting for many years 
appeared to the writers of the Brahmanas as old as the feats of King 
Arthur appear to English writers of the nineteenth century. 

(6) Farakriti, i.e. the achievement or feat of another. This head 
comprises the stories of certain performances of renowned Srotriyas, 
or sacrificial [53] priests, of gifts presented by kings to Brahmans, the 
successes they achieved. The last book of the Aitareya particularly is 
full of this class of topics. 

These six heads are often, however, brought only under two principal 
ones, viz., vidhi and arthavada. The latter then comprises all that is not 
injunction, that is, all topics from 2 to 6. This philosophical division 
exactly corresponds to the division of the contents of the Talmud by the 
Jewish Rabbis into two principal parts, viz : halahah, i.e. rule of con- 
duct, which is as authoritative as the thorah (law of Moses\ and haggadah, 
i.e. story, parable, and in fact everything illustrative of the former. 


The Aitareya BrahmarLam in particular. 

The Aitareya Brahmanam is one of the collections of the sayings of 
ancient Brahma priests (divines and philosophers), illustrative and ex- 
planatory of the duties of the so-called Hotri-priests. The latter perform- 
ing the principal part of their duties by means of the mantras, termed 
rik, and contained in the so-called Rigveda Samhita, the Aitareya is 
therefore one of the Brahmanas belonging to the Rigveda. There must ^ 
have been, as we may learn from Panini and Patanjali's Mahabhasya, a 
much larger number of Brahmanas belonging to each Veda; and even 
Sayana, who lived only about four hundred years ago, was acquainted 
with more than we have now. To the Rigveda we know at present 
besides [54] the Aitareya, only the Kausitaki Brahmanam, which is also 
called Safikhayana. Both appear to have been known to the grammarian 
Panini,* as one may gather from the rule (v. 1, 62 j which he gives re- 
garding the formation of names of Brahmanas consisting of thirty and 
forty Adhyayas ; for the Kausitaki actually consists of thirty and the 
Aitareya of forty Adhyayas, which were afterwards divided into eight 
Pafichikas, each of which comprises five Adhyayas. 

The name " Aitareya " is by Indian tradition traced to Itard,. Sayana 
tells regarding the origin of the name and of the Brahmana itself, in his 
introduction to the Aitareya Brahmanam, the following story, on the 
authority of the sarhpraddya-vidah, i.e. men versed in traditional stories. 
An ancient Risi had among his many wives one who was called Itard. 
She had a son Mahiddsa by name, who is mentioned in the Aitareya 
Aranyaka as Mahidasa Aitareya. The Risi perferred the sons of his 
other wives to Mahidasa, and went even so far as to insult him once by 
placing all his other children in his lap to his exclusion. His mother, 
grieved at this ill-treatment of her son, prayed to her family deity 
{kuladevatd), the Earth (bhumi), who appeared in her celestial form in 
the midst of the assembly, placed him on a throne (simhdsana), and 
gave him as a token of honour for his surpassing all other children in 
learning a boon [55] (vara) which had the appearance of a Brahmana. 
After having received this gift, a Brahmanam consisting of forty Adhya- 
yas, which commenced with the words, agnir vdi devdndm avomo (the first 
sentence of the Aitareya), and ended with strimtte slrinute (the two 
last words of the Aitareya;^, came forth through the mind of Mahdiasa. 

' The attention of Sanscrit scholars was first directed by Professor Weber at Berlin 
to this circumstance. 


Afterwards the Br^hmanam, commencing with atha mahdvratam (the 
beginning words of the first Aitareya Aranyaka) and ending with 
dchdrya dcharya (the two last words of the third Aranyaka)' was also 
revealed in the shape of the vow of an hermit' (dranyaJtavratarupam), 

The Aitareya Brahmanam, as well as the Kausitaki, do not treat 
of all the sacrifices and sacrificial rites which are mentioned and des- 
cribed in the books of Yajurveda, which may be (principally the Sutras) 
regarded as the proper sacrificial encyclopedise. They were, however, 
perfectly well known to the authors of these Brahmanas, as we may learn 
from the fact, that the names of several sacrifices, such as Vajapeya, Aptor- 
yama (see 3, 41) are mentioned without the description of the rituals 
belonging to them. Several things concerning [56] the Hotris whoso 
duties principally are treated at every Soma sacrifice are left out. So the 
ceremony of choosing the sacrificial priests (ritvig-varariam) by the sacri- 
ficer, iacluding the Hotars, is left out, as Sayana has already observed. 
But every Edutra-prayoga, i.e. practical hand-book for the Hotri-priests 
(for each sacrifice there are separate prayogas for each set of priests 
required), commences with it ; the topic is generally treated in the Sutras 
belonging to the Yajurveda ; the principal mantras required at that 
occasion are to be found in the first chapter of the Tandya Brahmanam 
of the Samaveda. The dialogue used at this occasion is interesting, and 
throws some light on the nature and character of some sacrifices ; there- 
fore I give here some account of it. 

The person who wishes to perform the Agnistoma sacrifice, for 
instance, sends a delegate called Somapravdha to all Srotriyas (sacrificial 
priests) whose services he wishes to engage for his forthcoming Soma 
sacrifice, to ask whether they would be willing to ofiiciate at this occasion. 
The dialogue between the Somapravaka and the Hotar is as follows : S. 
" There will be a Soma sacrifice of such and such one ; you are respect- 
fully requested to act as Hotar at it." H. " What sacrifice is it ?" S. 
*^ The J yotidoma-Agnidoma-Soma sacnfi-ce.^' H. "What priests {ritvijah) 
will ofiiciate?', S. "Visnu, Mitra,* " &c. H. "What is the reward for 

• This remark throws some light on the relationship in which the five treatises, of 
which the present Aitareya Aranj-aka consists, and each of which bears the name 
rtj-anyafco, stand to one another. Only the three first Aranyakas were according to this 
notice regarded as a divine revelation to the Aitareya !^isi ; the two others are then 
later additions, and did ndt form originally part of the Aitareya Aranyaka. 

^ According to Brahminical ideas, avow, a curse, a blessing, &c., can assame a visible 
• form and so boeome manifest to the mental eyes of men, 

* The priests represent the gods. 


the prieBts ?" S. " One tundred and twelve cows." [57] If tLe priestfl 
have accepted the invitation, then the sacrificer has actually to appoint 
them to their respective offices. This is the varaiiiam or selection (of 
the priests). 

The sacrificer first mentions the gods who are to act as his priests, 
"Agni (the fire) is my Hotar, Aditya (the sun) my Adhvaryu, the Moon 
my Brahma, Parjanya (the god of rain) my Udgatar, the Sky {dkdsa) is 
my Sadasya (superintendent), the waters are my Hotras^amsis (all the 
minor Hotri-priests) ; the rays my Chamasa Adhvaryus (cup-bearers). 
These divine priests I choose (for my sacrifice)." After having thus ap- 
pointed the gods, who are to act as his divine priests, he now proceeds to 
appoint the " human " {manusa) priests. This is at the Agnistoma 
done with the following formula, " I (the name) of such and such a Gotra, 
will bring the Jyotistoma sacrifice by means of its Agnistoma part, with 
the Rathantara-Pi istha, four Stomas (the nine, fifteen, seventeen and 
twenty- one-fold), for which ten things, cows and so on are required, and 
for which as fee one himdred and twelve cows must be given. At this 
sacrifice be thou my Hotar.". The Hotar then accepts the appointment by 
the following formula : " May the great thing thou spokest of (unto me), 
the splendour thou spokest of, the glory thou spokest of, the Stoma thou 
spokest of, the way of performance thou spokest of, the enjoyment thou 
spokest of, the satisfaction thou spokest of ; may all that thou spokest of 
come to me ; may it enter me ; may I have enjoyment through it. Agni 
is thy Hotar. He is [58] thy (divine) Hotar. I am thy (human) Hotar.' 
All priests are appointed in the same way, and by the same formulas. 

After this disgression let us discuss the contents of the Aitareya 
Brahmanam. It treats in its eight books, or forty chapters, each of which 
is subdivided into a certain number of har^dikds, i.e. small sections, para- 
graphs, as we have seen, almost exclusively of the duties of the seven 
Hotri-priests at the great Soma sacrifices, and the different royal inaugur- 
ation ceremonies. All minor sacrifices and Istis, although they require 
the services of a Hotar, are excluded. The Hotri-priests are to be divided 
into three distinct classes : (1) The Hotar, the chief of all Hotri-priests. (2) 
The Kotrdkas, i.e., the little Hotras ; these are, Maitravaruna (Prasastar) 
Brahmaaachhamsi, and Achhtxvaka. (3) The Hotrdsamsinah, i.e, the 
repeaters of the Hotri verses ; they are, Potar, Nestar, and Agnidhra. 

The first thirteen chapters (the two first books, and the three first 
chapters (of the third) treat of the duties of the chief Hotar at the 
Agnistoma Soma sacrifices only; for this is the model (praJcriti) of 


all Soma sacrifices' which I^t for one day only (the so-called aikahikas) ; 
all other Soma sacrifices of the same duration are mere modifications 
(vikriti) of it. It is regarded as an integral part of the Jyoti stoma, and 
said to consist of the following seven sacrifices : (1) Agnistoma, (2) Atyag- 
nistoma, (3) Ukthya, (4)6olasi, (5) Atiratra, (6) Vajapeya, (7) Aptoryama 
A4v. Sr. S. 6, 11). In many places, however, the [59] term Jyotistoma is 
equivalent to Agnistoma. The Aitareya does not know these seven 
parts, as belonging together, but simply remarks, that they follow the 
Agnistoma as their yrakriti (3, 41). The Aty agnistoma is not even 
mentioned in it at all. 

AH the duties of the Hotar at the AgniMtoma are mentioned almost in 
the exact order in which they are required. It lasts generally for 
days. The ceremonies are then divided as follows : 

First (^ay.— Preliminary ceremonies, such as the election of the 
priests giving them presents (madhuparka), the Biksaniya Isti, and the 
Diksa itself. 

Second day. — The Prayaniya or opening Isti ; the buying of the 
Soma; the Atithya Isti, Pravargya, and Upasad twice (once in the 
forenoon, and once in the afternoon). 

Third day. — Pravargya and Upasad twice again. 

Fourth day. — Agnipranayanam, Agni-Soma-pranayanam, Havirdh^na 
pranayanam. The animal sacrifice. 

Fifth day. — The squeezing, offering and drinking of the Soma juice 
at the three great Libations, viz. the morning, midday, and evening Liba- 
tions. The concluding Isti (udayaniya). Ablution (avahhrita). 

The ceremonies of the four first days are only introductory, but abso- 
lutely necessary ; for without them no one is allowed to sacrifice and 
drink the Soma juice. The Soma ceremony is the holiest rite in the 
whole Brahmanical service, just as the Homa ceremony of the Parsi 
priests is regarded by them as [60] the most sacred performance. No 
Parsi priest is allowed to perform it, if he does not very frequently undergo 
the great purification ceremony, called the Barashnom of nine nights. In 
the same way every Brahman has, as often as he brings a Soma sacrifi'ce 
to undergo the Diksa (see 1, 3 ; 4, 26.) One such ceremony is even not 
considered sufficient. For the sacrifice has besides the Diksa to undergo 
the Pravargya, which is a similar preparation for the great Soma day. 
Even the animal sacrifice must precede the solemn Soma fiestival ; for it 
is of minor importance. The animal is instead of the sacrificer himself. 


The animal when sacrificed in the fire, goes to the gods, and so does the 
sacrificer in the shape of the animal (see page 80 of the translation). The 
animal sacrifice is vicarious. Being thus received among the gods, the 
sacrificer is deemed worthy to enjoy the divine beverage, the Soma, and 
participate in the heavenly king, who is Soma. The drinking of the 
Soma juice makes him a new man ; though a new celestial body had been 
prepared for him at the Pravargya ceremony, the enjoyment of the Soma- 
beverage transforms him again ; for the nectar of the gods flows for the 
first time in his veins, purifying and sanctifying him. This last birth to 
the complete enjoyment of all divine rights is symbolically indicated in 
rites of the morning libation (see 32, 35 ; 38 ; 3, 2). 

The principal features of this Agnistoma sacrifice must be very 
ancient. For we discover them almost complete with the Parsis. 
They also do not prepare [61] the corresponding Homa (Soma) juice 
alone, but it must always be accompanied with other offerings. 
The Purodasa of the Brahmans, which always belongs to a Soma 
libation, is represented by the Darun (holy bread), the animal offer- 
ing indicated by the ring of hair {varasa) taken from an ox, to 
be placed on the same table with the Homa. The Homa shoots 
are treated in the same way, when brought to the spot, as the 
Brahmans treat them. The Parsi priest sprinkles them with water,' 
which is exactly the dpydyana ceremony of the Brahmans. He must 
go round the fire with the Homa just as the Brahmans carry the Soma 
round the sacrificial compound (see 1, 14). The ceremonies of preparing 
and drinking both the Homa and Soma juice are quite similar.^ The water 
required for it must be consecrated, which exactly corresponds to the 
Vasativaris and Ekadhanas of the Brahmanical Soma service (2, 20). The 
Zota of the Parsis drinks his cup filled with Homa in three turns, so does 
the Hotar also from the Graha. After the libation has been poured from 
the Grahas into the fire, and drunk by the Hotar, the Stotras are chanted, 
and then the Sastras belonging to them recited. In a similar way the 
Zota priest repeats, shortly after having enjoyed the Homa, the Odthds of 
Zarathustra Spitama (Zoroaster), which [62] are metrical compositions, 
and represent the Sastras of the Brahmanical Soma service. He must 
repeat five such Gathas, just as there are five Sastras, at the morning 

'The mantra repeated at that; occasion is Yasna 10, 1, "May the water-drops (sprinkled 
over the Homa) fall to the destruction of the Devas, and Devis. " 

"Compare notes 8 on page 118, 5 on page 131, 14 on page 137, and my Essays on the 
Sacred Language, *c„ of the Parsis, pages 132-33, 167. 


and midday libations, and at the Ukthya Soma sacrifice at the evening 
libations also. 

These are only a few of the points of comparison which I could easily 
enlarge ; but they will be sufficient to show, that the Agnistoma Soma 
sacrifice was originally the same ceremony as the Homa rite of the Parsi 
priests. The opinions of both the Brahmans and Parsi s on the effect of 
the drinking of the Soma (Homa) juice are besides exactly the same. The 
Brahmans believe that it leads to heaven ; so do the Parsi Priests. They 
say, that Homa is a plant, and a great angel. Any one who has drunk 
the Homa juice becomes united with this angel, and after his death an 
inhabitant of paradise. For the juice which is in the body of the priest 
■who has drunk him, goes to heaven, and connects him mystically with the 

With particular care are the the so-called Sastras or recitations of 
the Hotri priests treated in the Aitareya Brahmanam. The fifth chapter of 
the second, and the three first chapters of the third book are entirely 
taken up with the exposition of the Shastras of the Hotar at the morning, 
midday, and evening libations. As the reader may learn from a perusal 
principally of the third book, the Sastras always belong to Stotras or 
performances by the Sama singers, viz : the Udgatar or chief singer, the 
Prastotar who chants the prelude, and the Pratihartar [63] who chants the 
response. Their recitations must be very ancient, as we have seen ; for 
they are by the name uMha (exactly corresponding to ulihdhem in the Zend 
language) frequently mentioned in the Samhita. A closer examination of 
them will throw much light on the history of the composition of the Vedic 
hymns. As ancient as the Sastras are the Stomas, the exposition of which 
forms one of the topics of the Samaveda Brahmanas [see note 18 on page 
237-38). The word stoma is in the form stoma also known in the Zend- 
Avesta. The Parsi priests understand by it a particular sacrificial 
ceremony of minor importance, which consists in consecrating a meal 
(meat is at this occasion indispensable) in the honour of an angel or a 
deceased person, to be enjoyed afterwards by the whole party assembled. 
That the idea of " sacrificial rite " was attached also by the Brahmans to 
the word, clearly follows from the terms, Agnif^toma and Jyotistoma. The 
musical performance which was originally alone called a Stoma, formed a 
necessary part of certain sacrifices, and was then, as pars pro toio, applied 
to the whole rite. 

The universal character of the Agni stoma and its meaning is treated 
especially in the fourth chapter of the third book. In its last chapter, and 


in the two first of the fourth, the principal modifications of the Agnistoms 
are mentioned, and briefly described, vis-, the Ukthya, ^olas^i, and 
Atinltra, along with the An^vina Sastra. 

The Atiratra sacrifice introduces, however, the [641 Sattras or sacrificial 
sessions, the principal rules for the Hotri performances of which are laid 
down in the third chapter of the fourth book. They are applicable for 
Sattras which last for a whole year. The two last chapters of the fourth, 
and the first four chapters of the fifth book describe very minutely th© 
duties of the Hotar during the ten principal days of the Dvadasaha which 
may be performed as a Sattra, or as a Ahina (a Soma sacrifice lasting for 
more than one, and less than thirteen days). 

The'last chapter of the fifth book is taken up with miscellaneous 
matter, such as the penances required of an Agnihotri when he becomes 
guilty of some fault, or if some misfortune should befal him regarding his 
duties towards his sacred fires, and the question, whether the Agnihotram 
(daily burnt offering) is to be offered before or after sunrise ; it further 
treats of the duties of the Brahma priest, how he has to perform the 
penances for mistakes committed by any one of the performing priests. 

The whole sixth book treats, after some remarks on the offices of the 
Gravastut and Subrahmanya, almost exclusively of the duties of the six 
minor Hotri-priests, principally at the great Soma sacrifices, which 
last for one week at least, or for a series of weeks ( Salaha ) We find 
in it descriptions of the so-called Silpa Sastras, or "skilful (rather 
very artificial) recitations" of the minor Hotars. These Sastras, prin- 
cipally the Valakhilyas, the Viisakapi, Evayamarut, and the so-called 
Kuntapa hymns, are no doubt the latest additions, looking like [653 
decorations, to the ritual of the Hotri-priests. The whole book has the 
appearance of a suppliment to the fourth and fifth. 

The seventh and eighth books treat principally of the sacrifices of 
the Ksattriyas and the relationship in which the princes stand to 
the Brahmans. They are, from an historical point of view, the most 
important part of the whole Brahmanam. 

The seventh book describes first the division of the sacrificial animal 
into thirty-six single pieces, and their distribution among the officiating 
priests, the sacrificer, his wife, and other persons connected with the 
performance of the sacrifice. 

Then follows a chapter of penances for neglects on the part of an 
Agnihotri, or mishaps which might befal him. This is a continuation of 
the fifth chapter in the fifth book. 


In the third chapter we are introduced to the rites of the princely 
inauguration ceremonies connected with a sacrifice, by the story of 
^unashepa. On account of its containing Eik verses, as well as Gathas 
(stanzas) it was to be told to the king on the day of its inauguration by 
the Hotar. The story is highly interesting ; for it proves beyond doubt 
the existence of human sacrifices among the ancient Brahmans, and shows 
that they were in a half savage state ; for we find here a Brahman selling 
his son to a prince to be immolated. 

Now three kinds of such inauguratory sacrifices for the king, called 
Bdjasilyas, are described, viz. [66] Ahhi^eka, Punarahhiseka, and Mahdhhi- 
qeka. The principal part of all these ceremonies consists in the 
sprinkling of holy water over the head of the kings, which is called 
ahhi^eha. It corresponds to the ceremony of anointing the kings with 
the Jews. It is of particular interest to observe that the Brahmans at this 
occasion did not allow the king to drink the proper Soma juice, but 
that he had to drink instead of it, a beverage prepared from the roots 
and leaves of several trees. The enjoyment of the Soma juice was 
a privilege reserved by the Brahmans to themselves alone. The king was, 
properly speaking, even not entitled to bring a sacrifice at all. It was 
only for the sake of the most extravagant gifts which the shrewd 
Brahmans extorted from kings for their offices, that they allowed him 
to bring a sacrifice. But before he could do so, he was to be made first 
a Brahman himself ; at the conclusion of the ceremony he had, however, 
to resign his Brahmanship, and return to his former caste. 

The last chapter of the Brahmanam is taken up with the appointment 
by the king of a duly qualified Brahman to the office of a house-priest, 
who is called 'puroliita, i.e., president, superintendent. The word, as well 
as the office, must be very ancient ; for we find it not only in the Samhit3. 
of the Rigveda, but even in the Zend-Avesta. It is, as to etymology, 
the same word as imradhata,'' which is generally [67] the epithet of one of 
the most ancient Iranian heroes, of Eaoshyaijha (see Yashts 5, 20 ; 9, 3 ; 
15, 7; 17, 24 ed. Westergaard) the Hosheng of the Shahnamah. The 
later Iranian legends, as preserved in the Shahnamah, made of the para- 
dhdtas a whole dynasty of kings, which they call Peshdadians (the modern 
Persian corruption of the primitive paradlidta) who then precede the 
Kayanians (the Kavis of the Vedas). This shows that the institution of 

^ Tbo word purohita is composed of pitras before, and hita placed (from the root 
dhd); so paradlidta also ; para is the Zend form of imrd before, which is equivalent to 
purqs, and dhdta is the Zend participle of the root dhd. 


& Purohita, who was not only a mere house-priest, but a political func- 
tionary, goes back to that early period of history when the Iranians and 
Indians lived peacefully together as one nation, The Paradhatas of the 
Iranian kings appear however not to have been as successful in making 
the Shahs of Iran their slaves, as the Indian Purohitas were in enslav- 
ing the Indian Rajas in the bonds of a spiritual threldom. How far the 
Brahmans must have succeeded in carrying out their design of a spiritual 
supremacy over the royal caste, every reader may learn from this last 
chapter, and convince himself at the same time that hierarchical rule was 
known in the world more than a thousand years before the foundation of 
the Sea of St. Peter. 

The ceremonial part of the last book is much enlivened by short 
stories of kings who were said to have performed the '* great inauguration 
ceremony," and of course attained to supreme rule over the whole earth 
(that is to say, of three or four Indian principalities). It is an imitation 
of the ceremony by which the gods are said to have installed Indra to the 
sovereignty over them. The whole concludes tSS] with the description 
of a magical performance (they are callen kritya) by means of which a 
king can destroy secretly all his enemies. 

After this summary statement of the contents of the Aitareya Brah- 
manam, the question arises whether the work in its present form is the 
composition of one author or of several. Although there is," as we have 
seen, a certain plan perceptible, in the arrangement of the subject matter, 
we may easily distinguish some repetitions, discrepancies, and interpola- 
tions, which are hardly explicable if the book had only one author. So 
we find the Ajya hymn at the morning libation twice explained in 2, 40 
and 41, but with slight differences ; the origin of the formula, agniv 
deveddhali is mentioned twice 2, 33 and 39, but in the former passage it 
is called Nivid, whilst in the latter the name " Puroruk " is given to it. 
The four last kandikas in the second book 38-41 appear to be a kind of 
appendix taken from some other source. The piece 5, 27 is identical 
with 7, 3 ; 6, 5 and 17 treat in the main of the same topic, the relation 
between Stotriya and Anuriipa at the Ahlna sacrifices. There are several 
repititions in the 8th book ; so the 13th kandikais identical with the 18th 
and the 14th with the 19th. The 10th and 11th kandikas in the seventh 
book are evidently interpolations, interrupting the context, and exhibiting 
a different style. The latter is very remarkable on account of its men- 
tioning two other Vedic Sakhas by their names, viz. Paingya and 
Kdusitaki ; it appears to have appertained to an old treatise on 
astronomy. . ^ 


[69] The style of the Brahmanam is on the whole uniform. There are 
certain phrases which constantly re-occur in the work, as for instance, 
^* what is at the sacrifice appropriate, that is successful, when the verse 
(which is repeated) alludes to the ceremony which is being performed ;'* 
"(he who should observe a Hotar do so contrary to the precept) should 
tell him® that the sacrificer would die ; thus it always happens ;" "Thia 
is done for production (prajdtydi)," &c. The language is, of course, 
Uk« that of all Brahmanas, more recent than that of the Samhitd ; but 
it is, however, not the classical Sanscrit. Purely Vedic forms occur, 
eiich as the infinitive forms in tos, e. g. Ttarttos, arttos, roddhos, mathitos 
(see 1, 10 ; 2, 20) generally dependent on isvara^ i.e. able, who has the 
power, {isvaraj} harttoT} he has the power to do ; isvaro roddhol}^ he 
has the power to obstruct, &c.), satartavdi (from stri) ; stomebhir instead 
pi Btomdir (4, 15), &c. 

The bulk of the work appears to have proceeded from one author; 
some additions were made afterwards. As regards the materials which 
our author, whom we may (with Sayana in various places of his com- 
mentary) call the Aitareya Risi, that is, the Risi of the Aitareya 
/Sakha of the Rigveda, used for the compilation of his work, we can 
principally distinguish four kinds, viz. (!) Sacred texts and formulas, 
rsuch as the Adhrigu Praisa mantra (2, 6, 7), the Nivid (2, 34), &c., 
X70l- which are, as we have seen, more ancient than the majority of the 
jhymns; 2} Gdthd, i. e. stanzas, principally impromptus on sacrificial 
things, and topics of a more wordly nature, and. Itihdsas, i.e. stories ; (3) 
Rules on the performance of the duties of the Hotripriests ; (4) Theological 
expositions of the meaning of mantras, sacred rites, &c., according to 
the teaching of the most eminent Brahm^ priests who preceded our 

These materials were worked together by him, but not without 
many additions of his own, and with the view to present to the foUowera 
of his ^akha a kind of encyclopedias of theological learning, and a 
supplement to their Veda. The theology of his Sakha being founded 
on the hymns of the Risis, and the latter being repeated by the Hotri- 
priests only at the sacrifices, he confined himself for the most part to 
the speculations of the Hotris and their duties. The aim of our author 
was like that of all other Brahmana compilers, a double one, viz. to 

• The phrase is always elliptical ; it is only xja enam hruydt, if any one should tell 
him ; but the meaning of the whole phrase is only that one which is here (and in the 
traualatiou) given. 


Berve practical as well as tbeoretical ends. From a practical point of 
view it was to be a guide to the repeaters of the mantras of the Rigveda 
in some of their most important performances ; but as regards the 
theoretical one, the author intenned to instruct them on the real ends 
of their profession, viz. to make the sacrificer, by means of the mystical 
power ascribed to the mantras, either attain to anything he might 
wish for, or if the Hotar should from some reason or other choose to 
^o so, to deprive him through the same power of his property, children, 
and [71]life. The Hotris could learn from such a book how great their 
power was as the preservers of the sacred Rik verses. Every one who 
wished to perform a sacrifice as the only means for obtaining the favour 
of the gods, was entirely given up to the hands of the Hotri-priests, 
who could do with him what they pleased. 

The mantras referred to are, for the most part, to be found in the 
Rigveda Samhita which we have at present. There are, however, 
eeveral quoted, which are not to be met with in it, whence we must 
conclude, that the Samhita of the Aitareyins belonged to a Sakha 
different from that one (the Sakala Sakha) which is at present only 
known to us. Ativalayana, in his Srauta Sutras, which are, as we have 
Been, founded on the Aitareya Brahmanam, generally supplies the text 
of those mantras which are wanting in the Samhita. Several of them 
are in the Atharvaveda Samhita, but they generally show different 
readings. In comparing both, those in the Asvalayana Sutras, and 
those in the Atharvaveda Samhita, we find that, if there is any*difference, 
the text of the Atharva is then always incorrect. It is remarkable 
that we do not only discover some relationship between the supposed 
Sakha of the Aitareyins and the Atharvaveda Samhita, but also between 
■the Aitareya and Gopatha Brahmanam. Whole kandikas of the Aitareya, 
such as those on the Vasatkara (3, 7-8) on Atiratra- (4, 5) are almost 
literally to be found in the Gopatha Brahmanam of the Atharvaveda. 

The author's own additions consisted principally [72] in critical 
remarks, recommending certain practices, and rejecting others, statement of 
reasons, why a particular rite must be performed in a particular way, and 
explanations of apparent anomalies in the ritual. The author does never, 
however, speak in the first person ; for the whole he has the appearance 
of a tradition having descended from him. He is referred to only in 
the third person by the words, taddha smdha, "this he told." The 
theologians whose opinions are either accepted or rejected, are generally 
mentioned in the third person plural by the words ''they say." Now 

and then tBey are called mahdvadah, i.e. the speakers of great thingsv 
But their real name appears to have been BrahmavddinSy i. e. the 
speakers on Brahma (theologians, divines), which term we frequently 
meet in the Taittiriya Veda (Black Yajurveda.) 

The work was, like the other Brahmanas, no doubt, like the Saihhita, 
orally handed down. Some external mark is still visible. At the end 
of each Adhyaya the last word, or phrase, is put twice. The same 
fact we observe in all other Brahmanas as well as in the Sutras. This 
was evidently a mark for the repeater as well as the hearer by which 
to recognise the end of a chapter, each of which formed a little treatise 
for itself. 

Regarding the repetition of the Brahmanam we have to remark, 
that it is done in a very slow tone, but quite monotonously, whilst 
the Brahmanas of the Yajurveda are recited with the proper accents, 
like the Samhitas. Of very frequent occurrence in it is the pluti i.e. 
the lengthening of a vowel to [73] three moras marked by ^. This Pluti 
is used in three cases, (1) to ask a question, {2} to deliberate or consider 
whether a thing should be done or not, and (3) to give some emphasis 
to a certain word. In the two first cases it expresses exactly the idea 
of our sign of interrogation, in the latter that of our underlining or 
italicising of certain important words. 

Let us make before we conclude some remarks on the principal 
sacrificial and theological ideas (as far as they have not been, touched 
already) which pervade the Aitareya Brahmanam. 

The sacrifice is regarded as the means for obtaining power over this 
and the other world, over visible as well as invisible beings, animate as 
well as inanimate creatures. Who knows its proper application, and 
has it duly performed, is in fact looked upon as the real master of the 
world; for any desire he may entertain, if it be even the most ambitious, 
can be gratified, any object he has in view can be obtained by means, of 
it. The Yajna, (sacrifice) taken as a whole is conceived to be a kind of 
machinery, in which every piece must tally with the other, or a sort of 
large chain in which no link is allowed to be wanting, or a staircase, by 
which one may ascend to heaven, or as a personage, endowed with all 
the characteristics of a human body. It exists from eternity, and preced- 
ed from the Supreme Being (Prajapati or Brahma) along with the Trai- 
vidyd, i. e. the three-fold sacred science fthe Rik verses, the Sanians or 
chants, and the Yajus or sacrificial formulas). Tlie creation of the world 
[74] itself was even regarded as the fruit of sacrifice perfoimed by the 


Supreme Being. The YajSa exists as an invisible thing at all times, it is 
like the latent power of electricity in an electrifying machine, requiring 
only the operation of a suitable apparatus in order to be elicited. It is 
supposed to extend, when unrolled, from the Ahavaniya or sacrificial 
fire into which all oblations are thrown, to heaven, forming thus a bridge 
or ladder, by means of which the sacrificer can communicate with th^ 
world of gods and spirits, and even ascend when alive to their abodes. 
The term for beginning the sacrificial operations is "to spread the sacri- 
fice ;" this means that the invisible thing, representing the ideal sacri- 
fice which was lying dormant, as it were, is set into motion, in conse- 
quence of which its several parts or limbs are unfolding themselves, and 
thus the whole becomes extended. This ideal sacrifice stands in the 
closest relationship with all the sacrificial implements, the sacrificial place, 
and all the sacred verses and words spoken during its actual perfor- 
mance. The sacrifice being often represented as a kind of being with 
a body like that of men, certain ceremonies form his head, others his 
neck, others his eye, &c. The most important thing at a sacrifice is that 
all its several parts should tally together, and that consequently there 
should neither anything be in excess, nor deficient in it. This agreeing 
of the several parts of the sacrifice constitutes its rupa i. e. form. The 
proper form is obtained, when the mantras which are repeated are in 
[75] strictest accordance with the ceremony for which they are repeated, 
or (if the sacrifice lasts for sesreral or many days) when they have the cha- 
racteristics of the respective days. If the form is vitiated, the whole 
sacrifice is lost. Mistakes being, on account of the so extremely com^ 
plicated ritual, unavoidable, the sacrificial being was to be attended by a 
physician in the person of the Brahma priest (5, 34). Each mistake mu^ 
be made good by a prdyakchitta, i.e. penance, or propitiatory offering. 

The power and significance of the Hotri-priests at a sacrifice 
consists in their being the masters of the sacred word, which is fre- 
quently personified by Vdehi.e. Speech, who is indentical with Sara^- 
vati, the goddess of learning in the latter Hindu Pantheon. Speech 
has, according to the opinion of the earliest Hindu divines, the 
power of vivifying and killing. The sacred words pronounced by the 
Hotar effect, by dint of the innate power of Vach, the spiritual birth of 
the sacrificer, form his body, raise him up to heaven, connect him with 
the prototypes of those things which he wishes to obtain (such as children, 
cattle, &c.) and make him attain to his full life term, which is a 
hundred years ; but they are at the same time a weapon by means of 
which the sacrificer's enemies, or he himself (if the Hotar have any evil 


designs against him) can be killed, and all evil consequences of sin (this 
is termed pApman) be destroyed. The power and effect of Speech as 
regards the obtaining of any particular thing wished for, mainly lies in 
the form in which it is uttered. Thence [761 the great importance of the 
metres, and the choice of words and terms. Each metre is the invisible 
master of something obtainable in this world ; it is, as it were, its ex- 
ponent, and ideal. This great significance of the metrical speech is 
derived from the number of syllables of which it consists ; for each 
thing has, (just as in the Pythogorean system) a certain numerical pro- 
portion. The Gayatri metre, which cansists of three times eight syllables, 
is the most sacred, and is the proper metre for Agni, the god of fire, 
and chaplain of the gods. It expresses the idea of Brahma ; therefore 
the sacrificer must use it when he wishes for anything closely connected 
with the Brahma, such as acquirement of sacred knowledge, and the 
thorough understanding of all problems of theology. The Tristubh, which 
'Consists of four times eleven syllables, expresses the idea of strength, and 
royal power ; thence it is the proper metre by which Indra, the king of 
the gods, is to be invoked. Any one wishing to obtain strength and 
royal power, 'principally a Ksattriya, must use it. A variety of it 
the Usnih metre of twenty-eight syllables, is to be employed by a 
sacrificer who aspires for longevity, for twenty-eight is the symbol of 
life. The Jagati, a metre of forty-eight syllable, expresses the idea of 
cattle. Any one who wishes for wealth in cattle, must use it. The same 
idea (or that of the sacrifice) is expressed by the Paftkti metre (five times 
eight syllables). The Brihati, which consists of thirty-six syllables, is 
to be used when a sacrificer is aspiring to fame and renown for this metre 
is the exponent [77] of those ideas. The Anustubh metre, of thirty-two, 
syllables, is the symbol of the celestial world ; thence a candidate for a 
place in heaven has to use it. The Viraj of thirty syllables, is food and 
satisfaction ; thence one who wishes for plenty of food, must employ it. 

The words contained in these different metrical forms must always 
be appropriate to the occasion. If the oblation is given to Agni, the verse 
repeated must contain his name, or an allusion to it ; were it to contain 
the name of Indra, or one of his characteristics, the offering would be 
thrown away. Every act, even the most trifling one, is at the sacrificial 
performance accompanied with mantras, and always such a verse is to be 
chosen as contains (or is made to contain by interpretation) an allusion to 
it. This will all be clear to the reader on reference, for instance, to 2, 2, 
where the mantras connected with every particular act of the ceremony of 
anointing and erecting the sacrificial post is given. 


Of almost equal importance with the metres are the so-called 
Stomas, based also on numerical proportions. Each Stoma contains a 
certain number of verses, chanted according to one and the same tune. 
The number is very often obtained only by frequent repetition of the same 
triplet of verses (see about the particulars of the Stomas note 18 on 
pages 237-38 of the translation). Each has, just as the metres, its peculiar 
symbolical meaning. The Trivrit (nine-fold) stoma, is, for instance, the 
symbol of Brahma, and the theological wisdom, and has Agni, the house- 
priest of the gods, for its deity : the Painchadasa (fifteen-fold) is the £781 
symbol of royal power and thence appropriate to Indra, and the Ksat- 
triyas : the Saptadas^a (seventeen-fold) is the exponent of wealth in cattle ; 
thence a Vai^ya should use it, or any other sacrificer who wishes to obtain 
wealth : the Ekavimsa-Uwenty-one-fold) is the symbol of generation : 
thence it is principally to be used at the third libation,, many rites of 
which refer to the propagation of progeny. The other Stomas, such as 
the Trimva (twenty-seven fold), Trayastrirhs'a (thirty- three-fold), &c., 
have a similarly symbolical meaning. 

Besides the Stomas, the so-called Pristhas (the name of certain 
Samans and their combinations) are a necessary requisite at all the Soma 
sacrifices. They form the centre of all the ceremonies, and the principal 
one of them is always regarded as the womb (yoni) of the sacrificial 
being. They are generally only used at the midday libation. The two 
principal Pristhas are the Rathantara and Brihat Samans (abhitva. suva 
no7iuma, and tvdmiddhi havdmahe). They can be used singly, or along 
with one of their kindred (see notes 29 on page 193, 14 on page 282» 
and 4, 28). The name Piistha means " back," for they are regarded on 
the whole as the back of the sacrifice. 

All these things, metres (chhandas), Stomas and Pristhas, are 
believed to be as eternal and divine, as the words themselves they 
contain. The earliest Hindu divines did not only believe in a pri- 
mitive revelation of the words of the sacred texts, but even in 
that of the various forms, which might be used for their repetition 
or chanting. These forms along with their contents, [79] the everlasting 
Veda words, are symbols expressive of things of the invisible world, 
and in several respects comparable to the Platonic ideas. They are 
in the hands of the sacrificial priests the instruments for accomplish- 
ing anything they might wish for in behalf of the sacrificer. But a 
great deal depends upon the way of using those spiritual instruments. It 
is a matter of importance whether a mantra is repeated without stopping, 


or pAda by pMa (quarter by quarter), or half verse by half verse. The 
four feet (padas), of which many metres are composed, represent the four 
feet of animals. The repetition of such a verse, half verse by half verse, 
that is, vrith two stops only, represents the sacrificer who as a human 
being, has two legs. By thus combining the ideas of four and two-footed 
beings, the sacrificer is mystically placed amidst cattle, and obtains 
them, in future, in the largest quantity. Another important point is, 
whether the mantra is repeated upamsu, i.e. with an almost inaudible 
voice, or titjrzim, i.e. silently, or with a low and slow voice {mandrasvara), 
or with a middle tone [madhyama)^ or very loud {uttama). (See 3, 44). 

Among the large number of the sacred words, there are always some 
which have a destructive quality, and must, therefore, be used with great 
caution. In order to protect the sacrificer, as well as himself, from the 
dangerous effects of such words, the repeater must, by means of certain 
other words, or formulas, deprive them of their destructive power, and 
thus propitiate them. This is generally called sdnti [80] (propitiation, 
appeasing). Such dangerous words are for instance, vciusat (see 3, 8) and 
rudra, the name of ^iva, the god of destruction (3, 34). 

Tlie sacrificer, who is the object of all these mystical operations on 
the part (of the priests) by means of their mantras, chants, and manual 
labour, is not allowed to remain inactive, but he himself has to repeat 
certain mantras, expressive of his desires. When, for instance, the Hotar 
is performing the mystical operation of placing him among cattle, he 
must say, " May I become rich in cattle ! " When the same priest makes 
a firm standing -place (a, pratii^thd) ior him, he must say, "May I goto 
my place ! " Thus he obtains the fulfilment of any desire which might 
be obtainable by means of a particular verse or mode of repeating, or 
chant, or performance of a particular rite, when he repeats the appro- 
priate formula at the right time and occasion. For what he himself 
speaks, connects him with the ideals of his wishes, which are brought 
within his grasp by the priest. 

The objects sacrificed for are manifold, viz. offspring, cattle, wealth, 
fame, theological learning, skill for performance of sacrifices, and heaven. 
For gaining heaven a Soma sacrifice is indispensable. For the sacred 
Soma juice has, according to the opinions of the ancient Hindu theo- 
logians, pre-eminently the power of uniting the sacrificer on this earth 
with the celestial king Soma, and make him thus one of his subjects, and 
consequently an associate of the gods, and an inhabitant of the celestial 

.- f 




{The Diksayjiiya I^ti, with the Initiatory Rites.) 


Agyii, among the gods, has the lowest,* Visnu the highest, place ; 
between them stand all the other deities. 

* Sayana, whom M. Miiller follows in his translation of the first six chapters of 
the first book, as given in his " History of Ancient Samskrit Literature" (pages 
390-405), explains the words avama and parama by " first " and '' last." To prove this 
meaning to be the true one, Sayana adduces the mantra (1,4. As'val. fer. S. 4, 2), agnir 
viukliam prathamo devatdndm samgatdndm uttamo Vi§'iur dsit, i.e., Agni was the first 
of the deities assembled, (and) Visnti the last. In the Kausitaki-Brahmanam (7, 1) 
Agni is called auarard/iya (instead of auama), and Visnu pa7*drdJiya (instead of pa j-a ma), 
i.e., belonging to the lower and higher halves (or forming the lower and higher 
halves). That the meaning "first" cannot be reasonably given to the word avama, one 
may learn from some passages of the Rigveda Satphita, where avayna and purama are 
not applied to denote rank and dignity, but only to mark place and locality. See 
nigveda 1,108,9,10: avamasijdm prithivydm, madhyamasydm, parumasyam uta, i.e., in 
the lowest place, the middle (place), and the highest (place). Agni, the fire, has, among 
the gods, the lowest place ; for he resides with man on the earth ; while the other 
gods are either in the air, or in the sky. Vl?nu occupies, of all gods, the highest 
place ; for he represents (in the Rigveda) the sun in its daily and yearly course. In 
its daily course it reaches the highest point in the sky, when passing the zenith on 
the horizon ; thence Vi^ 7 11 is called the " highest " of the gods. SSyana understands 
"first " and ** last " in reference to the respective order of deities in the twelve 
liturgies (Sc'istra) of the Soma day at the Agnhtoma sacrifice. For, says he, " The 
first of these liturgies, the so-called Ajya-So-ftra (see 2, 31), belongs to Agni. and in 
the last out of the twelve, in the so-called Agimmdruta bdstra (see 3, 32-38), there is 
one verse addressed to Visnu. But this argument, advanced by Sajana, proves 
nothing for his opinion that "Agni is the first, and Visnu [2] the last deity;" for 
these twelve liturgies belong to the fifth day of the Agnistoma sacrifice, whilst the 
Diksaijiya-is^i, in connection with which ceremony the Brahmauara makes the remark 

121 They offer * the Agni-Visnu rice-calje {Puroddsa) ' which belongs 
to the Diki^aTjiya isti fand put its 13] several parts) on eleven potsherds 

" agnir vai deodndm avamo," &c., forms part, of the first day. The ceremonies of the 
first and those of the fifth day have no connection with one another. 

Equally inconclusive are two other arguments brought forward by Sflyana. The 
one is, that in all the constituent parts of the Jyoti?toma sacrifice, of which the 
Agnistoma is the opening, the first place is assigned to Agni, and the last to Visnu, 
and that the last Stotra (performance of the Sama singers), and the last Sdstra 
(performance of the Hotri-priests), in the last part of that great cycle of sacrifices (the 
Jyoti-- toma), known by the name of Aptorydma, are devoted to Visnu. The other 
argument is, that Agni is worshipped in the first, or Dik§aniya isti, and that the Vdjasa- 
neyins (the followers of the so-called White Yajurveda) use, instead of the last Isti (the 
avaadniyd), the Piirndhiiti to Visnu. 

Both arguments prove only, that the ceremonies commenced with the deity who is 
on earth, that is, Agni, and ended with that one who occupies the highest place in 
heaven. Though, from a liturgical point of view, Sayana's opinion might be correct, 
yet he does not state any reason why the first place in certain invocations is assigned 
to Agni, and the last to Visnu. But the translation "lowest and highest," as given 
here, does not only account for the liturgical arrangement, but states the proper reason 
of such an order besides. That these terms are really applicable to both respective 
deities, Agni and Visnu, and that the words avama and parama actually convey such 
meaning, has been shown above. 

' The term of the original is, nirvapanti (from vap, to strew, to sow). This expres- 
sion, which very frequently occurs in liturgical writings of all kinds, means, originally, 
"to take some handfuls of dry substances (such as grains) from the heap in which they 
are collected, and put them into separate vessel." It is used in a similar sense of 
liquids also. Sayana restricts the meaning of this common sacrificial term somewhat 
too much. He says, that it means " to take four handf uls of rice from the whole load 
■which is on the cart, and throw them into the winnowing basket (Siirpa)." In this 
passage, he further adds, the term means the bringing of that offering the preparation 
of which begins with this act of taking four handfuls from the whole load. Sayana 
discusses the meaning of the form " nirvapanti " which is in the present tense, and 
in the plural number. Referring to a parallel in the "Black Yajurveda," agndvaia>iavam 
ekadasakapdlam nirvdped dikshyamdnah, where the potential (jiiruapet) is used instead 
of the present tense of (nirvapanti), and to a rule of Panini (3, 4, 7,) [3] which teachers 
that the conjunctive (Let) can have the meaning of the potential, he takes it in the 
sense of a conjunctive, implying an order. The plural instead of the singular is 
accounted for the supposition, that in the Vedic language the numbers might be inter- 
changed. But the whole explanation is artificial. 

» The principal food of the gods at the so-called Istis is the puroddsa. 1 here 
give a short description of its preparation, which I myself have witnessed. The 
Adhvaryu takes rice which is husked and ground (ptsfa), throws it into a vessel of 
copper {maduuti), kneads it with water, and gives the whole mass a globular shape. 
He then places this dough on a piece of wood to the Ahavaniya fire (the fire into 
which the oblations are thrown), in order to cook it. After it is half cooked, he takes 
it off, gives it the shape of a tortoise, and places the whole on eleven potsherds 
{kapdlas). To complete cooking it, he takes Darbha grass, kindles it and puts it on 
the Purodasa. After it is made ready, he pours melted butter over it and puts the 
ready dish in the so-called Iddpatra, which is placed on the Vedi, where it remains 
till it is sacrificed. 

{hapdla). They offer it (the rice-cake) really to all the deities of this 
(Isti) without foregoing any one. * For Agni is all the deities, and 
Visnu is all the deities. For these two (divine) bodies, Agni and 
Visnu, are the two ends ^ of the sacrifice. Thus when they portion 
out the Agni-Visnu rice-cake, they indeed make at the end ® (after the 
ceremony is over) prosper ' (all) the gods of this (ceremony). 

[4] Here they say : if there be eleven potsherds on which portions of 
the rice-cake are put, and (only) two deities, Agni and Visnu, what 
arrangement is there for the two, or what division ? 

(The answer is) The rice-cake portions on eight potsherds belong 
to Agni ; for the Gdyatri verse consists of eight syllables, and tbe Odyatri 
is Agni's metre. The rice-cake portions on the three potsherds belong 
to Visnu ; for Visnu (the sun^ strode thrice through, the universe- ' 
This the arrangement (to be made) for them ; this the division. 

* Anantarayam : literally, without any one between, without an interval, the chain 
of the gods being uninterrupted. 

' Antye. Sayana opines that this adjective here is eJtasesa, i.e., that out of two 
or more things to be expressed, only one has actually remained. It stands, as he thinks, 
instead of ddy^iand antyd, just as pitardu means "father and mother." (Panini, 1, 2, 70.) 

* Antatah. Say. " at the beginning and end of the sacrifice," But I doubt whether 
the term implies the beginning also. In the phrase: untatah pratitistati, which so 
frequently occurs in the Ait. Brahm., antatah means only "ultimately," at the «nd 
of a particular ceremony or rite. 

^ B-idlimivanti. Say. paric/mranti, they worship. He had, in all probability, Niglianf. 
S, 5, in view, where this meaning is given to ridhiioti. Bu^ that this word conveys 
the sense of " prospering " follows unmistakeably from a good many passages of the 
Samhita of Jligveda and Manu. (See the Samskrit Dictionary by Bohtlingk and Roth, 
s. V. ^ and Westergaard's Radices Sanscritse s, v. ^^^^ page 182.) In this passage the 
meaning " to worship," as given by Sayana, is too vague, and appears not quite appro- 
priate to the sense. On account of its governing the accusative, we must take it here in 
the sense of a transitive verb, although it is generally an intransitive one. The mean- 
ing which lies nearest, is, '' to make prosperous." At the first glance it might appea? 
somewhat curious, how men should make the gods prosperous by sacrificial offerings. 
But if one takes into consideration, that the Vedas, and particularly the sacrificial ritea 
inculcated in them, presuppose a mutual relationship between men and gods, one 
depending on the support of the other, the expression will no longer be found strange. 
Men must present offerings to the gods to increase the power and strength of their 
divine protectors. They must, for instance, inebriate Indra with Soma, that he might 
gather strength for conquering the demons. The meaning " to satisfy, to please," which 
is given to the word " ridhnuvanti " of the passage in question in Bohtlingk's and Roth's- 
Dictionary, is a mere guess, and wholly untenable,, being supported by no Brahmanik 

* This refers to the verse in the Rigveda Samhiti 1,211^,17,18 : idam Visnur vichakrame 
tredhd nidadhe padam, i.e., Visnu strode through the universe ; he put down thrice his 
foot ; and trini pada vichakrume, bestrode three steps. These |three steps of Visnu, 
who represents the sua, are : sunrise, zenith, and sunset. 

He who might think himself to have no position (not to be higUly 
respected by others) should portion out (for being offered) Gharu ' over 
which clarified £5] butter is poured. For on this earth no one-has a firm 
footing who does not enjoy a certain (high) position/" The clarified butter 
(poured over this Charu)]a the milk of the woman ; the husked rice grains 
(tandula of which Charu consists) belong to the male ; both are a pair. 
Thus the Charu on account of its consisting of a pair (of female and male 
parts) blesses him with the production of progeny and cattle, for his 
propagation (in his descendants and their property). He wJio has such 
a knowledge propagates his progeny and cattle. 

He who brings the New and Full Moon oblations, has already made 
a beginning with the sacrifice, and made also a beginning with (the sacri- 
ficial worship of the) deities. After having brought the New or Full 
Moon oblations, he may be inaugurated in consequence of the offering 
made at these (oblations) and the sacrificial grass (having been spread) at 
these (oblations, at the time of making them). This (might be regarded) 
as one Diksa (initiatory rite)." 

'Charu is boiled rice. It can be mixed with milk and butter; but it is no essential 
part. It is synonymous with odaJinm, the common term for " boiled rice." featap. BrSh. 
4, 12, 1. There were different varieties of this dish ; some being prep-ired with the 
addition of barley, or some other grains. See Taittiriya Samh. 1, 8, 10, 1. 

[5] ^° Fratiti^tati, which is here put twice, has a double sense, viz., the original 
meaning "to have a firm footing, standing," and a figurative one "to have rank, position, 
dignity." In the latter sense, the substantive pratistha is of frecxuent occurrence 
Dignity and position depend on the largeness of family, wealth in cattle, &c. 

'^ The present followers of the Vedik religion, the so-called Agnihotris, who take 
upon themselves the performance of all the manifold sacrificial rites enjoined in the 
Vedas, begin their arduous career for gaining a place in heaven, after the sacred fires 
have been established, with the regular monthly performance of the Darsa and Pwr'ji- 
rttai^ti or the New and Pull Moon sacrifices. Then they bring the Lhdtiirmasya-i^ti, 
and after this rite they proceed to bring the ^gfni.s(oma, the first and model of all Soma 
sacrifices. By the bringing of the New and Full Moon offerings, the Agnihotri is already 
initiated into the grand rites ; he is already an adept (Dffc.sifa) in it. Some of the links 
of the yajna or sacrifice which is regarded as a chain extending from this earth to heaven, 
by means of which the successful performer reaches the celestial world, the seat of the 
gods, are already established by these offerings; with the deities, whose associate the 
sacrificer wishes to become after his death, the intercourse is opened; for they have 
already received food {havih), prepared [6] according to the precepts of sacred cookery, 
at his hands, and they have been sitting on the sacred seat (barhis) prepared of the sacri- 
ficial grass {Darbha). Thence the performance of the Full and New Moon sacrifices is 
here called one Diksa, i.e„ one initiatory rite. But if the Agnihotri, who is performing 
a Soma sacrifice, is already initiated (Dirt.sita) by means of the rites just mentioned, how 
does he require at the opening of the Agiihtoma (Soma-sacrifice) the so-called Dik?aniya 
is{t, or " offering for becoming initiated " ? This question was mooted already in ancient 
times. Thence, says Asvaldyana in his Srauta sutras (4, 1), that, some are of opinion, the 
Eoma-sacriCce should be performed, in the case of the means required being forthcoming 

[6] The Hotar must recite seventeen verses for the wooden sticks to be 
thrown into the fire^^ (to feed it). For Prajdpati (the Lord of all creatures) 
is seventeenfold ; the months are twelve, and the seasons five, by putting 
Hemanta (winter) and oisira (between winter and spring) as one. So 
much is the year. The year is Prajapati. He who has such a knowledge 
prospers by these verses (just mentioned) which reside in Prajapati. 


[7^ The sacrifice went away from the gods. They wished to seek 
after it by means of the Istis. The Istis are called Istis, because they 
wished {ish, to wish) to seek after it. They found it. He who,, has such 
a knowledge prospers after he has found the sacrifice. The name 
dhutis, i.e., oblations, stands instead of dhuti, i.e., invocation ; with them 
the sacrificer calls the gods. This is (the reason) why they are called 
dhutis. They (the dhutis) are called Mis ; for by their means the gods 
come to the call of the sacrificer {dyanti, they come). Or they are the 
paths (and) ways ; for they are the ways to heaven for the sacrificer. 

There they say, as another priest (the Adhvaryu) o^ers (juhoti) the 
oblations, why do they call that one, who repeats the Anvdhyd and Ydjyd 
verses, a Hotar? (The answer is) Because he causes the deities to be 
brought near [dvahayahti], according to their place, (by saying) " bring 
this one, bring that one."^^ This is the reason why he is called a Hotar 

(the sacrifice is verj expensive), after the Full and New Moon sacrifices have been 
brought ; others opine the Soma sacrifice might be performed before the Full and New 
Moon sacrifices. No doubt, the Agnistoina was in ancient times a sacrifice wholly 
independent of the Ddrsa Purnima-istis. This clearly follows from the fact, that just 
such Istis, as constitute the Full and New Moon sacrifices, are placed at the beginning 
of the Agnistoma to introduce it. 

" These verses are called Sdmidhenis. They are only eleven in number ; but by 
repeating the first and last verses thrice, the number is brought to fifteen. They are 
mentioned in Asval. 6r. S. 1, 2.; several are t^tken from Rigveda 3, 27, as the first (p'-a vo 
vdjii abhidyavo) fourth {samidhyam'iiia) I3th, 14th, and I5th (ileiiyo) verses. Besides these 
three, Asv, mentions : agiia aydhi vitaye ^6, 16 ; 10, I2, three verses), agnim diitam vriiiimahe 
(1, 12, I.), and samiddho agnci 5, 28, 5, 6, two verses). They are repeated monotonously 
■without observing the usual three accents. The number of the sdnndhenis is generally 
stated at ^f teen ; but now and then, seventeen are mentioned, as in the case of the 
Dik^aniya i^ti. The two additional mantras are called Dhiyyi, i.e., verses toibe repeated 
■when an additional wooden stick, after the ceremony of kindling is over, is thrown into 
the fire, in order to feed it. They are mentioned in Sayaiia's commentary on the Uigveda 
Samhita, vol. II., page 762 (ed. M. Miiller). S. As'val. 4, 2, two Dhayyds at the Diksaniya isti. 
[7] *^ At every Isti, the Hotar calls the particular gods to whom rice- cake portions 
are to be presented, by their names to appear. At the Diksaniya Isti, for instance, ho 
says : agna agnim dvuha, visnum dvaha, i.e., Agni ! bring hither Agni ! bring hither Visnu. 
The name of the deity who is called near, is only muttered, whilst dvaha is pronounced 
with a loud voice, the first syllable a being pluta, i.e., containing three short a. See A«Jv. 
S'r. S. 1, 3. 

(from dvah, to bring near). He who has such a knowledge is called a 


[^8] The priests make him whom they initiate (by means of the 
Diksa ceremony) to be an embryo again (i.e., they produce him anew 
altogether). They sprinkle him with water ; for water is seed. By 
having thus provided him with seed (for his new birth), they initiate him. 
They besmear him with fresh butter {navanita). The butter for the gods 
is called djya,^^ that for men suj'abhi ghritam, that for the manes dyuta, 
and that for the embryos navanita. Therefore by anointing him with 
fresh butter, they make him thrive through his own portion. 

They besmear his eyes with coUyrium. For this anointment is 
lustre for both eyes. " By having imparted lustre to him, they make him 
a Dihsita. 

They rub him clean with twenty-one handfuls of Darbha grass. By 
having thus made pure and clean they make him a Diksita. 

They make him enter the place destined for the Diksita.^' For 
this is the womb of the Diksita. [9] When they make him enter the 
place destined for the Diksita, then they make him thus enter his own 
womb. In this (place) he sits as in a secure abode, ^^ and thence he 

^' These etymologies of isti, dhuti, uti, and liotd are fanciful and erroneous. The 
real root of isti is ydj, to sacrifice ; that of dhuti is hu, to bring an offering ; that of Mi 
is av, to protect, to assist; that of hotd is live, to call. The technical meaning of an isti 
is a series of oblations to different deities, consisting chiefly of Purodrtsa. An dhuti or 
uli, which appears to be an older name of the same idea (this meaning is quite omitted in 
the Sanscrit Dictionary by B. and R.), is an oblation offered to one deity. This oblation is 
gent^rally accompanied by two mantras, the first being called the Aniivdkya or [8] Puro- 
aniivdkya, the second Yd/yd. When the second is recited, the oblation is thrown into the 
fire by the Adhvaryu. The Hotar repeats only the mantras. 

" To remind his readers of the difference existing between djya and ghrita, Say. 
quotes an ancient versus memorialis (Kdrikd), sarpir vilinam djyam sydt ; ghanibhiitam 
ghritam viduh, i.e., they call the butter, which is in a liquid condition, dj'yd, and that one 
which is hardened is called ghrita. Ayuta is the butter when but slightly molten, and 
turahhi when well seasoned. According to the opinion of the Taittiriyas, says Sayana, the 
butttr for the gods is called ghrita, that for the manes aetu, and that for men ni.^pakva, 
Astu is the same as dyuta, slightly molten, and nispakvd, the same as dj'ya, entirely 

1'^ DikAita-vimita. It is that place which is generally called prdchina vamsa (or 
prdg-vamsa). This place is to represent the womb which the Diksita enters in the 
shape of an embryo to be born again. This is clearly enough stated in the Brahmana ot 
another Sakha, which Sayana quotes: %^ ^\'^^^^[^^^^ ^^^kTf^^^V' ^TT^^. 

[9] " Sayana takes the three ablatives— tasmad, dJirtiuad, yoner, in the sense of loca- 
tives ; but I think this interpretation not quite correct. The ablative is chosen on 
account of the verb charati, he walks, goes, indicating the point, whence he starts. The 
other verb date, he sits, would require the locative. Therefore we should expect both 

departs. Therefore the embryos are placed in the womb as a secure 
place, and thence they are brought forth (as fruit). Therefore the sun 
should neither rise nor set over him finding him in any other place than 
the spot assigned to the Diksita ; nor should they speak to him (if he 
should be compelled to leave his place). ^^ 

They cover him with a cloth. For this cloth is the caul {ulha) of the 
Diksita (with which he is to be born, like a child) ; thus they cover him 
with the caul. - Outside (this cloth) there is (put by them) the skin of a 
black antelope. For outside the caul, there is the placenta ijardyu). 
Thus they cover him (symbolically by the skin of the antelope) with the 
placenta. He closes his hands. For with closed hands the embryo lies 
within (the womb) ; with closed hands the child is bora. As he closes his 
hands, he thus holds the sacrifice, and all its deities in his two hands 

They allege as a reason (why the Diksita should close together both 
his hands) that he who takes (among two who are sacrificing on the same 
place and at the same time) his Diksa (initiation) first, is not guilty (of 
the sin) of " confusion of libations " (samsava). ^^ For his sacrifice and 
the deities are held [lol fast (in his hands) ; and (consequently) he does 
not suffer any loss like that which falls on him who performed his Diksa 

After having put off the skin of the black antelope he descends to 

Thence embryos are born after they are separated from the placenta. 
He descends to bathe with the cloth (which was put on him) on. Thence 
a child is born together with the caul. 


The Hotar ought to repeat for him who has not yet brought a 
sacrifice two Puronuvdkyd verses, tvam ague saprathd asi (Rig-veda Samhita 
5, 13, 4) for the first, and Soma yds te mayohhuvah (1, 91, 9) for the 
second portion of (the offering of) melted butter. fBy reading the third 
pada of the first verse tvayd yajnam " through thee (thy favour) they 

cases, locative and ablative. On account of conciseness, only the latter is chosen, but 
the former is then to be understood. 

" For performing, for instance, the functions of nature. — Say. 

" If two or more people offer their Soma-libations at the same time, and at places 
tvhich are not separated from one another, either by a [10] river, or by a mountain, 
then a ' samsava " or confusion of libation is caused, which is regarded as a great sin. 
He, however, who has performed his Diki-a first, and holds the gods between his hands. 
is not guilty of such a sin, and the gods will be with him.— Sdy. 


extend *° the Bacrifice, " the Hotar extends thus the sacrifice for him (who 
has not yet brought a sacrifice). 

For him who has brought a sacrifice before, the Hotar has to recite 
(two other mantras instead) : agnih pratnena manmand (8, 44, 12) and 
Soma girhhi^ tvd vayam (1, 91, 11). For by the word pratjiam, i. e., 
former (which occurs in the first verse), he alludes to the former sacrifice. 
But the recital of these verses (for a man who has performed a sacrifice, and 
for one who has not done so) may be dispensed [ll j with. Let the Hotar 
rather use the two verses which refer to the destruction of Vritra [vdr- 
tTughjia), viz., Agnir vritram janghanat (6, 16, 24), and, tvam soma asi 
satpatih (1, 91, 5). Since he whom the sacrifice approaches, destroys 
Vritra (the demon whom Indra conquers), the two verses referring to the 
destruction of Vritra are to be used. ^^ 

The AnuvdJiyd for the Agni-Visnu-offering is : Agnir muhham 
pratliamo devatdndm, the Ydjyd: agnischa Vi^no tapa.^) These two 
verses (addressed) to Agni and Vi^riu are corresponding (appropriate) 
in their form. What is appropriate in its form, is successful in the 
sacrifice; that is to say, when the verse which is recited refers to the 
ceremony which is being performed. 

(Now follows a general paraphrase of the contents of these two verses) 
Agni and Vi^nu are among the gods, the " guardians of the Dihsd " 
(that is to say), they rule over the Diksa. When they offer the Agni- 

^'' Vitanvnte. The sacrifice is regarded as a kind of chain which, when not used, lies 
rolled up; but which when being used, is, as the instrument for ascending to heaven, 
to be wound off. This winding off of the sacrificial chain is expressed by the term vitan, 
to extend. Connected with this term are the expressions vitana and vaitdiiika. 

[11] 2^ The verses mentioned here are the Puronum/cy^s, i.e., such ones as are to be 
recited before the proper A^iuvdkyd with its Yd, yd is to be repeated. The Puro-anuvdk- 
yds are introductory to the Anuvdkyd and Yd;yd. 

" Both verses are not to be found in the feakala SSkhS. of the Rig-veda, but they are 
In Asval baruta Siitras 4, 2. I put them here in their entirety : 

^^^¥|?T%§: ^f^^Ii^ ^^W^^ q^TflT'll'? v^tT?^ II 

[12] i.e., "Among the deities assembled, Agni, being at the head, was the first, and 
Visnu the last (god). Ye both, come to our offering with the Dik-a, taking (with you all) 
the gods for the sacrificer ! (i.e., come to this offering, and grant the Dikba to the sacrifi- 
cer). Agni and Visnu ! ye two strong (gods) ! burn with a great heat to the utmost (of 
your power) for the preservation of the Diksa. Joined by all the gods who participate in 
the sacrifice, grant, ye two, Dik^a to this sacrificer," Agni and Visnu, the one repre- 
senting the fire, the other the sun, are here invoked to burn the -sacrificer, by combination 
of their rays, clean, and to purify him from all gross material dross. The Dik&a should 
be made as lasting as a mark caused by branding. 

Visnu oblation, then those two who rule over the DiksS, become 
pleased, and grant Diksa, that is to say, the two makers of DlksS,, they 
both make the sacrificer a Diksita. These verses are in the Tristuhh 
metre, that the sacrificer might acquire the properties of the god Indra 
(vigour and strength). 

[12] He who wishes for beauty and acquisition of sacred knowledge 
should use at the Svistakrit^^ two verses in the Gayatri metre as his 
Sarhydjyds. For the Gayatri is beauty and sacred knowledge. He who 
having such a knowledge uses two Gayatris ^^ (at the Svistakrit) becomes 
full of beauty and acquires sacred knowledge. 

He who wishes for long life, should use two verses in the U^ih 
metre ; for Usnih is life. He who having such a knowledge uses two 
Usnihs ^ arrives at his full age {i.e., 100 years). 

He who desires heaven, should use two Anustuhhs. There are 
sixty-four syllables in two Anustubhs. ^® Each of these three worlds 
(earth, air, and sky) contains twenty-one places, one rising above the 
[13] other (just as the steps of a ladder). By twenty-one steps he ascends 
to each of these worlds severally ; " by taking the sixty-fourth step he 
stands firm in the celestial world. He who, having such a knowledge, 
uses two Anustubhs, gains a footing (in the celestial world). 

He who desires wealth and glory, should use two Brihatis. For among 
the metres the Brihati ^^ is wealth and glory. He who, having such a 
knowledge, uses two Brihatis, bestows upon himself wealth and glory. 

He who loves the sacrifice should use two Pafiktis}^ For the sacrifice 
is like a Pafikti. It comes to him who having such a knowledge uses two 

He who desires strength should use two Tristubhs.^" Tristubh is 
strength, vigour, and sharpness of senses. He who knowing this, uses 
two Tristubhs, becomes vigorous, endowed with sharp senses and strong. 

'3 The Svistakrit is that part of an offering which is given to all gods indiscrimi- 
nately, after the principal deities of the respective I.sti (in the Diksdniya Isti, these 
deities are Agni, Soma, and Agni-Visnu) have received their share. The two mantras 
required for tha Syi.stafcrit are called Samydjyd. On account of the general nature 
of this offering, the choice of the mantras is not so much limited as is the case when 
the offering is to be given to one particular deity. 

" They are, sa havyavdl amartyah (3, 11, 2), and Agnir hotd piiroliifah (3, 11, 1). 

" They are, ague vi/asya gomatali (I, 79, 4), and sa idhdno vams liavih (1, 79, 5). 

" Tvam ague vastin (I, 45, 1. 2). 
[13] " This makes on the whole 63 steps. 

" They are, ena vo agjiim (7, 16, 1), and udasya sochih (7, 16, 8). 

" Agnim tam\manye (5, 6, 1. 2). 

*" Doe viritpe charathah (1. 95, 1, 2). 


He who desires cattle should use two Jagatis (verses in the Jagati 
metre).^^ Cattle are Jagati-like. He who knowing this, uses two Jagatis, 
becomes rich in cattle. 

He who desires food (annadya) should use two verses in the Virdj 
metre.^^ Virdj is food. Therefore he who has most of food, shines {vi- 
rdjati) most on earth. This is the reason why it is called virdj (from vi-rdj, 
to shine). He who knows this, shines [14] forth among his own people, 
(and) becomes the most influential man among his own people. 


The Virdj metre possesses five powers. Because of its consisting of 
three lines (pddas), it is Gayatri and Usriil} (which metres have three 
lines also). Because of its lines consisting of eleven syllables, it is Tris- 
tubh (4 times 11 syllables = 44). Because of its having thirty-three syllables, 
it is Anustuhh. (If it be said, that the two Viraj verses in question, i.e., 
preddho agne and imo ague have, the one only 29, and the other 32 syl- 
lables, instead of 33, it must be borne in mind that) metres do not change 
by (the want of) one syllable or two^^. The fifth power is, that it is Virdj. 

He who knowing this, uses (at the Svistakrit) tvs^o Viraj verses, ob- 
tains the power of all metres, gains the power of all metres, gains union, 
uniformity, and (complete) unison with all the metres.^* 

Therefore two Viraj verses are certainly to be used, those (which 
begin with) agne preddho (7, 1, 3), and imo agne {7, 1, 18). 

Diksa is right,. Diksa is truth ; thence a Diksita should only speak the 

Now they say, what man can speak all truth ? Gods (alonej are full 
of truth, (but) men are full of falsehood. 

[15] He should make each address (to another) by the word, " vichak- 
sarTLOb" i.e., " of penetrating eye." The eye (chaksus) is vichaksaria, for with 
it he sees distinctly [vi-pa'syati). For the eye is established as truth among 
men. Therefore people say to a man who tells something, 'Hast thou seen 
it ?' {i.e., is it really true ?) And if he says, "I saw it," then they believe 

2' They are, janasya gopd (5, 11, 1, 2). 

*' They are, preddho agne (7, 1,S), and imo ague (7,1,18). 

[14"] '* In the first verse quoted, there are even 4 syllables less than required. The 
Brahmanam is not very accurate in its metrical discussion. The Anustubh has 32 sylla- 

** The meaning is, by using two Viraj verses which contain the principal metres, 
he obtains collectively all those boons which each of the several metres is capable of 
bestowing upon him who uses them. So the Gayatri, for instance, grants beauty and 
sacred knowledge, the Tristubh strength, &c. (See above). The metres are regarded as 
deities. He who employes them becomes pervaded, as it were, by them, and participates 
in all their virtues and properties. 


him. And if one sees a thing himself, one does not believe oth 

if they were many. Therefore he should add (always) to his 

(to others) the word mchaksana,^^ " of penetrating, sharp eyes." 'in^.^ 

the speech uttered by him becomes full of truth. 


Prdyar^iya Isti. 

The Prdyariiya isti has its name *' prdyariiya^'^ from the fact that 
by its means the sacriBcers approach heaven (from pra-yd, going forward). 
The prdyariiya [16 jceremony is the air inhaled (pi'dna), whereas the iida- 
yaniya, i.e.. concluding ceremony (of the whole sacrifice) is the air exhaled. 
The Hotar (who is required at both ceremonies) is the common hold of both 
the airs (samdna). Both the air inhaled and exhaled are held together 
(in the same body). (The performance of both ceremonies, the prdyaniya 
and udayaniya are intended) for making the vital airs, and for obtaining 
a discriminating knowledge of their several parts iprdvLa, uddna, dce.f 

The sacrifice (the mystical sacrificial personage) went away from the 
gods. The gods were (consequently) unable to perform any further cere- 
mony. They did not know where it had gone to. They said to Aditi : 
Let us know the sacrifice through thee ! Aditi said : Let it be so ; but I will 
choose a boon from you. They said : Choose ! Then she chose this boon : 
all sacrifices shall commence with me, and end with me. Thence there 
is at (the beginning of) ihe prdyaniya isti a Charu-ofPering for Aditi, 

[15] ". This explanation of the term vichaksana refers to the offering of two parts 
of melted butter (See chapter 4, page 10), which *are called c?iofes?jsf, i,e., two eyes. The 
sacrificer obtains in a symbolical way new eyes by their means to view all things in the 
right way. The Dife.sita ought to use the terra mc/iafcsaua after the name of the person 
who is addressed ; for instance, 'Devadatta FicJiafegaim, bring the cow.' According to 
Apastamba, this term should be added only to the names of a Ksatriya and Vais'ya ad- 
dressed; in addressing a Br&hmana, the expression clianasita should be used instead.— Say. 

^ I^Jll^^'I S The masculine is here used, instead of the feminine, ^s^'f^?!^ : is, as S&j. 
justly remarks, to be supplied. The common name of this ceremony is Prdrjaniija isti. 
The Brahmanam here attempts at giving an explanation of the terms prdyaniya and 

[16] ^ The Prayaniya ceremony is here regarded as the proper commencement of the 
iya/«a; for the Dikhaniy a i^ti is only introductory to it. The beginning is compared to 
thepraiia and the ned to the uddna, both which vital airs are held together by the 
samdna. The Brahmana mentions here only three prdnas or vital airs. Two others, vydna 
and upona, are omitted. This mystical explanation can be only understood if one bears in 
mind that the yafna or sacrifice itself is regarded as a spiritual man who shares all 
properties of the natural man. 


and the same offering is given to her as the boon chosen by her at the 
end (of the sacrifice). Then she chose this (other) boon. Through 
me you shall know the eastern direction, through Agni the southern, 
through Soma the western, and through Savitar the northern direction. 
TheHotar repeats the (Anuvakya and) Yajyd-mantra for the Pathyd} [17]| 
Therefore the sun -rises in the east and sets in the west ; for it follows in 
its course the Pathyd. He repeats the (Anuvakya and) Yajya verse for 

That is done because cereals first ripen in southern countries ^ (for 
Agni is posted at the southern direction) ; for cereals are Agni's. He 
repeats the {Anuvdkyd and) Ydjyd^ for Soma. That is done, because many 
rivers flow towards the west (to fall into the sea), and the waters are 
Soma's. He repeats the {Anuvdkyd and) Ydjyd ' mantra for Savitar. 
That is done, because the wind (pavamdnaJ}) blows most from the north 
between the northern and western directions ; it thus blows moved by 

He repeats the (Anuvdkyd and) Ydjyd ^ mantra [18} for Aditi, who is 
the upper region.^" This is done, because the sky {asdu) wets the earth with 
rain (and) dries it up (which is done from above). He repeats (Anuvdkyd 
and) Ydjyd verses for five deities. The sacrifice is five-fold. All (five) 

• The two verses addressed to Pathyd are Rigveda 10, 63, 15, 16, svastir nah 
pathydsu (see Nirukti 11, 45). These verses are mentioned in As'val. 6r. 8(i, 4, 3. 
The word ya'ati is an abbreviation [17] for anvhda yajaticha, i.e., he repeats the 
AnuvabyS, (first) and Yajyft (second) mantra when an offering is given. Say. notes 
from another Sdkha the passage : q«:qf ^^f^ 'T^T^ STT^^'t^^ ^HTT f^ 5r3rT5TT% I 
i.e., he (the Hotar) recognises the eastern direction by repeating the Ydjya verse 
addressed to Pathyd Svasti, i.e., well-being when making a journey, safe pas- 
sage. According to Sayana, Pathyd is only another name of Aditi. She repre- 
sents here the line which connects the point of sunrise with that of sunset. 

* These are, ague naya supathd 1, 189, 1, and a devdndm api panthdm 10, 2, S. 

' S4y. states that in the north of the ViudhyS mountains chiefly barley and wheat 
are cultivated, which ripen in the months of Magha and Phdlgnna (February and March), 
whilst in the countries south from the Yindhya (i.e., in the Dekkhan) rice prevails, 
which ripens in the months of Kartika and Margasirsa (November and December). 

' They are : tvam soma prachikito, 1, 91, 1, and yd te dhdmdni divi 1, 81, 4, 
See 1, 9. Asv. Sr. S. 4, 3. 

' They are : a visvadevam satpatim 5, 82, 7, and ya imd viivd jdtdni 5, 82, 9. 

' say. explains Savitar as, 3"^^!^^: a moving, inciting god. 

* These are suti'dmdtiam prithivim 10, 63, 10, and mahim u ?m mdtaram. Atharva 
Veda 7, 6, 2. 

[18] *° SSy. explains uttamd, by urdhvd, referring to a passage of the Taittiriya Veda : 
^T^?IT^% ( 5r5IHT?^ )• There is no doubt, the word can mean the upper region, but one 
would not be qu-te wrong in translating here the word by " last." For Aditi is here the 
last deity invoked. 

1 •> 

Jo / 

directions are fthus) established ; " and the sacrifice becomes also estab- 

^ lished. It becomes established for such people (only) with whom there is 

tv Hotar having this knowledge (to separate and mark the regions in this 



He who wishes for beauty and acquirement of sacred knowledge, 
should turn towards the east when making the offerings for the Praydja 
deities. ^^ For the eastern direction is beauty and sacred knowledge. 
He who having this knowledge turns eastward (when making the 
Prayajas) obtains beauty and sacred knowledge. 

He who wishes for food, should turn towards the south when making 
the offerings for the Prayaja deities. For Agni (who is posted at the 
southern direction) is the eater of food, and master of food. He who 
having this knowledge goes towards the south (when making the 
Prayajas) becomes an eater [19] of food, a master of food; he obtains 
nourishment along with offspring. 

He who desires cattle, should go towards the west when making the 
Prayaja offerings. Fgr cattle are the waters (which are in the western 
direction). He who having such a knowledge goes westwards becomes 
rich in cattle. 

He who desires the drinking of the Soma, should go towards the 
north when making the Praynja offerings. For the northern direction is 
the king Soma. He who having such a knowledge goes northwards 
(when making the Prayajas) obtains the drinking of the Soma. 

The upper direction {urdhvd) leads to heaven. He who performs the 
Prayaja offerings when standing in the upper direction ^^ becomes success- 
ful in all directions. For these (three) worlds are linked together. They 
being in such a condition shine for the welfare of him who has such a 

He repeats the Yajya for the Pathyd,}* By doing so, he places 

1' The fifth direction is * tirdlivd,' above. " The directions are established, " means 
the directions which were previously not to be distinguished from one another, are 
now separated and may be known. 

" They are formulas addressed to the following deities : samidh, the wooden sticks 
thrown into the fire ; ta?i«iiapdt, a name of Agni ; ida, the sacrificial food; harhis, the 
kusa grass spread over the sacrificial ground ; and svcfhdkdra, the call svdiw I at the 
end of Ydjyd verses. See As'va. k.r. S. 1, 5. 

^* That is, in the middle of the north and west of the Ahavanlya fire. 

" This refers to the words : h q^TTTt (i-e., we who worship) TWjf ^af^cf which are 
repeated by the Hotar, after the Anui'okyd is over, and before the commencement of the 
proper Yajy& verse. These words are introductory to the latter. Before all YAjyi 
verses (as is generally done), the words ^'?I3fTrr^ with the nam© of the respective deity 
are to be tonnd.—Saptahdutra. 

speech (represented by Pathyd) at the beginning of the sacrifice. The 
breath (coming out of the mouth and the nostrils) is Agni ; the breath 
(being within the mouth and nostrils) is Soma. Savitar is to set into 
motion (the ceremonial machioery), and Aditi is to establish a firm footing. 
When he repeats a Yajya to Pathya, then he carries the sacrifice on its 
path. Agni and Soma verily are the two eyes ; Savitar serves for moving 
it, and Aditi for establishing a firm footing (to it). For through the [203 
eye the gods got av^are of the sacrifice. For what is not perceivable 
(elsewhere) is to be perceived by the eye. If any one even after having 
run astray gets aware (of any thing) by exerting his eye successively ^^ 
(in consequence of the successive exertions of the faculty of. seeing), then 
he (really) knows it. When the gods (were exerting their eyes repeated- 
ly, and looking from one object to the other) they got sight of the 
sacrifice. Thus they got sight of it on this earth ; on the earth (therefore) 
they acquired the implements (required for performing the sacrifice). On 
her (the earth) the sacrifice is spread ; on her it is performed ; on her the 
sacrificial implements are acquired. This earth is Aditi ; therefore the 
last Yajya verse repeated is addressed to her. This is done (in order to 
enable the sacrificer) to get aware of the sacrifice (the mystical sacrificial 
man) and to behold afterwards the celestial world. 


They say, the gods should be provided with Vaisyas '^ (agricul- 
turists and herdsmen). For if [21] the gods are provided with them, men 

[21] " Ami^tyd is explained by Say. : *??Tf^ Jl^^f^^m. It no doubt, literally means, 
one standing by the other, one after the other. The substantive anusthdna is the 
most general word for performance of a religious ceremony, being a succession of 
several acts. The meaning given to the word in Bohtlingk and Roth's Samskrit Dic- 
tionary (I. page 124) "with his own eyes," is nothing but a bad guess unsupported by 
any authority and contrary to etymology and usage. The phrase annstijd prajandti 
properly means, he gets aware of the chief object after having got sight of an inter- 
mediate one which alone leads to the first. The sacrificer whose principal object is to 
reach heaven, must first see the medium by means of which he can ascend to the 
celestial world. This is the sacrifice. Therefore h^ first sees the sacrifice and then he 
casts a glance at the celestial world. A traveller who has run astray, must first 
recognise the direction, and then he may find the way to his homely village. 

" According to Sayana, the word visuh may convey two meanings : 1. a subject in 
general; 2, men of the Vais'ya caste. I prefer the latter meaning. The Vaisyas are to 
provide gods and men with food and [21] wealth. They are here evidently regarded as 
the subjected population. The gods are, as Say. states with reference to the creation 
theory of the Vajasaneyins, divided into four castes, just as men. Agni and Brihaspati 
are the Brahmans among the gods ; Iiidru, Varwia, Soma, the UndraR, Par/anya, Yuma 
Mrityii are the Ksatriyas ; Ga-.ies'a, the Vasus, the Rudrus, the Adityas, Visvedevas and 
Marntas are the Vaisyas, and Pwsou belongs to tbeiSudra caste. 


subsequently obtain tbem also. If all Vaii^yas (to furnisb tbe necessary 
supplies) are in readiness, then tbe sacrifice is prepared. It is pre- 
pared for that family in tbe midst of wbicb there is a Hotar who has this 
knowledge (and makes provision accordingly). 

(Tbe gods are provided for vfith Vaij^yas by the recital of tbe 
verse, svastinali yathyasu : ^'' 10, 63, 15), "0 Maruts ! grant us in the 
desert tracks prosperity (by providing us with water) ; grant us 
prosperity (by abundance) in waters in a desolated region over which 
the sky shines ! grant prosperity to the wombs of our women for 
producing children ! grant prosperity to our wealth." For the Maruts 
are the Vaisyas of the gods (their agriculturists). The Hotar puts 
them by (repeating) this (mantra) in readiness at the beginning of the 

They say, the Hotar should (as Anuvdkya and Ydjyd verses at 
the Prayaniya isti) use mantras of all (principal) metres. For the 
gods conquered the celestial world by means of having used for their 
(Anuvdkya and) Ydjyd verses mantras of all metres. Likewise, the 
sacrificer who does the same gains the celestial world. (The two 
verses) svasti nah pathydsu and- snastir iddhi prapathe (10, 63, 15, 
16),^^ which are addressed to path ydsvasti, i.e., safe journey, are 
in the Tristubh metre. The two verses addressed to Agni, agne naya 
supathd (1, 189, 1), and d devdndm api pinthdm (10, 2, 3), ^22] are also 
in the Tristubh metre. The two verses, addressed to Soma, tvam amos 
prachikito manisd (1, 91, 1), and yd te dhdmdni divi (1, 91, 4) are 
(also) in the Tristubh metre. The two verses addressed to ^avitd : 
d visvadevam satpatim (5, 82, 7), and yd imd insvd (5, 82, 9), are in the 
Gayatri metre. The two verses addressed to Aditi, sutrdmdnam prithioim 
(10, 63, 10), and mahim iX su mdtaram (Atharv. 7, 6, 2), are in 
Jagati metre. ^^ These are all the (principal) metres : Gayatri, Tristubh, 
and Jagati. Those (other metres) follow tli^ni. For these (three 
kinds of metres) are, as it were, of the most frequent occurrence {pra- 
tamdm) at a sacrifice. He, therefore, who having such a knowledge gets 
repeated bis Anuvakya and Yajy a verses in these (three) metres, gets 
repeated them in all metres ^obtains ilie particular advantage to be 
derived not only from the three metres mentioned, but from all other 
metres also). 

^' See the 3rd note above, page 16. The translation of the whole is given in the 

'* All the A)iuvnkyn and Ydjyd verses required for the five deities (see 1, 7), of 
the Pnhja'jiya jsti are here mentioned. 



These verses used as Anuvakyas and Yajyas at this offering 
(the Prayaniya Isti), contain the words, 'pra, forward, forth^^ ni^^ to 
carry ; pathin,^^ path ; stmsti,^^ welfare. The gods after having per- 
formed an Isti by means of these verses, gained the celestial world. 
Likewise, a sacrificer, after having done tho same, gains the celestial 
world. Among these verses there is a pada (a foot, here the last quarter 
verse of 10,63,15): " Maruts ! grant prosperity in wealth." The 
Llaruts are the Vai^yas (the subjects) of the gods, and are domi- 
[^23] ciled in the air. (By these words just mentioned) the sacrificer 
( who goes to heaven is to be announced to them (the Maruts). For they 
have the power of preventing him (from going up) or even of killing 
him. By the words, " Maruts ! grant prosperity," &c., the Hotar 
announces the sacrificer (his projected journey up to the celestial world) 
to the Vai^yas (the subjects) of the gods. The Maruts then neither 
prevent nor kill him who goes to the celestial world. He who has such 
a knowledge, is allowed a safe passage up to the celestial world by 

The two Saihyajyd verses required for the Svidahrit (of the 
Prdyaniya-isti) ought to be in the Viraj metre, which consists of 
thirty-three syllables. These are : sed agnir agnirhr (7, 1, 14) and 
sed agnir yo (7, 1, 15). The gods after having used for their Sarhydjyds 
two verses in the Virdj metre, gained the celestial world. Likewise 
does that sacrificer gain heaven who uses also two verses in the Viraj 
metre (when performing the Svistakrit of the Prayaniya isti). They 
(each of them) contain thirty-three syllables. For there are thirty- 
three gods, viz., eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Adityas, (one) 
Prajdpati, and (one) Vasat-kdra. In this way, the Hotar makes the 
gods participate at the very first beginning of the sacrifice in the 
(33) syllables of the mantra recited ; for each syllable is (as it were) 
a plate ^^ for the gods, by which the sacrificer makes (all) deities pleased 
and satiates them. 


They say, at the Prayaniya isti are (only) the Praydja ^* offer- 

*' In the word prapathe, in svastir iddhi prapathe (10, 63, 16). 

" In the -word naija, in Ague naya (1, 189, 1). 

'• In the words jMithyd and supathd. 
[23] -' In the verses 10, 63, 15, 16. 

" The syllables of the mantras represent different plates of food presented to the 
gods. They can be the food of the gods only in a mystical sense. 

'* See page 18, note 12, 


ings to be made, but not the Anuya [24] jas ;^ for the latter are, as it 
were, a blank, and (if performed) cause delay. But this (precept) should 
not be observed ; at the said Isti both the Praj^aja as well as tlie 
Anuya ja offerings should be made. For the Prayajas are the vital airs, 
and the Anuyajas are offspring. When lie thus foregoes the Prayajas, 
he foregoes the vital airs of the sacrificer (deprives him of his life), 
and w^hen he foregoes the Anuydjas, he foregoes the offspring of the 
sacrificer (deprives him of it). Thence Prayajas as well as Anuydjas 
are required (at the Prayaniya i^fi). 

He should not repeat the Sarhydja mantras addressed to the ladies** 
(patnis, of the gods) ; nor should he use the Samsthita-Yajus^'' formula. 
Only inasmuch as this is done (i.e., if the Patni-samyajya and Samsthita- 
Yajas offerings are omitted), the sacrifice is complete.^^ 

He should keep the remainder of the Prayaniyia-ist offering 
and (after the Soma sacrifice is over) mix it together, with the 
offering required for the Uddyaniya (concluding) i^ti, in order to 
make the sacrifice one continuous uninterrupted whole. (There 
[25] is also another way for connecting both Istis). In the same vessel, 
in which he portions out the rice for the Parodasia of the Prayaniya isti, he 
should portion out also the rice for the Purodajia of the Uddyaniya isti. 
Inasmuch as this is done, the sacrifice becomes continuous, uninterrupted. 
They sa}'', in doing this the sacrificers succeed in that (the other) world, but 
not in this one. They use the expression Prayaniyam (on several occasions). 
For, on the several portions of rice being taken out for the Purodan^a (by the 
AdhvaryuX the sacrificers say this is Prayaniya (i.e., to go forth, to pro- 
gress), and on the Purodai^a oblations being thrown (into the fire), they say 
again, this is Prdyariiyam {i.e., to progress). In this way, the sacrificers go 
forth (Prayanti) from this world. But they say so from ignorance (and this 
objection is consequently not to be regarded.) 

The Anuvakya and Yajya verses of both the Prayaniya and Uddyaniya 
istis should interchange in this way, that the Anuvakya verses of the 

[241 " If the common Istis there are generally three Amiyojas, or oblations of 
clarified butter, after the Svi>takrit ceremony is over. The deities are : devam harhis 
(the divine seat), deva nardsam^n, and deva agni svit^takrit. See As'v. Sr. 8. 1, 8. The 
present practice is to leave out the Anuyajas at the Pr&yaniya i&ti, 

" These mantras, which are addressed to several deities, chiefly the wives of the 
gods, are called, Patni-safnyd/da. These women are : Rdkd, Sinivdli (full moon), and 
Kuhii and Anumati (new moon). In the Asv. Sr. 8. 1, 10 Anumati is omitted. 

^' The last Yajus like mantra which is rocitod by the Hotar at the close of the 
isti. See Asv. Sr, S. 1, 11. 

" The usual concluding ceremonies of the I^ti are to be dispensed .with at the 
Pr&yaniya, in order to connect it with the other parts of the sacrifice. 



Prayaniya isti should be used as the YajyS verses for the Ud^yaniya, and 
the YajyA verses of the Prayaniya as Anuvakyas of the Udayaniya. The 
Hotar shifts in this way (the Anuvakyas and Ya jyas of both the Istis) for 
ensuring success (to the sacrificer) in both worlds, for obtaining a firm 
footing (for the sacrificer) in both worlds. The 'sacrificer (thus) succeeds 
in both worlds, and obtains a firm footing in both worlds. He who has 
this knowledge, obtains a firm footing (in both worlds). The Charu oblation 
which is given to Aditi at the Prayania as well as at the Udayaniya isti 
serves for holding the sacrifice (at both its ends) together, to tie the two 
knots of the sacrifice (at the beginning and at the end), in order to prevent 
it from slipping down. Some one (a theologian) has told : this [26] (tying 
of the two ends of the sacrifice; is exactly corresponding to that (act of 
common life to which it alludes) ; as (for instance) one ties two knots at both 
the ends of a rope {tejanih), in order to prevent (the load which is tied up) 
from slipping down. In the same way, the priest ties the knots at both 
ends of the sacrifice (the sacrificial chain) by means of the Charu oblation 
given to Aditi at the Prayaniya as well as at ihe Uda,yaniya isti. Among 
those (deities required at both the Istis) they commence with Paihyd 
Svasti 'at the Prayania isti), and conclude (at the Udayaniya isti) also 
with Pathyd Svasti. (Thus) the sacrificers start safely from here, and end 
(their journey there, in the other world), they end safely, safely (their 
journey there, in the other world;. 


The Buying and Bringing of the Soma. The Producing of Fire 
hy Friction. The Atithyd I§ti. 


The gods bought the king Soma in the eastern direction. Thence he 
is (generally) bought in the eastern direction. They bought him from the 
thirteenth month. Thence the thirteenth month is found unfit (for any 
religious work to be done in it) ; a seller of the Soma is (likewise) found 
unfit (for intercourse). For such a man is a defaulter- (When the Soma, 
after having been bought, was brought to men (the sacrificers), his powers 
and his faculty of making the senses sharp moved from their place and 
scattered everywhere.^ J'i ey tried to collect and keep them [27] together 
with one verse. But they failed. They (tried to keep them together, with 
two, then with three, then with four, then with five, then with six, then 

1 Dis'o is to be taken as an ablative depending on the verb vytidasidan, literally, they 
•were Upset (and scattered) everywhere. The preposition ut in this verb mainly requires 
the ablative. 


with seven verses ; but they did not succeed in keeping them together. 
(Finally) with eight verses they succeeded, and recovered them (in 
their entirety and completeness). (Therefore) what is held together and 
obtained, that is called adau, i.e. eight (from as to reach, obtain). He who 
has this knowledge obtains anything he might wish for. Thence there are 
in those ceremonies (which follow the bringing of the Soma to the sacri- 
ficial compound), eight verses, each time recited^ in order to collect and hold 
together the strength and those qualities (of the Soma plant) which give 
sharpness of senses. 


The Adhvaryu then says (to the Hotar) : repeat a mantra for the Soma 
who is bought and being brought (to the sacrificial compound). The Hotar 
repeats : Bhadrdd ahlii kreydh 'prehi,^ i.e., go from [28 J happiness to still 
greater bliss. By the word hhadra, i.e., happy, this world (the earth) is 
meant. That world is better {'sreydn) than this world. ' Thus the Hotar 
makes the sacrificer go to the celestial world (which is to be understood 
by sreyas, i.e, better). (The second pada of the verse is): bfihaspatih pui'a 
eta astu, i.e., the (thy) guide be Brihaspati ! If the Hotar has made (by 
repeating this pada) the Brahma his (the sacrificer's) guide, (the sacrifice) 
being thus provided with the Brahma will not be damaged. (The 
third pada of the verse is :) atha im avasya vara a prithivya, i.e., stop him 
(Soma) on the surface of the earth. Vara, means the place for sacrifi^cing 

' The mantra is from the Taittiriya Samhita. We find it also in the Af/iaruaueda 
Saihhitd (7, 8, 1.) with some deviations, which are found alike in the printed edition and in 
an old manuscript which is in my possession. The verse reads in the Aitarey. Brahm. and 
Taittir. Samh. as follows : — 

?T^*T^CT ^^ ^T ^5?n ^^ :a^ ^W ^^^ ' II 

Instead of ?i there is ^Rf in the A. V.,and instead of.^^H^'ST (^^ I f?^ I ?T^^) 
there is ^?}Brt?^qT («l«r I f FT «T?«ll) ; instead of the plur. l?r^ we have the sing. 
^^, and instead of ^^^fT there is ^^iO^. There is no doubt that the readings of the 
Atharva Veda look like corrections of the less intelligible parts of the original mantra 
which is correct only in the form in which we find it in the Ait. Br, and the Taitt. S. ^qff^ 
is less correct than ^f^. The redactor of the A. V. chose it on account of the so er. 
tremely frequent combination of ^VS( with an ablative which generally precedes (see the 
large number of instances quoted in B. and R.'s Samskrit Dictionary I. pp. 142, 143), whilst 
Tr*T never governs an ablative, but rather an accusative, and is in this passage to be 
connected with «?!:. The words : ^T^JTTT^^ are a bad substitute for 5TSJflJT^?T. The term 
avusya '• make an end, do away with him " (the enemy) was entirely misunderstood by the 
redactor. /4sya he makes asyd and refers it to ^Rjo^l ! The nominative ^^f; which 
refers only to the deity invoked is made an accusative and referred to ^f^\ , which then 
became a singular, ^J^. 


to the gods (devayajana). (By these words) the Hotar makes him (the 
Soma) stop (and remaia in that place). (The fourth pada is :) dre satrun 
hriyTLiihi sarvavirah, i.e., endowed with all powers, drive far oS the ene- 
mies ! (By reading these words) the Hotar turns out the enemy who does 
injury to the sacrificer, and his adversary, (and) consigns him to the lowest 

The Hotar then repeats the triplet : soma yds te mayohhuvah 
(1, 91, 9-11), which is addressed to Soma, and is in the Gayatri metre. 
In this way the Hotar makes the king Soma flourishing when he 
is being brought (to the sacrificial compound) by means of his own 
, deity (the verse' being addressed to [29^ Soma himself), and his 
own metre (his favourite metre being the Gayatri. ^) (The Hotar re- 
peats :) sarve* nandanti yasasd (10, 71, 10), i.e., "all friends rejoice 
at the arrival of the friend crowned with fame for having remained 
victor in the learned discussion (sabhd) ; for as their (of his friends) 
protector from defects, and giver of food, he is fit and ready for provid- 
ing them with strength." ^ (Now follows the ex [30] planation) : YasaJjL, 

' The Gayatri is said to have assumed the shape of a bird, and brought the Soma 
from heaven Thence tills metre is sacred to him. 

•* say. understands by " the friend, " Soma, and by '' the friends, who rejoice at the 
friend's arrival," t'le priests and the sacrificer. About the same meaning he gives to 
the verse in his commentary on the Rigveda Samhita. There he explains ?I?3Ti; friends, 
by 'HJIT'T^^T'TTJ being equal in knowledge. ?J^ he refers to " all men of the assembly." 
ini^r he takes in the sense of an adjective ??^^«TT. But it is very doubtful whether 
this verse had originally any reference to Soma. In the whole hymn (^^^^ ST917 
<^%T ^T5To) of which it forms the eleventh verse, there is nowhere any allusion made to 
Soma. According to the Anukramani^ the hymn is " seen " (composed) by Brihaspati, the 
son of Angiras. But this appears to be very unlikely ; for Brihaspati himself is addressed 
in the vocative. S&y. gets over the difficulty by asserting that Bfihaspati (the teacher 
of the Gods and the receptacle of all sacred knowledge) is addressing these words to 
himself, after having had revealed the meaning and bearing of the Veda, before he 
ventured upon communicating the revelation (to the Gods). To judge from the contents 
of the hymn, the author prays to Brihaspati who is the same with Vdchaspati, the god 
of eloquence and speech, to endow him with the power of giving utterance in the proper 
words to his feelings, of which only the best ones should be revealed (v. I). There is 
an interesting simile to be met with in the 2nd verse : " when the wise made the speech 
through their mind, purifying it (through their thoughts), just as they purify barley 
juice (safctn) through a filterer {titau)." Saktu is a kind of beer prepared by pouring 
water over barley, and by filtering it after having allowed it to remain for some time 
in this state. The whole hymn, in which the name " brahmana" las that of a caste) is 
several times mentioned, appears to refer to the might of speech and the great success 
to be derived from it when engaged in sacrificing. 

* The priests live on the presents which are given to them by the sacrificers. 
Hence the Soma, who is indispensable for the sacrificer, and who is to be administered 
in the proper way by priests only, is * their giver of food ' 


i.e., fame, glory, is the king Soma. At his being bought, every one 
rejoices, he who has to gain something (in the shape of Daksina, the 
sacrificial reward), as well as he who has not. The king Soma " is the 
friend who remains victor at the learned discussions of the Brahmans." 
He is kilhisasprit., *' the protector from defects." For he protects him 
from defects who becomes liable to them. He ('that priest) who excels all 
others (regarding the power of speech and recitation) becomes liable to 
defects (voice becoming hoarse or the hands flag). Thence they (the 
sacrificersj say (to the Hotar) : *' do not repeat (if thy intention is only to 
excel a rival in skill) the mantra (wrong), and likewise (to the Adhvaryu :) 
do not (in a state of confusion) perform the ceremony (wrong) ; may they 
now not do anything wrong, in too great a hurry ! " He is " pitusanir, " 
i. e., giver of food ; pitu is food, and pitu is the sacrificial reward 
{daksirid). The sacrificer gives, on account of a Soma sacrifice having 
been performed for him (to the priests), a reward. Thus he makes him 
(the Soma) " the giver of food " (for the priests.) The word vdjhiam 
means sharpness of senses and (bodily) strength. He who has this 
knowledge will preserve up to the end of his life the unimpaired use of 
his senses and strength. 

The Hotar repeats : agan deva (4, 53, 7.), i.e., May the divine mover 
Savitar come ^ with the BitiLs {i.e., seasons) ! May he make prosperous our 
household, and bless us with children and nourishment ! May he favour 
us (with gifts at day and night (always) ! [3l] May he let us obtain chil- 
dren and wealth ! '* dgan means : he (the Soma) has come and is here by 
that time (after having been bought). The Ritus (seasons) are the royal 
brothers of the king Soma, just as men have brothers. (By repeating this 
first pada) the Hotar makes him (the Soma) come with them (his brothers, 
the Ritus). By the words : " may he make prosperous," &c., he asks for 
a blessing. (By repeating the third pada) " may he favour us at day and 
night, " he asks for a blessing for him (the sacrificer) at day and night. 
(By the fourth pada :) " may he let us, " &c., he (also; asks for a blessing. 

The Hotar repeats : ya te dhdmdni havisd (1, 91, 19), i. e., " may all 
thy qualities which they honour (with prayers and with oblations) become 
manifest at (this) sacrifice everywhere ! Enter, Soma ! (our) houses (the 
sacrificial hall) as an increaser of property (of cows), as a protector (from 

* The Brahmana as well as SSyana refer the conjunctive dgun to Soma -which is 
certainly not the case. In his commentary on the Samhita, he refers it justly to Savitar 
(see vol. Ill, page 236, ed. M. Miiller). No doubt the verse was originally intended for 
Savitar and not for Soma. The whole hymn whence the verse is taken is devoted to 


evil), as one who gives good children and does not hurt them (in any- 

The words gayasphdna, pratarana, suvirah mean : be an increaser 
and protector of our cattle. Durydh means the premises (of the sacrificer) 
which are afraid of the king Soma having arrived. When the Hotar 
repeats this (last pada of the verse), he does it with a view tC) propitiate 
him (Soma). If the Hotar has thus propitiated him (the Soma), he neither 
kills the children nor the cattle of the sacrificer. 

The Hotar concludes with the verse, addressed to Varuna : imdm 
dhiyam siksamdnasya deva (8, 42, 3), i.e., " divine Varuna, instruct 
the pupil in understanding, performance and skill. May we ascend 
[32] the ship for crossing safely all evil waters and land in safety (on the 
other shore)." Soma is in the power of the god Varuna, as long as he is 
tied up (in the cloth), ' and goes to the places of the Fragvamsa. When 
reciting this verse, he thus makes the Soma prosper by means of his 
own deity (for as liquor he is Vdrurii), and his own metre. ^ The " pupil " 
(learner^ is he who sacrifices, for he is learning. By the words " instruct 
in understanding, performance, and skill, " he means, teach, Varuna, 
strength (and) knowledge. The " ship " is the sacrifice. The ship is of 
" good passage." The black goat-skin is the " good passage, " and 
speech the ship. By means of this verse the sacrificer thus ascends speech 
(as his ship) and sails in it up to the celestial world. 

These eight verses which he repeats, are complete in form. What is 
complete in form, that is successful in the sacrifice, when the verse 
repeated alludes to the ceremony which is being performed. 

Of these verses he repeats the first and last thrice ; this makes twelve 
(in all). The year consists of twelve months, and Prajapati is the year. 
He who has this knowledge succeeds by these verses which reside in 
Prajapati. By repeating the first and last verses thrice, he ties the two 
end knots of the sacrifice for fastening and tightening it, in order to 
prevent it from slipping down. 

One of the bullocks (which carry the cart on which the king 
Soma is seated) is to remain yoked, the other [33] to be 

' The Soma stalks are to be tied up in a cloth, when they are brought to the sacri- 
ficial compound, the front part of which, including the Ahavaniya, Daksina andGarhapatya 
fires is called, Prdgvamia or Prichdna-vathsa. 

' This is Tristubh. According to another Sakha, as S§y. says, this metre (very 
likely in the shape of a bird, as the Gayatri is said to have assumed) went to heaven to 
abstract the Soma, and brought down the Daksina (sacrificial reward), and the internal 
concentration of the vital powers (the so-called topaa). See Ait. Brah. 3,25. 


unyoked. Then they should take down (from the cart) the king (Soma). 
Were they to take him down when both are let loose, they would 
bring him into the power of the manes (pitarah). Would they do so, 
when both are still yoked (to the cart), the sacrificer could not keep what 
he is possessed of, nor increase it ; should he have any children, they 
would be scattered (everywhere, and consequently be lost for him). The 
bullock which is let loose, represents the children who are in the house, 
that one which remains yoked, the actions (ceremonies, and worldly pur- 
suits). Those sacrificers who take the Soma down, whilst one of the 
bullocks is yoked and the other let loose, avail themselves of both 
actions, of acquiring property, and keeping what they have acquired. 

The Devas and Asuras were fighting in these worlds. They fought 
in the eastern direction ; there the Asuras defeated the Devas. They 
then fought in the southern direction, the Asuras defeated the Devas 
again. They then fought in the western direction, the Asuras defeated 
the Devas again.' They fought in the northern direction, the Asuras 
defeated the Devas again. They then fought in the north-eastern direc- 
tion ^, there the Devas did not sustain defeat. This direction is apardjttd, 
i.e., unconquerable. Thence one should do work in this (north-eastern) 
direction, and have it done there ; for such one (alone) is able to clear 
off his debts. '° 

The Devas said, it is on account of our having no king, that the 
Asuras defeat us. Let us elect a king. [34] All consented. They elected 
Soma their king. Headed by the king Soma, they were victorious in 
all directions. He who brings the sacrifice is the king Soma. The Soma 
faces the eastern direction, when the priests put him (on the cart). By 
this means the sacrificer conquers the eastern direction. The priests 
turn the cart round in the southern direction. By this means he conquers 
the southern direction. They turn (the cart) towards the west; by this 
means he conquers the western direction. When the cart stands in the 
northern direction, they take (the Soma) off. By this means he conquers 
the northern direction. He who has this knowledge conquers all directions. 


After the king Soma has arrived, the reception offering is pre- 
pared. P^or tlie king Soma comes to the premises of the sacrificer 

' It is called disdni, i.e., the direction of isdnah, who is feiva. 

1° According to the Brahmanical notions, every man born is a debtor. His creditors 
are the gods, Risis, the Pitaras, and men. His debt towards the Pitaras or manes, is 
cleared off by begetting a son. As long as he has begot no son, he is debtor to the 
manes. To clear his debts towards the gods by offering sacrifies to them, he must have 
some property. Any act required for the acquisition of anything, should be done in the 
north-eastern direction. 


(as a ^uest). Thence the offering for receiving him as a guest iatithi) 
is called Atithya-isti. Its Purodasa is made ready in nine potsherds 
(i. e., the rice ball, making up the Purodaj^a iR placed on nine potsherds). 
For there are nine vital airs {prdndh). (This offering is made) for making 
the vital airs (to the sacrifice) and for making them severally known. It 
belongs to Visnu ; for Visnu is the sacrifice. By means of his own 
deity and his own metre ^^ he makes the sacrifice successful. For all 
metres and Pristhas, ^^ [36] follow the king Soma, when he i<^ bought (as 
bis retinue). To all who follow a king (as bis retinue) a reception is given. 
When the king Soma has arrived, then they produce fire by friction. 
Agni being the animal of the gods, this rite of producing Agni (and 
throwing him into another fire; is equivalent to the slaughter of an ox 
or a cow which miscarries, which rite is always performe 1 when a king 
or another man who deserves high honour " is to be received. 


The Adhvaryu (says to the Hotar) : repeat mantras for Agni, who is 
being produced by friction. 

The Hotar repeats a verse addressed to Savitar : ahhi tvd deva Savitar 
(1, 24, 3). They ask : why does he repeat a verse addressed to Savitar 
for the Agni, who is being produced ? (The answer is :) Savitar rules over 
all productions. Produced ^* (themselves) by Savitar, they (are able) to 
produce Agni (by friction).Thence a verse addressed to Savitar is required. 

He repeats a verse, addressed to Dydvd-prithivi : maM dyauli pri- 
Ihivicha na (4, 56, 1.) 

[36] They ask : why does he repeat a verse addressed to Dydvd-prithivt 
for Agni. who is being produced (by friction) ? They answer : the gods 

" The Anuvakya mantra is, idum Visnur vichakrame (1, 22, 17) and the Yajya, 
tad asya priyam abhipdtho (1, 154, 5), See Asval, Sr. S. 4, 5. Of both verses Visnu is the 
deity. The metre of the first verse is Qdijatri, that of the second, Tri^\uhh. These two 
metres are regarded as the principal ones, comprising all the rest. 

• " A Prihtha is a combination of two verses of the Samaveda. Some of the principal 
S&mans are in the Tristubh or Gayatri metre. These two metres represent all others. 

15 The term is arhat, a word well-known chiefly to the students of Buddhism. Sayana 
explains it by " a great Brahman, " or a Brahman (in general). That cows were killed 
at the time of receiving a most distinguished guest, is stated in the Smritis. But, as 
SSyana observes (which entirely aafrees with the opinions held now-a-days), this custom 
belongs to former Yugas (periods of the world). Thence the word : goghna, i e., cow- 
killer means in the more ancient Samskrit books " a guest " : (See the commentators on 
Panini 3, 4, 73) ; for the reception of a high guest was the death of the cow of the house. 

" Sayana explains 'prasuta as " allowed, permitted. " According to his opinion, the 
meaning of the sentence is, " having been permitted by Savita to perform this ceremony, 
they perform it. " Prasava is then " the permission for performing ceremonies. " But I 
doubt whether this opinion is correct. 


caught him (once), when he was born, between heaven and earth (dydvd- 
prithivt) ; since that time he is kept there enclosed (by heaven and earth), 
Thence the Hotar repeats a verse addressed to Dydvd-prithivi. 

He repeats a triplet of verses addressed to Agni in the Gayatri 
— ttietre : tram Agne puskardd adhi (6, 16, 13), when Agni is being pro- 
duced. Thus he makes him (Agni) prosper by his own deity (the verses 
are addressed to Agni) and his own metre (Gayatri). The words, atharvd 
niramanthata, ^^ i.e., the fire-priest produced thee out (of the two wooden 
sticks by means of friction), are complete in form. 

What is complete in form, (that is) when the verse which is repeated 
alludes to the ceremony wrhich is being performed, that is successful in 
the sacrifice. 

Should Agni not be born (the fire not be produced), or should it 
take a long time, then the Rak^ogm ^® verses, which are in the Gayatri 
metre are to be repeated : Agne harhsi nyatrinam (10, 118). These (verses) 
are intended for destroying the Raksasas (the evil-doers). For the Raksasas 
have seized him, if he is not born, or if his birth is delayed. 

When Agni is born after the recital of the first or the second (and 
so on) of these (Raksogni verses), then the Hotar has to repeat a verse 
appropriate to him, who has been born, by containing the term "borij, " 
uta bruvantu jantava (1, 74, 3.) 

What is appropriate in the sacrifice, that is successful. He repeats : 
d yam hastena khddinam (6, 16, 40). 

[37] In this verse occurs the term *' hasta, hand ; " for they rub him 
(out of two wooden sticks) by means of their hands. In it there further 
occurs : sisur-jdtaj}, i.e., a child born ; for, just as a child, he is first born. The 
word na (in na hibhrati of the verse) has with the gods the same meaning 
as om (yes) with these (men). He repeats, pra devam deoavitaye (6, 16, 41). 
This verse is appropriate for Agni when he is being thrown into the 
Ahavaniya fire (after having come out of the two wooden sticks). The 
half verse, d sve yondu ni^idatu (which are contained in this verse), i. e , 
he may sit in his own house, means, that Agni (the Ahavaniya fire) is 
Agni's (who was just born by friction) proper place. 

In the verse : jdtam jdtavedasi (Q, 16, 42), the one is jdta (the Agni 
produced by friction), the other jdtavedds (the Ahavaniya fire). The 
words, ■priyam si'silha atithim mean, Agni (the new born) is the 
beloved guest of the (other) Agni (the Ahavaniya). By the words, syona d 
grihapatim, he, the priest, places him at ease (by putting him into his 

" They occur in the first verse of the triplet mentioned. 

" Verses calculated to kill the R&ksas who are preventing Agni from being born. 



proper place, the Ahavanlya firo). Agnindgnih samidhyate (1,12, 6) is 
appropriate (when the new born Agni has been thrown into the Ahavaniya 
fire). In the verse : tvam hyagne agnind vipro vipre^a santsatd (8, 43, 14), 
the one vipra (wise) means one Agni, and the other vipra, the other Agni ; 
the one san (being, existing) means the one, the other san in (satd) the 
other Agni. The words, sakhd sahyd samidhyase (at the end of the verse 
quoted) mean, this Agni is the friend of the (other) Agni. 

In the verse : tarn marjayanta sukratum (8, 73, 8), the words, sve^u 
k^ayem, mean, this Agni is the other Agni's own residence. 

With the verse, yajriena yajnam ayajanta (1, 164, 50), he concludes. 
By means of the sacrifice (the ideal omnipresent sacrifice) the gods thus 
[38] performed (the actual, visible) sacrifice. By having sacrificed Agni 
through Agni (having thrown the new born Agni into the Ahavaniya fire), 
the gods went to heaven. (In the remaining part of the verse) " these 
(producing fire, &c.) were the first rites ; the great ones (the sacrificers) 
reached that heaven in which those gods, who formerly performed the 
same rites reside " (1, 164, 50), the metres are the sddhyd devds, i.e., the 
gods who (formerly) performed. They sacrificed Agni at the beginning 
by means of Agni, and went to heaven. There were the Adityas, and 
the Angiras. They sacrificed at the beginning Agni by means of Agni 
and went to heaven. The offering of the fire (Agni) is that offering 
which leads to heaven. Even if the performing priest is no proper 
Brahman" (in the strictest sense), or even pronounced to be an ill-reputed 
man, this sacrifice nevertheless goes up to the gods, and becomes not 
polluted by contagion with a wicked man (as in this case the per- 
forming priest is). The oblation (of Agni in the Ahavaniya fire) of him 
•who has this knowledge goes up to the gods ; and does not become in- 
fected by contagion with a wicked man. 

The verses he repeats are thirteen in number ; they are complete in 
form. If the form is complete and the verse alludes to the ceremony 
which is being performed, then the sacrifice is successful. Of these 
[39] verses he repeats the first and the last thrice ; this makes seventeen. 

"The term ia the original is, abrdhmanoktu, i.e., who is declared to be no proper 
Brahman. According to Say. there are in the Smritis six kinds of men mentioned who are, 
strictly speaking, not capable of the Brahmanship, though they are BrShmans by birth, 
viz., the servant of a king, a merchant (seller and buyer) ; the bdhuydji, he who performs 
many sacrifices (for the sake of gain only) ; the as rdtita-ydjaka, i.e., he who being properly 
appointed for the performance of the great (Srauta) sacrifices, performs only the less 
important domestic rites {smarta-karmdni) ; the grdmaydji, i.e., he who performs out of 
covetousness alone sacrifices for all inhabitants of a village or town qualified or disquali- 
fied ; the brahmahandhu, i. e., he who performs the daily religious duties neither before 
Bonrise nor sunset. 


For PrajS,pati is seventeen-fold, comprising such a year as consists of 

twelve months and five seasons. Prajapati is the year. 

He who has such a knowledge prospers by these verses which reside 

in Prajapati. By repeating thrice the first and last verses he ties both 

the knots of the sacrifice to fasten and tighten it, and prevent it from 

slipping down. 


{The Remaining Rites of the Atithi-i^ti,^^ after the Ceremony of Pro- 
ducing Fire hy Friction is finished). 

The two Puro-anuvakyas for both portions of melted butter^' 
(which are to be offered) are, samidhdgnim duvasyata (8, 44, 1), and 
dpydyasva sametu (1, 91, 16.) These two verses are complete in form ; 
for they contain an allusion to guests.™ When the verse (which is 
repeated) alludes to the ceremony which is being performed, then the 
form is complete, and (consequently) the sacrifice successful. The verse 
(8, 44, 1) alluding to the guest (aiii/it) belongs to Agni, whilst the verse 
addressed to Soma (1,91, 16), does not contain the word " guest.*' If there 
were a verse addressed to Soma, containing the word " guest," such one 
should always be used. But notwithstanding (there being no such verse) 
the verse mentioned (1, 91, 16) refers to a guest, for it contains the term 
" being fattened ;" for, when one feeds a guest C^-OI (well), then he grows 
fat, as it were. The Yajya mantra for both, Agni and Soma, commences 
with ju^dnah-^^ The Anuvdkya and Yajya mantras (for the principal 
offering consisting of Purodasa) are idam Vi^nur^ vichakrame (1, 22, 17) 
and tad asya priyam ahhi pdtho (1, 154, 5). Both verses are addressed to 
Visnu. Having repeated as Anuvakya a verse with three padas, he uses 
as Yajya one consisting of four padas ; thus seven padas are obtained. 

For the ceremony of receiving a guest (dtithyam — atithi-i§ti} is the 
head of the sacrifice. There are seven vital airs in the head. By this 
ceremony the Hotar thus puts the seven vital airs in the head (of the 

The two Samyajya mantras, required at the Svistahrit are : hotdram 
chitraratham (10, 1, 5), and pra prdyam agnir (7, 8, 4j. Both verses are 

" See the Taittiriya Samhita 1, 2, 10, and Say.'s commentary on it, vol. i., pp. 370—384, 
ed. Cowell. Asval. Srduta S. 4, 5. 

" These two parts are the so-called chaTc^usi, i.e., eyes of the Isti, which always 
precede the principal offering, consisting of Purodasa. 

'". In the words of the second pada of samidhcfgnim, \iz., ghritaili bodhaxjata atithinif 
refresh the guest with clarified butter drops ! 

"Ju?aMo agnir djyasya vetti ; jiisdno Soma a;yasya vetu: may Agni pleased, eat the 
melted butter, &c. 

" The Purodasa is given to Vi^nu who is the chief deity of this I§ti. 


complete in form ; for in both the word atithP^, a guest (referring to 
Agni's reception as a guest) occurs. The success of the sacrifice depends 
on the completeness of the form, i.e., that the mantra (which is repeated) 
alludes to the ceremony which is being performed. Both Samy.ljyas 
(used at the Svistakrit of the Atithi-isti) are in the Tristubh metre, for 
getting possession of Indra's powers (for Indra is Tristubh). The cere- 
mony ends here with the eating of the sacrificial food,^* The gods having 
(once^ rested [41] satisfied with the Atithya-isti ending by the eating of 
the sacrificial food (on the part of the sacrificer and the priests', this Isti is 
to end with the eating of the sacrificial food (no further ceremonies being 

They offer only the Praydjas ^^ at this (Isti), but not the Anuydjas. 
The Prayajas, as well as the Anuyajas are the vital airs. The airs 
which are in the head are che Prayajas, whilst those in the lower parts 
of the body are the Anuyajas. He who should ofi^er the Anuyajas at this 
(Is^i) is just like a man who, after having cut off the vital airs residing 
in the lower parts of the body), wishes to put them in the head. That 
would be superfluity, ^® were all the vital airs, those of the head as 
well as those of the lower parts of the body, to be found at the same 
place {viz., in the head). If they therefore offer at this (Isti) only the 
Prayajas vvithout Anuyajas, then the wish which one entertains at the 
offering of the Anuyajas becomes also fulfilled (for the offering of the 
Anuy&jas on this occasion would be a mistake). 

(The Pravargya Ceremony}) 


The sacrifice went away from the gods (saying), I shall not 
be your food. The gods said : do not go ; thou alone shalt be our 
food. The gods then killed [42] it. • When it had been taken asunder 

** In the last pada of the first mantra there occur the words agnifm atithim jandndm, 
and also in the last pada of the second the words daivyo atithih, the heavenly guest. 

'* That is to say, the ceremonies, which in the usual course of the Isti follow the 
eating of the sacrificial food, such as the Anuyajas, the Suktavdk, SanyiivdK, Patmaarhydfa 
and Samsthita Japa, are left out on the occasion of the Atitliya-isti. 

" They precede the principal offering, which consists of Puroddsa. 

" This is a mistake in the sacrifice which is to be propitiated. 

' The Pravargya ceremony lasts for three days, and is always performed twice a day, 
in the forenoon and afternoon. It precedes the animal and Soma sacrifices. For without 
having undergone it, no one is allowed to take part in the solemn Soma feast prepared tot 
the gods. It is a preparatory rite, just as the Dfkfta, and is intended for providing 
the sacrificer with a heavenly body, with which alone he is permitted to enter the 
residence of the gods. That the gods do not receive mortals at their residence when 


(cut into pieces) by them, it was found not to be sufficient (to satisfy 
their appetiteV The gods said : this sacrifice after having been taken 
asunder, will certainly not be sufficient for us. Well, let us dress 
(and fill up) this sacrifice. After having dressed it, they said to the 
Asvins, cure this sacrifice ; for the An^vins are the two physicians of the gods, 
they are the two Adhvaryus ^ [431 (sacred cooks). Thence two Adhvar- 
yu priests provide for all the implements required for the Pravargya 
vessel (gharma). After having done so, they say, " Brahma !^ we shall 
perform the Pravargya ceremony. Hotar ! repeat the appropriate mantras !" 

arriving in tiieir very bodies, one may learn from tlie amusing story of the king Trisunku, 
as reported in tlie Ramayana (1, 57-60). For tlie performance of this important 
ceremony extensive preparations are to be made by the Adhvaryu and his assistant, 
the Pratiprasthatar. All the vessels and implements required are brought to the spot 
and placed at the left side of the Odrhapatya fire. The chief implements are : an 
earthen vessel of peculiar form, called Malidvira or gharma {i.e., heat, or heated 
substance, for it is to be heated), a seat {dsandi) to sit on, tveo wooden pieces for lifting 
the Mdhdvira pot (called sapha), two shovels for charcoal {dliristi), one very large 
wooden spoon (Upaymani) from which the sacrificer drinks milk (this forms ^^art of 
the ceremony), three fans (dhavitra), six shavings from the Udumbara tree as fuel, 
thirteen sticks, to be laid round the Mah5,vira vessel (paridhi), two metal blades, one of 
gold and one of silver (called SMuarjiarojatdu rMfcm«u). A cow and a female sheep are 
to be kept in readiness. Two bunches of kus'a grass are prepared, and tied in the 
midst. They are called Veda, and resemble very much the Baresma (Barsom) of the 
Parsis, which is also tied together by means of a reed {aiivycionhanem) . 

The Mahavira is first put on the Vedi. Then the Adhvaryu makes a circle of 
clay, in which afterwards the Mahdvira is put. This ring is called khara, i.e., ass, for 
earth is always carried on the back of donkeys to the sacrificial compound. After the 
priests have repeated the mantras required for propitiation {sdnti) namo vdche, &c., 
the Mahavira is taken from the Vedi and placed in that earthen ring (khara). Wooden 
sticks are put around it along with burning coals, and also fire is put in the khara 
just below the Mah3,vira, in order to make it hot. The fire is blown by three little 
fans which serve as bellows. The silver blade is put below, the gold blade above the 
Mahavira. Whilst the empty vessel is being heated, the Hotar repeats the first series 
of mantras, called the pi'irva patala. After the vessel has been made quite hot, it is 
lifted up by means of the two fciaphas. The cow then is called, tied by the Adhvaryu 
with a cord, and milked. The milk is put on the left side of the Vedi, and then under 
recital of the mantra, « dasai'hir, poured into the Mahavira. Thenthe'milk of a goat whose 
kid is dead is taken, and mixed with that of the cow in the vessel. After this has beeta 
done, the contents of the Mahavira are thrown into the Ahavaniya fire. The sacrificer 
drinks milk from a large wooden spoon (Upayamani) which has been first swelled 
by the Adhvaryu. The second series of mantras, the so-called uttaru patala, is repeated 
when the cow is milked and her milk poured into the Mahavira. The whole ceremony has 
been witnessed by me. 

' Viz., the properly so-called Adhvaryu with his constant assistant Pratiprasthdtd. 

' The Brahma priests, i.e., the president of the sacrifice, is here informed, that the 
priests are going to perform the Pravargya ceremony. The Hotar receives at the 
same time orders to repeat the appropriate mantras. The ictimation to the Brahma 
priest aa well as the order to the Hotar are given by the Adhvaryu and the Prati' 
prusthdtar, called the two Adhvaryus. 


The Hotar begins with hrahma jajn^nam prathamam (Vaj. 
S. 13, 5. A^val. S. S 4, 6), In this mantra Brahma is Brihaspati (the 
teacher of the gods) ; by means of Brahma {i.e., the Brahmans) the 
Hotar thus cures the Pravargya man (the mystical personage, called 
" sacrifice " which had been torn to pieces by the gods). By repeating 
the mantra, iyam pitre rdstri (Asval. S. S. 4, 6), the Hotar puts speech 
in the Pravargya man ; for by rdi^tH, i.e., queen, speech is to be under- 

The verse, mahdn mahi astahhdyad (A^val. S. S. 4, 6), is addressed 
to Brahmanaspati. Brahma is Brihaspati ; by means of Brahma the 
priest thus cures the Pravargya man. 

[44] The verse addressed to Savitar is, ahhi tyam devam 
savitdram (Vaj. S. 4, 25. A^val. S. S. 4, 6). Savitar is the vital air ; 
thus the Hotar puts the vital air in this Pravargya man. 

By the verse, samsidasva mahdn asi (1, 36, 9), they make him (the 
Pravargya man) sit down.* 

The verse, arhjanti yam prathayanto (5, 43, 7), is appropriate to 
the ceremony of anointing (the Pravargya vessel with melted butter). 
What is appropriate in the sacrifice, that is successful. 

Of the following mantras, patangam ahtamasurasya (10, 177, 1), 
yo nn sanutyu ahhiddsad (6, 5, 4), hhavd no agne sumand upetau (3, 18, 1), 
the first as well as the second verse ^ are appropriate. 

The five verses required for killing the Raksas, commence with, 
hfiriii^va pdjah prasitim (4, 4, 1-5). 

Now follow four single verses * ' 

Pari tvd girvario gira (1, 10, 12) ; 

Adhi dvayor adadhd ukthyam (1, 83, 3) ; 

^ukram te anyad yajatam (6, 58, 1) ; 

Apasyan gopdm anipadyamdnam (10, 177, 3). 

All these verses (if counted) number to twenty, one. This (sacrificial) 
man is twenty-one fold ; for he has ten fingers on his hands and ten 

* The Adhvaryus put the Pravargya vessel, the so-called Mdhdvira, ia an earthen 
ring, called Khara. 

* That is to say : of the three mantras mentioned, always that one -which 
immediately follows them in the Samhita, is to be repeated along with them. For 
instance, of 10,177,1 (patangam aktam, «&c.), is the 2nd verse, to be also repeated. 

' Ekapdtinyah. An ekapdtini is such a mantra which is taken single, and not followed 
by any other verse which comes immediately after it in the SamhitS. The term is 
here used to mark a distinction between : dve, i.e., two verses and pamcha, i.e., five 
verses, which follow one another in the Samhita, 


on his feet, and the soul is reckoned as the twenty-first. He (thus) 
prepares the soul as the twenty-first (part). 


[451 (Now follow) nine Pavamani-verses (dedicated to the purifica- 
tion of the Soma juice) beginning with, srakve drapsasya dhamatah 
(9, 73, 1). There are nine vital airs. By repeating these (verses), the 
Hotar puts the vital airs in him (the Pravargya man). (Now he repeats) 
ayam vena's chodayat ^ (10, 123, 1). (When repeating this mantra, the 
Hotar points, when pronouncing the word ayam, i.e., this, to the navel). 
" This " (the navel) is meant by venas ; for some vital airs are circulat- 
ing {venanti) above the navel, others below it. On account of this vital 
air (the life) taking its origin from the navel, venas (circulation, from 
ven to circulate) means " navel." By repeating this mantra, the Hotar 
puts life in this (Pravargya man). 

(Now he repeats the (verses), pavitram te vitatam (9, 83, 1), tapash 
pavitram vitatam (9, 83, 2), and viyat pavitram dhi§and atanvata. 
On account of their containing the word " pavitram " (pure), the vital 
airs are purified (when these mantras are recited over them). These 
are the vital airs of the lower part of the body presiding over the semen, 
urine, and excrements. (By repeating these three verses) he puts these 
vital airs in this (Pravargya man). 


(He now repeats) a hymn, addressed to Brahmanaspati. * Qandndm 
tvd ganapatim havdmahe (2, 23) Brahma is Brihaspati ; by means of 
Brahma he thus cures him (the sacrificial man, who had been torn to 
pieces). The verses beginning with prathascha L461 yasya saprathascha 
ndma (10, 181, 1-3) are the three Gharmatanu^ mantras ; by repeating 
them the Hotar provides the Pravargya man with a body, and a form. 
(For in the fourth pada of the first of these verses), there is said : " Vasia- 
tha brought the Rathantara Sama," and (in the last half verse of the 
second Gharmatanu mantra is said), " Bharadvaja made the Brihat 
Sama out of Agni." ^ By repeating these mantras, the Hotar provides * 
the Pravargya man with the Rathantara and Brihat-Samans (required 
for its prosperity). 

'According to Sdyana this verse is taken from another Saft?id. 

' In the ?rd pada of the first verse, the name " brahmanaspati " is mentioned. 

* This means, those mantras the recital of which is calculated to give the new body, 
which is to be made in the Pravargya vessel (the Gharma), the proper shape. 

'" The Risi of the Rathantara Sama : ahhi tvd siira nonumah (7, 32, 22.) is Vasistha, 
and that of the Brihat Sama : tvdm iddhi liavamahe (6, 46, 1.) is Bharadvflja. 


(By repeating) three verses (of the hymn) apasyan tvd manasa 
chekitdnam (10, 183, 1), the Risi of which is Prajdvdn, the eon of 
Prajdpati (the Lord of creatures), he provides him with offspring. ^^ 

<Now the Hotar repeats) nine verses in different metres, commencing 
with kd rddhad dhotrd (1, 120, 1-9). 

(These different metres represent the difference in magnitude and 
expansion of the extremities of the belly of the sacrificial man). For 
the extremities of the (mystical) sacrificial body (to be restored by 
means of the Pravargya ceremony) vary as to magnitude and largeness ; 
Bome are rather thin, others are rather big. 

Thence are verses of various metres required (for the verses repre- 
sent the extremities of the bodj^). By means of these verses (the Risi) 
Kak^ivdn [47] went to the beloved residence of th? Arfvins. He conquered 
the highest heaven. He who has this knowledge goes up to the beloved 
house of the Ativins, and conquers the highest heaven. 

(Now he repeats) the hymn : Abhdty agnir usasdm (5, 76.) The words : 
pipivdmsam asvind gharmam achha (the fourth pada of the first verse 
of the hymn mentioned) are appropriate " to the ceremony. What is 
appropriate at the sacrifice, tbt.t is successful. This hymn is in the 
Tristubh metre, for Tristubh is strength ; by this means he puts strength 
in this (Pravargya man.) 

He repeats the hymn : grdvaneva tud id artham jarethe (2, 39). In 
this hymn there being expressions like, aksi iva " as the eyes " (2, 39, 5), 
harmviva "as two ears," ndsa iva " as a nose " (2, 39, 6), he puts in this 
way, by enumerating the limbs of the body, the senses in this (Pra- 
vargya man.) This hymn is in the Tristubh metre ; for Tristubh 
is strength. In this way he puts strength in this (Pravargya man.) 

He repeats thehjmn: ile dydvdprithivi {1, 112). (The words in the 
second pada '•) gharmam siirucham are appropriate." This hymn is in 
the Jagati metre ; cattle is of the same (Jagatt) nature. Thus he pro- 
vides this (Pravargya man) with cattle. By the words : " what assistance 
you (Asivina) have rendered such and such a one " (which occur in every 
verse of the hymn mentioned), he provides this (Pravargya man) with 
all those wishes (and their fulfilment) which the Asvins in this hymn are 
said to have deemed proper to fulfil. 

[48] In repeating this hymn, the priest thus makes this (Pravargya 
man) thrive by means of those desires (including their satisfaction). 

'^ The Hotar when repeating the first of these verses, looks at the sacrificer, when 
repeating the second, at the sacrificer's wife, when the third, at himself. 

" The word " gliarma," which is a name of the Pravargya vessel, is mentioDed in it. 
" For the word " glmrma " (the Pravargya vessel) is mentioned in it. 


He repeats the ruchitavati, i.e., the verse whose characteristic the 
word ** ruch," to shine, is: arAruchad u^asalji, prisnir (9,83, 3). In' 
this way he provides this (Pravargya man) with splendour. 

With the verse, dyuhhir aktuhhilj, paripdtam (1, 112, 25), he con- 
cludes (the ceremony). (In repeating this verse, the words of which) 
ari§tehliir prithivi uta dyduh (contain a prayer for prosperity) he makes 
thus this Pravargya man thrive, granting him all that is wished for 
(in the verse mentioned). Now is (completed) the first part of the 
mantra collection (required at the Pravargya ceremony). 


The second part of the mantra collection ^* (required at the Pravargya 
ceremony) is as follows : — /. 

1, Upahvaye sudughdm dhenum (1, 164, 26), 

2, Eithkriiivati vasupatnt (1, 164, 27). 

3, Abhi tvd deva Sauitah (1, 24, 3). 

4, Sami vatsann amdtrihhif} (9, 104, 2). 

5, Sariivatsa iva mdtribhih (9, 105, 2). 

6, Yaste stanah sa'sayo U, 164, 49). 

7, Gaur amimed anuvatsam (1, 164, 2S). 

8, Namased upasidatam (9, 11, 6). 

9, Samjdndnd upasidan (1, 72, 5), 

10, Adasahhir (8, 61, 8). 

11, Duhanti saptdikdn (8, 61, 7). 

12, Samiddho Agnir Asvind {Asval. 4, 7). 
I[49] 13, Samiddho Agnir v^i^a^d [Asval. 4, 7). 

14, Tadu prayak^atamam (1, 62, 6). 

15, Atmanvam nabho duhyate (9, 74, 4). 

16, Utti^tha Bralimamspate (1, 40, 1). 

17, Adhukqat pipyusim isam (8, 61, 16). 

18, Upadrava payasd {Asval, 4, 7). 

19, Asute simchata sriyam 8, 61, 13). 

20, Aniinam asvinor (8, 9, 7). 

21, Samutye mahatir apdh (8, 7, 22). 

These twenty-one verses are appropriate. What is appropriate at a 
sacrifice, that is successful. 

^* During the recital of the first part of the Pravargya mantras, the vessel had been 
made only hot ; now milk, butter, &c., are to be poured into it. A cow is brought to the 
spot, which is to be milked by the Adhvaryu. To this ceremony the first mantra of the 
second part, '• I call the cow yielding good milk," refers. 


The Hotar, when standing behind (the others)," repeats ud u sya 
devaj} Savitd hiranyayd (6, 71, 1). When going forward, he repeats, 
praitu Brahmariaspati (1, 40, 3.) "When looking at the Khara (the 
earthen ring, in which the Pravargya vessel is placed), he repeats: 
Gandharva itthd (9, 83, 4). When repeating nake swparvLam upa yat 
{9, 85, 11), he takes his seat. By the two mantras, tapto vdrh gharmo 
nahsati svahotd (Atharv. 7, 73, 5. K^v. 4, 7), and uhhd pibatam{l, 46, 15), 
the Hotar sacrifices to the forenoon (the deity of the forenoon). After 
the formula : Agni eat ! he pronounces Vau^at ! which is in lieu of the 

By the mantras, yad usriyasu svdhutam (Atharv. 7, 73, 4. Asv. 4, 7.), 
and asya ptbatam Asvind (8, 5, 14), he sacrifices for the afternoon. After 
the formula, Agni eat ! he pronounces Vausat ! which is in lieu of the 
Svistakrit. They take, for making Svistakrit, parts of three offerings, 
viz., Soma juice (contained in the stalks), the things thrown into the Pra- 
vargya vessel (milk, butter, etc.), and hot wheys. When the Hotar (after 
having repeated the two mantras, above mentioned, along with the 
formula, E^OJ Agni eat !) pronounces the formula Vausat ! then thus the 
omission of " Agni Svistakrit " is replaced." 

The Brahma priest mutters (makes j(Xpa\ dsa dah^indsad (A^v. 4, 7.) 

(After the offering has been given to the fire) the Hotar repeats the 
following (seven) verses : svdhdhritah suchir deve^u (Atharv. 7, 73, 3. 
Xiw 4, 7.); samudrdd xtrmim udiyarti veno (10, 123, 2]; drapsah samudram 
abhi (10, 123, 8) ; sakhe sahlidyam (4, 1, 3) ; -drdliva u §u i^a (1, 36, 13) ; 
itrdhvo nah pdhi (1, 36, 14) ; tain ghem itthd (8, 58, 17). These verses are 
appropriate. What is appropriate at the sacrifice, that is successful. 

By the mantra, pdvaka soche tava (3, 2, 6), the Hotar wants to eat. 
When eating it, he says : " Let us eat the (remainder of the) offering 
which has been offered, of the sweet offering which has been thrown 
into the most brightly blazing (indratama) fire ! (Let us eat) of thee, O 
divine gharma (the contents of the Pravargya vessel) which art full of 
honey, full of sap, full of food, and quite hot {afigirasvat" ). Praise to 
thee (0 gharma !) ; do me no harm !" 

When the Pravargya vessel is put down, then the Hotar repeats these 
two mantras, syeno na yonim sadanam (9, 71, 6), and dyasmin sapta Vasava]} 

" He stands behind the other priests, when the Pravargya vessel is taken away, 

" Anantar-iti means " what has not gone into " = what is omitted. 

" The word certainly has here no reference to the Angiras, the celebrated l^isis. 

One ot the characteristics of the Gharma food is that it is very hot. This is expressed 

bore. Aiigiras had no doubt originally the same meaning as aiigdra. 



(A^val. 4, 7). In whatever (part of the) day (forenoon or afternoon), they 
are about to take off (the Pravargya vessel from its place), he repeats the 
mantra, havir havi^mo mahi (9, 83, 5). With the verse, sHyavasad hhaga-' 
vati (1, 164, 40), he concludes (the ceremony). 

£51J The Gharma (ceremony) represents the cohabitation of th© 
gods. The Gharma vessel is the penis ; the two handles (placed underneath, 
to lift it) are the two testicles, the Upayamani^* the thighs. The milk (ia 
the vessel) is the seed. This seed (in the shape of milk) is poured into 
Agni as the womb of the gods for production. For Agni is the womb of 
the gods. 

He who knowing this, eacrijSces according to this rite {yajnakratn\ is 
born (anew) from the womb of Agni and the offerings, and participates in 
the nature of the Rik, Yajus, and Saman, the Veda" (sacred knowledge), 
the Brahma (sacred element), and immortality, and is absorbed ia the 


The Devas and Asuras were fighting in these worlds. The Asuras 
made these worlds fortified castles, just as the strongest and most powerful 
(kings) do. Thus they made the earth an iron castle, the air a silver, th© 
sky a golden castle, Thus they made these worlds castles. The Devas 
said, these Asuras have made these worlds castles ; let us thus make other 
worlds in opposition to these castles. They made out of the earth in 
opposition (to the iron castle of the Asuras) a sitting-room*" {sadas), out 
[52} of the air a fire-place {dgnidhriya), and out of the sky two repositories 
for food (havirdhdna). Such they made these worlds in opposition to the 
castles (into which the three worlds had been transformed by the Asuras). 
The gods said, Let us perform the burnt offerings called Upasads** {i.e^, 
besieging). For, by means of an upasad, i.e., besieging, they conquer a 
large (fortified) town. Thus they did. When they performed the first 
Upasad, they drove by it them (the Asuras) out from this world (the eaxtbX 

" A large wooden spoon, from which the sacrificer drinks milk. 

^'Sayana here understands by Veda the Atharvaveda^ or all th© Vedas eollecfciveljr. 
Brahma is according to him Eiranyagnrbha {the unWersed soul), and amrita the supreme 
soul. But it is very doubtful whether these interpretations are right. By "-Veda" 
certainly the Atharva Veda cannot be meant ; for it was not lecognized; as a sacred book 
at the time of tb e composition of the Brahmanas. 

'" A place near the so-called Uttard Vedi which is outside that one appropriated for 
the performance of the Istis. The latter place is called Prdchina vamia. This sadas is 
the sitting-room for the king Soma, after his removal from the Prdchina vanisa. 

'1 There is observable throughout this chapter a pun betweea the two meanings 
of upasad "siege," and, a certain ceremony. 


By the performance of the second, they drove them out of the air, and by 
ihe performance of the third, out of the sky. Thus they were driven out 
of these worlds. The Asuras driven out of these (three) worlds, repaired 
to the Ritus (seasons). The gods said, Let us perform the Upasads. 
•Thus they did. 

These Upasads being three, they performed each twice ; (thus) they 
became six. There are six Ritus (seasons); thus they drove them Cthe 
■Aaurasj out of the Ritus. The Asuras driven out of the Ritus, repaired 
to the months. The Devas said, Let us perform the Upasads. Thus they 
did. The Upasads being six. Let us perform each twice, that makes 
twelve. There are twelve months. They drove them out of the months. 
The Asuras driven out of the months repaired to the half-months. The 
Pevas said, Let us perform the Upasads. Thus they did. The Upasads 
being twelve, they performed each twice : that makes twenty-four. There 
are twenty-four half-months. They turned them (the Asuras) out of the 
half-months. The Asuras, turned out of [53] the half-months, repaired 
to Day and Night (ahordtra). The Devas said, Let us perform the 
Upasads. Thus they did. By means of the Upasad which they per- 
formed for the first part of the day, they turned them out of day, 
and by means of that which they performed for the second part of the 
.day, they turned them out of night. Thus they disappeared from both 
day and night. Thence the first Upasad is to be performed during 
the first part of the day, and the second, during the second part. By 
doing so, the sacrificer leaves only so much space to his enemy (as there 
is between the junction of day and night.) 


The Upasads are the goddesses of victory {jitayaly). For, by means 
of them, the gods gained a complete victory, destroying all their enemies. 
He who has such a knowledge, gains a victory, destroying all his enemies. 
All the victories which the gods gained in these (three) worlds, or in the 
Ritus (seasons), or in the months, or the half-months, or in day and night, 
will he (also) gain who has such a knowledge. 

{The Tdmtnaptram " ceremony, or solemn oath taken hy the priests.) 

The Devas were afraid, surmising the Asuras might become aware of 
their being disunited, and seize [54] their reign. They marched out in 

" The TfinQnaptram ceremony which is alluded to and commented on in this para- 
graph, is to take place immediately after the Atithya is^i is finished, and not, as it 
might appear from this passage, after the Upasad. It is a solemn oath taken by the 
sacrificer and all the officiating priests pledging themselves mutually not to injure one 
another. It is chiefly considered as a safeguard for the sacrificer who is, as it were, 
entirely given up to the hands of the priests.. They are believed to have the power ot 


several divisions and deliberated. Agni marclied out with the Vaeus, and 
deliberated. Indra did so with the Rudras ; Varuna with the Adityas ; and 
Brihaspati with the Visve Uevas. Thus all, having severally marched out, 
deliberated. They said, " Well, let us put these our dearest bodies ^^ in 
the house of Varuna, the king, (i.«., water) ; he among us who should, out 
of greediness, transgress this (oath, not to do anything which might 
injure the sacrificer), he shall no more be joined with them." ^^ 

[55] They put their bodies in the house of Varuna. This putting 
of their bodies in the house of Varuna, the king, became their 
Tdvt'inaptram (joining of bodies). Thence they say : none of those joined 
together by the tdnunaptram ceremony is to be injured. Thence 
the Asuras could not conquer their (the gods') empire (for they all had 
been made inviolable by this ceremony). 


The Atithya-isti is the very head of the sacrifice (the sacrificial 

destroying him, or cheating him out of what he is sacrificing for, by not performing the 
ceremonies required in the proper, but in a wrong, way. This oath is taken in the 
following way : The Adhvaryu takes one of the large sacrificial spoons, called Dhriivd, 
and puts melted butter in it. He then takes a vessel (Kai'nsd, a goblet) into which, after 
having placed it on the Vedi, he puts by means of a Sruva the melted butter contained 
in the Dhruva. He puts five times the Sruva in the Dhruvd, and each time after a piece 
of melted butter having been taken out, a, Y apis (sacrificial formula) is repeated, via : 
dpataye tvd grihndmi; paripataye tvd grihndmi ; tdiii'tnaptre tvd grih<jidmi ; sdkvardya 
tvd grihndmi ; sakmann o^isfMya tvdgi'ihndmi (see Black Yajurveda 1, 2, 10, 2. ; Vajasaneya- 
Samh. 5, 5, where grihndmi and tvd are only put once). All priests with the sacrificer 
now touch the vessel (Kamsa) in which the a jya or melted butter thus taken out of the 
Dhruva had been put. They may touch, however, the d/'ya (melted bixtter) by means of 
a stalk of Kusa grass. When touching the butter, they all repeat the formula : 
anddhristam asi, &c. (Bl. Y. 1, 2, 10, 2.) " thou art inviolable." All the seven Hotars 
then put their hands in the madanti, a copper vessel, which is filled with water. This 
latter ceremony, only performed by the Hotars, is regarded as the symbolical deposition 
of the priests ' own bodies in the " house of Varuna, " which is only a poetical expression 
for the copper vessel filled with water. 

As to the name tdnunaptram, one is induced to refer it to tanunapdt, a name of Agni, 
by which he is invoked in the Prayajas and which occurs along with others at this very 
ceremony. But I doubt whether the name tdnilnaptram has here anything to do with 
Agni tanunapdt. The latter word means only one's own son, or one's own relative. By 
taking this solemn oath, the sacrificer and the ofliciating priests come as it werenoti* 
the closest contact with one another, bound by ties as strong as family ties. The term, 
therefore, means only : contracting of the closest relationship, brotherhood. 

" Say. understands by this expression " wife and children." But this inter- 
pretation is doubtful to me. 

^* This is the formula of the oath, which is very ancient in language, as the forms : 
Sanigacchatdi, 3rd pers. sing., conjunct., middle voice, and, Wuiviihdd, conjunct, of the 
aorist, clearly prove. 


personage) ; the Upasads are his neck. The two stalks of K\i4a. grass 
(held by the Hotar) are of the same length ; for head and neck are eqnal. 
The gods made the Upasads as an arrow (the upasad ceremony 
served them as an arrow) ; Agni was its shaft, Soma its steel, Visnu its 
point, and Varuna its feathers. The gods holding this arrow represented 
by the Ajya (at the Upasad ceremony) discharged it, and, breaking with 
it the castles of the A suras, entered them. For these (deities, Agni and 
BO on) are in the Ajya offering. At first ho (the sacrificer) undergoes the 
religious ceremony of drinking (milk) coming from fouj nipples (o£ 
the cow), ^^for the arrow in the Upasads consists of four parts, viz., shaft, 
steel, point, and feathers. He (subsequently) undergoes the religious 
ceremony of drinking what comes from three nipples. For the arrow in 
the Upasads consists of three parts, viz., shaft, steel, and point. He under- 
goes the religious ceremony of drinking what comes from two nipples. 
For the arrow in the Upasads consists of two parts, viz., shaft and point. 
He undergoes the religious ceremony of drinking what comes from one 
nipple (alone). For, in the Upasads, there is only " one " arrow 
mentioned (as [56] a unit). By means of one alone {i.e., by co-operation 
of all its parts) effect is produced. The worlds which are above are ex- 
tended^^ and those which are below, contracted. The priest (in per- 
forming this ceremony) commences by that number of nipples (four) 
which represents the larger worlds, and proceeds to those which represent 
the smaller ones." (That is done) for conquering these worlds. 

(Now the Sdmidheni verses for the forenoon and afternoon Upasad 
ceremonies are inentioned).^^ 

Opasadydya mUhushe (7, 15, 1-3), Imam me Agne samidham (2, &, 
1-3). Three Samidheni verses are to be repeated each time (the first set 
in the forenoon and the second in the afternoon). They are complete in 
form. When the form is complete, and the verse which is recited alludes, 
to the ceremony which is being performed, then the sacrifice is successful. 
For Anuvdkyds and Ydjyds, Jaghnivati verses (such verses, as con- 
tain derivatives of the root han to kill) ought to be used. These are : 
agnir vritrdni jamghanat (6, 16, 34) ; ya agra iva saryahd (6, 16, 39) ; 

" See Black Yajurveda, ed. Cowell, 1, p. 400. 

" The highest world is Satyaloka which is the largest of all ; Dyuloka is smaller ; 
Antarik'^a loka and Blutrloka are successively smaller still. 

" That is to say, he milks on the first day four nipples, on the second three, and on 
the third two and one. 

'^ After some prelimiuary remarks on the importance and signification of the Upasad 
ceremony, the author goes on to set forth the duties of the Hotar when performing tho^ 
Upasad, which has all the characteristics of a common Isti. 


tt>afhfsomasi8atpatili{lyQ\,5)\ gayasphS,no amivaha (1, 91, 12.); idam 
Vi§riur vichakrame (1, 22, 17.) ; tririi padd viehakrame (1, 22, 8). *' 
This is the order for the forenoon ceremony). For the afternoon cere- 
mony he inverts the order of these verses (so as to make the Yajya of 
[^57} the forenoon Anuvakya in the afternoon, and vice versa). By means 
of these Upasads the Devas defeated (the Asuras), and, breaking down their 
castles, entered them. 

In performing the Upasad ceremony he should use verses in the same 
metre (for all the Ahutis), not such ones as are in different metres. AVhen 
the Hotar uses different metres, then he produces the king's evil on the 
necks (of the sacrificers). Thus the Hotar has it in his power to produce 
diseases. Thence the mantras (for the chief deities at the Upasad i§ti) 
should be always of the same metre, not of different metres. 

Updvih, the son of Janasrutd, said in a Brahmanam about the Upasads, 
as follows : " From this reason (on account of the Upasads) the face of an 
ugly-looking Srotriya makes upon the eye of an observer the distinct im- 
pression, as if it were very full, and he like a person who is in the habit 
of singing." He said so, for the Upasad offerings, consisting of melted 
butter, appear on the throat as a face put over it.) 

(Neither Prayajas nor Anuydjas are to he used at the Upasad I§ti). 

The Prayajas as well as the Anuydjas are the armour of the gods. (The 
Upasad isti) is to be performed without both, in order to sharpen the 
arrow for preventing it from recoiling. 

The Hotar repeats the mantras (at this occasion) only after having 
overstepped (the boundary between the Vedi and Ahavanlya fire on all 
sides^"), in order to supervene the sacrifice, and prevent it from going. 

[58] They (the divines) say : it is, as it were, a cruel act, when they 
perform ceremony of (touching) the melted butter (the Taniinapatram) 
near the king Soma.^^ The reason is, that Indra, using melted butter 
as his thunderbolt, killed Vj-itra. In order to compensate the king 
Soma for any injury he might have received from the performance of the 
Tanunaptram ceremony in his presence) they sprinkle the king (Soma) 

*' The respective deities of these AnuvakySs and Yajyas are : Agni, Soma, and Visnu. 

*' In most ceremonies he oversteps this boundary only towards the south. But at the 
Upasad ceremony it is done on all sides. 

" The vessel, containing the Ajya which is to be tonched by all the priests and the 
sacrificer, in order to bind them together by a solemn oath, is placed over the Soma plant 
•which is lying on the Vedi. To pat anything on the king Soma, is regarded as a cruel 
treatment which is to be atoned for. Soma is to be pacified by sprinkling with water, 
which ceremony is called dpydyanam—Soma prayoga. 

40 ' • 

with water (whilst the following mantra is repeated) : arhsur aihiu^te 
deva Soma (Taitt. 1, 2, 11, 2). When they perform this ceremony near 
him (Soma), which is, as it were, a cruel treatment of him, then they (sdb- 
sequently) make him (Soma) by this (sprinkling of water) fat (when lying) 
on her (the Vedi), and make him grow. 

The king Soma is the fruit of heaven and earth. When repeating 
the words ; esta r^yah, ^^ &c,, they (the Hotri priests) throw the two bun- 
dles of kujia grass (held in their hands, in the southern corner of the Vedi), 
and put their right hands ever their left ones'' (to cover the ku^a grass). 
By making a bow to " heaven and earth " (which are represented by 
thqse two bundles of kurfa grass) they make them both grow. 


{The Ceremonies of carrying the Fire, Soma, and the Offerings from 
their Places in the Prdchhia-vamsa to the Uttard Vedi.) 

The king Soma lived among the Gandharvas. The Gods and Risis 
deliberated, as to how the king might be induced to return to them. Vdch 
(the goddess of speech) said, the Gandharvas lust after women. I (there- 
fore) shall transform myself into a woman, and then you sell me to them 
(in exchange for Soma).^ The gods answered: " No ! how may we live 
without thee ? She said, sell me unto them ; if you should want me, I 
shall return to you." Thus they did. In the disguise of a big naked wo- 
man she was sold (by the gods to the Gandharvas) in exchange for Soma. 
In imitation (of this precedent) they drive away an immaculate cow of one 
year's age, being the price^ at which they purchase the king Soma. She 
(this cow) may, however, be rebought' ; for Vdch (whom this cow, for' 
which the Soma is bought, represents) returned to the gods. Thence the 
mantras (after Soma has been bought) are to be repeated with a low 
voice. After Soma has been bought, Vach is with the Gandharvas ; but 
she retuns as soon as the ceremony of the Agnipranayana is performed. 

" These words follow the mantra mentioned above : amsur afnsiiste, &c. (Taitt. 
Samh. 1, 2, 11, 1. ; but the text differs a little from that in our Br4hmapam). 

*• The term used is : prastarenihnavate, literally, ho conceals the two bundles of 
kusa grass. The concealment is done in the manner expressed in the translation, as I my- 
self have witnessed it. 

'This is the meaning of the verb pa ti, which appears to be related to the Latin 
pigmis, pawn. 

2 Instead of giving a cow, the sacrificer pays the price of a cow in money to the 
Brahman who brings him the Soma. To sell Soma is regarded as very disreputable, The 
seller is not admitted to the sacrificial compound, nor invited to the great dinner which 
the sacrificer must give to Brahmans at the end of the sacrifice. 

* As a rule, the cows given in Daksiaa, cannot be rebought by the giver. 


t60]| The Agni-prauayana, I.e., Ceremony of Carrying the Sacrificial 
Fire to the Altar destined for the Animal and Soma Sacrifices.^ 

The Adhvaryu orders ( the Hotar ), when the sacrificial fire is 
to be carried (to the Uttara Vedi), to repeat mantras appropriate (to the 

(He repeats :) pra devam devyd (10, 176,2). If the sacrificer boa 
Brahman, he ought to repeat a verse in the Gayatri metre ; for the Brah- 
man belongs to the Gayatri metre (has its nature). The Gayatri is beauty 
and acquisition of sacred knowledge. (This metre) makes him the fsacrifi- 
cer) thus prosper by means of the beauty and sacred knowledge (which is 
contained in it). 

If the sacrificer be a Ksattriya, he should repeat a Tristubh, vi^. — 
imavi make vidafhydya (3, 54, 1). For the Ksattriya belongs to the 
Tristubh (has its nature). Tristubh is strength, sharpness of senses 
and power. By repeating thus a Tristubh, the Tlotar makes him (the 
sacrificer of the Ksattriya caste) prosper through the strength, sharpness 
of sense and power (contained in the Tristubh). By the words of the 
second pada of the verse mentioned) : sascatkritva tdydya prajahhriir, i.e., 
"they brought to hioi who is to be praised always (Agui), the Hotar brings 
the sacrificer at the head of his (the sacrificer's) family. By the second 
half verse, srinotu no damyehhir, &c., i.e., may Agni hear us with the hosts 
(the flames) posted in his house; may he, the imperishable, hear (us) with 
his hosts in heaven ! (the Hotar effects that). Agni shines in the house of 
the sacrificer till the end of his life (i.e., he is always protected by him). 

If the sacrificer be a Vaii^ya, the Hotar should repeat a verse in the 
Jagati metre, viz : — ayam iha prathomo [61] (4, 7, 1). For the 
Vaisya belongs to the Jagati : cattle is of the same (Jagati) 
nature. Thus he makes him prosper by means of cattle 
(provides him with it). In its fourth pada vane^u, &c., the word vise 
(VaisSya) is mentioned. This is appropriate. What is appropriate, that 
is successful in the sacrifice. 

When repeating the verse : ayarh u ?ya pra devayur (10, 176, 3), 
which is in the Anu&tubh metre, the Hotar sends forth speech {i.e , he 
repeats for the first time, this mantra, with a loud voice again, after having 
only inaudibly muttered some of the preceding ones). For the Anustuhh 
metre is speech. By repeating (an Auustubh), he thus sends forth 
speech in speech. By the words ayam u sya he expresses the following 
sentence : I who formerly was living among the Gandharvas have come.'* 

* The author of the Brahmanam tries to find iu the words ayaih u jj/a of the mantra. 


By the verse : ayam agnir urusyati, &c. (10, 176, 4) i.e., " this Agni 
makes (us) fearless by dint of his immortal nature, aa it were," the Hotar 
provides him (the sacrificer) with immortality. (The second half of this 
verse), sahasaa chit saliiydn devo jivdtave hritaJi, i.e., *' the god has been 
made very powerful by means of (his own) power, in order to preserve 
t62) (ourj lives" signifies, that he (Agni) is the god who, by (our) 
repeating this verse, is made the preserver of (our) lives. 

(The Hotar now repeats:) ildyds tvd pade vayam,, &c. (3. 29, 4), ie., 
" we put thee, Jatavedas ! (Agni) in the place of lid, in the centre 
{ndbhi of the C7ftar(t 7edzV on the earth to carry up (our) offerings." By 
ndhhi (lit. navel), the ndhhi of the Uttard Vedi is meant. NidUmaU (lit. 
we put down) means ' " they are about to put him (Agni) down." The 
term " havydya volhave'' means : he is about to carry up the sacrifice. 

(The Hotar repeats :) Agne visvehhili svanika (6, 15, 16). " Agni, 
" with thy well-armed host (the flames), take first with all the gods thy 
" seat in the hole which is stuffed with wool ; carry well the sacrificial 
" offering, seasoned with melted butter, and deposited in thee as in a nest, 
** for the sacrificer who is producing (the mystical sacrificial man) anew." 
(When repeating the first and second padas :) agne visvebhih, he makes 
him (Agni) with all the gods sit. (When repeating the third pada : 
kuUyinam ghritavantam, &c.) a bird's nest, as it were, consisting of 
sticks of fir-tree wood, an odoriferous gum (guggul), a braid of hair 
{UrmstuMh), and a kind of fragrant grass,^ is prepared (for Agni) at the 

in question, an allusion to the fable reported in 1, 27, on the VSch's (speech) residence 
among the Gandharvas. But this interpretation is wholly ungrammatical and childish. 
Ayam, the masculine of the demonstrative pronoun, is here, as Sayana explains, according 
to the Brahmanam, taken as a feminine, in order to make it refer to Vdcli, which word is 
feminine. The impossibility of such an explanation will be apparent to every reader. The 
verse in question refers to the ceremony of the Agni-pranayanam, the carrying of the 
fire from the Ahavaniya fire to the Uttara Vedi ; but its subject is Agni, and not VAch. I 
translate it as follows : " This very Hotar (i.e., Agni, whom the Hotar represents) 
*' desirous of worshipping the gods, is carried (thither, to the Uttara Vedi) for the per- 
" formance of the sacrifice (animal and Soma offering). He (when being carried) appears 
" by himself as a fiery chariot (the sun) surrounded (by a large retinue of priests and 
" sacrificers)." 

' The Ndbhi of the Vttard Vedi (the altar outside the Prdchina varhsa or place for the 
Istis with the three fires) is a hole of a quadrangular form in the midst of this altar, 
filled with kusa grass, &c. (see below) in which the fire brought from the Ahavaniya is 

" The articles here mentioned, are put in the Nabhi, or hole in the Uttara Vedi. They 
are regarded as forming the nest of Agni, As living in this nest like a bird, he is called 


(When repeating the fourth pada :) yajnam naya, &c., he thus places 
the sacrifice (the sacrificial personage) straight on him (Agni). 

r^S] (The Hotar repeats) : sidahotah sva u loke, &c. (3, 29, 8), i.e., 
" sit, Hotar ! (Agni) in thy own place (the Nabhi), being conspi- 
*'cuous; make sit the sacrifice in the hole of the well-made (nest). 
"Mayst thou, Agni, who art going to the gods with the offering, 
*' repeat sacrificial verses addressed to the gods^ Mayst thou grant the 
" sacrificer a life with abundance.'' 

By " Hotar " Agni is to be understood ; for he is the Hotar of the 
gods. " His own place " (sva u loke) is the Nabhi of the Uttara Vedi. 
By the words : make sit, &c., the Hotar asks a blessing for the sacrificer ; 
for the *^ yajiia'' (sacrifice, mentioned in this* verse) is the sacrificer. 
When repeating the second half of this verse : devdvir, &c., the Hotar 
provides the sacrificer with life ; for " vayas " (mentioned in this verse) 
is life. 

(The Hotar repeats :) ni hold hotri^adane (2, 9, 1), i.e., *' the Hotar of 
"great knowledge and skill, who is brightly shining, sat down on the 
" Hotri-seat (place for the Hotar), Agni, who deeply comprehends the 
" inviolable laws (of the sacrificial art), he, the most splendid (vasisthah) 
" who bears a thousand burdens (i.e., preserver of all) and has a flaming 
tongue." By Hotar is Agni to be understood ; liotri^adanam is the 
nd.h'hi of the uttara vedi. By " he sat down " is expressed that he was 
put there. The term " vasistha " means, that Agni is the most shining 
(vasu) among the gods. The term " sahasrarhhhara " means, that they, 
though he (Agni) be only one, multiply him by using him at different 
occasions. He who has this knowledge, has a thousand-fold profit. 

The Hotar concludes with the verse : tvam dutas tvam u naJ} 
(2, 9, 2), i. e., " thou art our messen. < r, our [64] protector behind (us) ; 
"thou the bringer of wealth, strong one ! Agni 1 do not neglect the 
"bodies (members) in the spread of our families. The herdsman 
'* with his light was awake." Agni is the herdsman (gopa) of the 
gods. He who knowing this, concludes (the ceremony of Agni-pra- 
nayanam) with this verse (mentioned), has Agni everywhere round him 
as herdsman (watchman) for himself and the sacrificer, and secures thus 
welfare for the whole year. 

He recites these eight verses (just enumerated), which are complete 
in form. What is complete in form, that is, when the mantra recited 
alludes to the ceremony which is being performed, that is successful in 

' The verb ya; has here (as in many other cases) the meaning : to repeat the Yfijyfi- 


the sacrifice. Of these eight verses he repeats the first and last thrice ; 
that makes twelve. Twelve months make a year ; the year is Prajapati. 
He who has such a knowledge, prospers through these verses which 
reside in Prajapati. 

By repeating the first and last verses thrice, he ties the two ends of 
the sacrifice, in order to give it a hold and tighten it to prevent it from 
falling down. 

(The Carrying of the Eepositories ^ of Sacred Food to the Uttard Vedi). 

The Adhvaryu calls (upon the Hotar) : repeat the mantras appropriate 
to the two repositories with sacred food (havirdhdna) being carried (to the 
Uttara Vedi). 

He repeats: yuje^ ram hrahma, &c. (10, 13, 1), "the Brahma is 
joined to the praises of you both." £65} For the two Havirdhanas, 
which are gods, were united with the Brahma. By reciting this verse 
he joins both these (Havirdhanas) with the Brahma, and having this 
latter (Brahma) power, he does not suffer any harm. 

He repeats the triplet: pretdm yajnasya sarhhhiiva (2, 41,19-21;, 
"which is addressed to Heaven and Earth. 

They ask : *' Why does the Hotar repeat a triplet addressed to Heaven 
and Earth, when he is reciting mantras to the two Havirdhanas being 
removed (to the Uttara Vedi) ?" (.The answer is) ' Because Heaven and 
Earth are the two Havirdhanas of the gods. They are always repositories 
for offerings ; for every offering is between them (Heaven and Earth). 

The verse, yame iva yatamdne yadaitam (10, 13, 2), means : these 
two Havirdhanas, walk together, like twins, their arms stretched. (The 
second pada of this verse) pra vdm bharan mdnusd devayantali means, 
that men bring both (these Havirdhanas) when worshipping god. (The 
third and fourth padas :) dsidatam u lokam, &c., allude to Soma (by 
the name I)idu). By repeating this (half verse), the priest prepares for 
the king Soma (a seat) to sit on (alluding to dsidatam). 

(He repeats :) adhi dvayor adadhd uhthyavi vachah (1, 83, 3). This 
ukthyam vachal} is as a cover, forming the third piece (in addition to 
the two Havirdhanas) put over both. " For uhthyavi vachali is the 

' The two Havirdhanas, are two carts, on which the Soma and the other offerings are 
put, and covered with a cover (chhadih), for carrying all things from the Prachina-vams a 
to the UttarS. Yedi. The cover consists of grass. See Black Yajurveda, ed. Cowell i. 
p. 428. 

' It is to be taken as third person of the Atmanepadam, not as a first one. 

*" This is symbolically to be understood. The author calls the expression ukthyam 
vachah a cover, to which opinion he, probably, was led by the frequency o^the term : 

45 . 

sacrificial performance. By means of this {ultthyam vachah) lie thus makes 
the sacrifice successful. 

r66] The term yata, i.e., cruel, used in the second ipada, {yatasruchd, 
1, 83, 3), is propitiated in the following third pada by asarhyata, i.e., 
appeased, propitiated." By the fourth pada, hhadrd saktir, &c., he asks 
for a blessing. 

He repeats the Vin^variipa verse ^^ : visvd ru'pani pratimunchate (5, 81, 2). 
He ought to repeat this verse when looking at the upper part (rardti)^^ 
of the posts (between which the two Havirdhanas are put) ; for, on this 
part there every form is hung, white and black, as it were. He who 
having such a knowledge repeats this verse when [67] looking at the 
upper part of the posts, obtains for himself and the sacrificer every form. 

With the verse, pari tvd girvario gira (1, 10, 12), he concludes. He 
should repeat this concluding verse at the time he might think both the 
Havirdhanas closed by hanging over them the bunch of Darbha" 
(between the two posts). He who knowing thus concludes with this 
verse, when the two Havirdhanas are thus closed, secures for himself 

uktliam vdchi, i. e., " the SSstra has been repeated " at the end of the recitations of 
the Hotri-priests at the Soma libations to denote that they are finished. The Hotar 
must stop after having recited the first half of the verse, adhi dvayor, as is said in the 
Asval. Srauta Sutras, 4, 9, and indicated in the Saptahautra prayoga. The rule ia 
Asval., which is strictly observed by the Srotriyas up to this day, runs as follows. — 

«lf^ 5^R3[^T 3^2^ ^^ ^1% ^^4 «ITW^ sqg^T ^^ZlJ^ f^^T^Tlftl 5I%5=^^ s^IW^cimf ; 
i.e., He should stop after having repeated half of the verse adhi dvayor, when the bunch 
of kus'a grass is not yet hang over the two posts. When this bunch is hung over, ho 
recites (the second half of that verse, and) visvd ritpdni. The form vyavasta is 
contraction of vyava-sita (from the root si, to tie, bind). 

"The interpretation which the writer of the Brahmana gives of this passage, is 
egregiously wrong. Yata-sriik can only mean " with the sacrificial spoon kept in his 
hand,-" asai'nyata (instead ot asaniyatasriik) then stands in opposition to it, meaning : 
having laid it aside. The meaning " cruel " is given to yata by Sayana. 

^' So called from the beginning words: visvd r I'l pan i. It refers to the objects of 
senses becoming manifest again by sunrise. For Savitar the san, brings forth " all 

" This translation is made according to oral information obtained from a Brahman 
who officiated as a Hotar. Sayana explains it as " a garland of Darbha." It is true, a 
bunch of Darbha grass, consisting of dry and green stalks, the first representing the 
white, the latter the dark, colour, is huug up at the upper part of the two posts (called 
metlii) between which the two Havirdhanas are put. Therefore, when the priest looks 
at the upper part of this gate, he necessarily glances at the bunch of Darbha grass 
which must be hung there. The garland which is hung up, is designated by the name : 
rardtam, as appears from the Yajus, which is repeated by the Adhvaryu at that time : 
vi-rtor rdrdtamasi. See Taittiriya Samh, 1,2, 18, 3, and Sayana's Commentary on it, 
vol. i. p. 429, ed. Cowell. 

'^ The term in the original is parisrita, which literally means surrounded. 


and the sacrifice! fine women who are not naked (covered with clothes, 
jewels, &c.)« 

Both are closed with a Yajusmantra.^' Thus the Adhvaryus do it 
with the said Yajus. When the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthatar on 
both sides (of the Havirdhanas) drive in the two stakes (methi), then he 
should conclude. For at that time the two Havirdhanas are closed. 

These eight verses which he has repeated are complete in form. 
What is complete in form, that is, when the verse recited alludes to the 
ceremony which is being performed, that is successful in the sacrifice. 
Of these, he repeats ths first and last thrice, that makes twelve. For the 
year has twelve months. Prajapati is the year. He who has such a 
knowledge thus prospers through these verses which reside in Prajapati. 

By repeating the first and last thrice, he ties the two ends (knots) 

of the sacrifice for giving it a hold, and tighten it to prevent it from 

falling down. 

[68] 30 

{The Bringing of Agni and Soma *• to the Place of the Uttard Vedi.) 

When Agni and Soma are brought, the Adhvaryu calls upon (the 

Eotar) to repeat appropriate mantras. 

He (first) repeats a verse addressed to Savitar sdvir hi deva prathamdya 

(Aiiv. ^r. S. 4, 10. Atharv. 7, 14, 3.) They ask : why does he repeat a 

verse addressed to Savitar, when Agni and Soma are brought ? (The 

answer is :) Savitar rules over generation. Under the recital of this 

verse, they (the priests) carry both (Agni and Soma) as being produced 

by Savitar. Therefore he repeats a verse addressed to Savitar. 

He repeats a verse addressed to Brahmanaspati : praitu Brahmaxnas- 

patih (1, 40, 3). They ask : why does he repeat a verse addressed to 

Brahmanaspati when Agni and Soma are brought ? (The answer is ) : 

Brihaspati (the same as Brahmanaspati) is Brahma. By repeating this 

verse, he makes Brahma the leader (purogava) of both (Agni and Soma), 

and the sacrificer, being provided with the Brahma, does not suffer any 


" This is, z/isuo/i. pristJiam asi. See Taitt. Samh. 6, 2, 9. 

" In order to make the removal of Agni-Soma and the Havirdhanas clear it is to 
be remarked, that first Agni alone is carried to the Uttara Vedi. This ceremony is called 
Agni-pranayaimm. Then the two carts, called Bavirdhanas, filled with ghee, Soma, and 
after oblations, are drawn by the priests to the place on the right side of the Uttara 
Vedi. This is the Havirdhdna pravartanam. Then the priests go a third time back 
to the Prachina-vamsa, and bring Agni (fire), and Soma again. Both, after having been 
removed from the Prachina-vamsa, are put down at the gate, facing their former place. 
The fire is to be put in the Agnidhriya hearth, in the place of the UttarS. Vedi (on the 
left side), and the Soma in the place called Sadas, near the Agnidhriya hearth. This 
ceremony is called : Agniioma-pranayanatn. 


C691 By repeating the second half verse (of praitu BrhmaTjaspatih) pra 
devi etu sunribd, he provides the sacrifice with a good omen. Thence 
he repeats a verse addressed to Brahmanaspati. 

He repeats a triplet in the Gayatri metre, which is addressed to 
Agni : liotd devo amartya (3, 27, 7). 

When the King Soma had been carried once (to the place of the 
Uttara Vedi), then the Asuras and demons sought to kill the king be- 
tween the place called Sadas and the two Havirdhanas. Agni saved him 
by assuming an illusory form (mdyd), as is said in the words of the mantra 
(just quoted) : purastdd eti mdyayd, i.e., he walks before him by assum- 
ing an illusory form. In this way Agni saved Soma. Therefore they 
hold before him (Soma) fire. 

He repeats the triplet, upa tvd agne dive (1, 1, 7, 9 11), and the 
single verse, upa priyam (9, 67, 29). For these two Agnis,^ that one 
which has been taken first, and the other which was brought afterwards,^^ 
have the power of injuring the sacrificer, when they are fighting (with 
one another as to whom the oblation belongs). By repeating these three 
verses, and the single one (in addition to themj, he thus reconciles 
them in a friendly way, and puts them (back) in their proper places, 
without any injury being done either to himself or the sacrificer. 

When the oblation is given to the fire, he repeats : agne ju^asva 
prati harya (1, 144, 7). By repeating this verse, he gives (this] oblation 
to Agni as a "favour" (on account of the term *' Jwsasya, " take it 
favourably ! contained in it). 

[70} When the King Soma is carried (to the Sadas) the Hotar 
repeats the triplet of verses, commencing with : somo jigdti gdtuvid 
(3, 62, 13-15), which is in the Gayatri metre, and addressed to Soma. 
By repeating it, he thus makes prosper Soma by means of his own deity 
(the verses being addressed to Soma) and his own metre (Gayatri). The 
words (in the last verse of this triplet)— SoT/ia/i sadastham dsadat, " Soma 
sat on the seat," which express that Soma (at the time of the triplet 
in question being repeated) is just about taking his seat (in the Sadas), 
are to be repeated by the Hotar, after having gone beyond the place 
of the Agnidhriya hearth, when turning his back to it. 

He repeats a verse addressed to Visnu : tarn asya rdjd varuvas 
(1, 156, 4), i.e., " the King Varuna and " the i^^vins follow the wisdom 

" This first Agni is that one, which was brought to the Uttara Vedi, and put in 
the Nabhi of it; the other is that one, which was afterwards taken to the Agnidhriya 

" This refers to the burnt-offering (homo) which is to be thrown into the Agnidhriija 


" of the leader of tlie Ma.ruts (Visnu) ; Visnu is possessed of the high- 
** est power, by means of which he, surrounded by his friends, uncovers 
" the stable of darkness (night) to make broad daylight." Visnu is the 
door-keeper of the gods. Thence he opens the door for him (for Soma's 
admission), when this verse is being repeated. 

He repeats : aiitascha prdgd aditir (8, 48, 2), when Soma is 
about to be put in the Sadas. When Soma has taken his seat, the 
Hotar repeats : syeno na yonim sadanam (9, 71, 6), t.e., " the god (Soma) 
" takes his golden seat just as the eagle is occupying for his residence 
" a nest wisely constructed ; the hymns fly to him, when comfortably 
** seated on the grass spread ; like a sacrificial horse he runs to the gods." 
By " golden seat " the black goat skin (on which Soma is put) is to be 
understood, which covers that which belongs to the gods (their food). 
Thence he repeats this mantra. 

[7^1 He concludes with a verse addressed to Varuna : astahhndt 
dyclm asuro (8, 42, 1), i.e., " the living god (Asura) established heaven, 
*' he the all-possessing created the plain of the earth ; as their 
" supreme ruler, he enforces upon all beings those (well-known) laws 
" of Varuna (laws of nature, birth and death &c.)." For Soma is in 
the power of Varuna, as long as he remains tied up (in a cloth), and 
whilst moving in a place shut up (by hanging kujia grass over it). 
By repeating at that (time) this verse, the Hotar makes him (Soma) 
prosper through his own deity, and his own metre (Tristubh). 

If some persons should take their refuge with the sacrificer, or 
should wish for protection from him, the Hotar must conclude with - 
evd vandasva varuriam (8, 42, 2). - He who, having such a knowledge, 
concludes with this verse, secures safety for as many persons as he wishes 
and contemplates. Thence he who knows it, should conclude with 
this verse. 

All the seventeen verses which he has repeated on this occasion 
are complete in their form. What is complete in form, that is to say, 
when the mantra which is repeated alludes to the ceremony which is 
being performed, that is successful in the sacrifice. Of these (17 verses) 
he repeats thrice the first and last ; that makes twenty-one. Prajapati 
is twenty-one fold ; for he consists of twelve months, five seasons, 
and these three worlds with that ^ditya (sun^ as the twenty-first. 
For he is the highest place (on the sky, occupied by Aditya), he is the 
field of the gods, he is fortune, he is sovereignty ; he is the heaven of 
the bright one (sun), he is the residence of Prajapati ; he is independent 
rule. He (the Hotar) makes the sacrificer prosperous through these 
twenty-one verses. 




(The Animal Sacrifice.) 


(Erecting of the Sacrificial Post.) 

The Gods went up to the celestial world by means of this sacri- 
fice. They were afraid that Men and Risis, after having seen their 
sacrifice (by means of which they ascended to heaven), might come after 
(they had gone), and inquire (whether they could not obtain some sacri- 
ficial knowledge). They debarred them^ (from obtaining such a know- 
ledge) by means of the YApa, i.e., tlie sacrificial post. Thence the 
Yiipa is called so (from yoydpayan, they debarred). The gods when 
going up to the celestial world, struck the Yupa in (the earth), turning 
its points downwards. Thereupon Men and Risis came to the spot 
where the gods had performed their sacrifice, thinking, that they 
might obtain some information (about the sacrifice). They found only 
the Yupa struck in (the earth), with its point turned downwards. 
They learnt that the gods had by this means {i.e., by having struck in 
the earth the Yupa) precluded the sacrificial secret (from being known). 
They dug the Yupa out, and turned its points upwards, where- 
[73] upon they got aware of the sacrifice, and beheld (consequently), 
the celestial world. That is the reason that the Yupa is erected with its 
point turned upwards (it is done), in order to get aware of the sacrifice, 
and to behold the celestial world. 

This Yupa is a weapon. Its point must have eight edges. For a 
weapon (or iron club) has eight edges. Whenever he strikes with it an 
enemy or adversary, he kills him. (This weapon serves) to put down him 
(every one) who is to be put down by him (the sacrificer). The Yupa is a 
weapon which stands erected (being ready) to slay an enemy. Thence an 

* The term is : yoyitpayan, which -word is only a derivation from ynpa, and proves, 
in fact, nothing for the etymology of the latter. The author had no doubt the roofc 
{yu "to avert, prevent") in view. It is possible that the word is ultimately to be traced 
to this root. The Yupa itself is a high wooden post, decorated with ribands and erected 
before the Uttara Vedi. The sacrificial aniaial is tied to it, 




enemy (of the sacrificer) who might be present (at the sacrifice) comes out 
ill after having seen the Yupa of such or such one. 

He who desires heaven, ought to make his Yfipa of Khadira wood. 
For the gods conquered the celestial world by means of a Yupa made of 
Khadira wood. In the same way, the sacrificer conquers the celestial 
world by means of a Yupa made of Khadira wood. 

He who desires food and wishes to grow fat, ought to make his Yupa 
of Bilva wood. For the Bilva tree bears fruits every year ; it is the 
symbol of fertility ; for it increases (every year) in size from the roots up 
to the branches, therefore it is a symbol of fatness. He who having such 
a knowledge makes his Yupa of Bilva wood, makes fat his children and 

As regards the Yupa made of Bilva wood (it is further to be 
remarked, that) they call " light " hilva. He who has such a knowledge, 
becomes a light among his own people, the most distinguished among his 
own people. 

He who desires beauty and sacred knowledge ought to make 
his Yupa of Palasa wood. For the [74] Palas^a is among the trees beauty 
and sacred knowledge. He who having such a knowledge makes hia 
YiJipa of Palasa wood, becomes beautiful and acquires sacred knowledge. 

As regards the Yupa made of Palas^a wood (there is further to be 
remarked, that) the Palasa is the womb of all trees. Thence they speak 
on account of the paldsam (foliage) of the Palas^a tree, of the paldsam 
(foliage) of this or that tree (i.e., they call the foliage of every tree 
'palasam). He who has such a knowledge obtains (the gratification of) any 
desire he might have regarding all trees {i.e., he obtains from all trees 
anything he might wish for). 

{The Ceremony of Anointing the Sacrificial Post). 

The Adhvaryu says (to the Hotar) : *' We anoint the sacrificial post 
(Yupa) ; repeat the mantra (required)." The Hotar then repeats the 
verse : " Amjanti tvdm adhvare " (3, 8, 1), i.e., " The priests anoint thee, 
tree ! with celestial honey (butter) ; provide (us) with wealth if thou 
standest here erected, or if thou art lying on thy mother (earth)." The 
" celestial honey " is the melted butter (with which the priests anoint the 
Yupa). (The second half verse from) " provide us, " &c., means : " thou 
mayest stand or lie, ^ provide us with wealth." 

^ The Brahmanarri explains here only the two somewhat obscTire verbal forms: 
ti^tlui and ksuyo of the mantra, by tistluisi (2nd person conjunctive, present tense), 
and sayasni (2nd person conjunctive, middle voice, present tense), which are in the 
common Sariiskrit language equally obsolete : tUthd stands instead of ti^thds, 2nd person 
conjunctive, present tense of the shorter form. 


(The Hotar repeats tlie mantra.) Uchchhrayasva, &c. (3, 8, 3\ i.e., 
" be raised, tree ! on the surface of the soil ; thou who hast well lain 
(on the ground), grant splendour to the carrying up of the [75] sacrifice 
(to lieaven)." This (verse) is appropriate to (the occasion of) erecting 
the Yupa (for it contains the words : " be raised ! "j. What is appropriate 
in the sacrifice, that is sure of success. (The words) " on the surface of the 
soil " mean the surface of that soil over which they raise the Yiipa. (By 
the words) " thou hast lain well, grant us, " &c., the Hotar asks for a 
blessing (from the Yflpa). 

(The Hotar repeats :) samiddhasya srayamdnah " (3, 8, 2), i.e., " placed 
before the (fire) which is kindled (here), thou grantest the Brahma power, 
which is indestructible and provides with abundance offspring. Stand 
erected, driving far off our enemies {amati), for our welfare." By the 
words : *' placed before, " &c., he means : placed before it (what is kindled, 
the fire). By the words :** thou grantest," &c., he asks for a blessing. 
The wicked enemy {amati} is hunger. By the words : " driving far off, " 
&c., he frees the sacrifice as well as the sacrificer from hunger. By the 
words : " stand erected, " &c., he asks for a blessing. 

(The Hotar repeats the mantra : urdhoa d §u na iltaye (1, 36, 13), i.e., 
" Stand upright for our protection just as the sungod ! Being raised, be 
a giver of food, when we invoke thee in different ways (metres), whilst the 
anointing priests are carrying on (the sacrifice)." (As to the expression), 
deva na savitd, " just as the sungod, " the (particle) na has with the gods 
the same meaning as om (yes) with these (men) ; ^ it means iva, " like as." 
By the words, [76] " being raised, be a giver of food, " he calls 
him (the Ylapa) a dispenser of food ; he is giving them (men) grain ; 
he dispenses isanoti) it. The words, '* arhjayo vaghatal} " (the anointing 
priests are carrying) mean the metres ; for by their means the sacrificers 
call the different gods : " Come to my sacrifice, to my sacrifice ! " If many, 
as it were, bring a sacrifice (at the same time), then the gods come only to 
the sacrifice of him, at which (there is a Hotar), who having such a 
knowledge repeats this (mantra). 

(The Hotar then repeats:) ''urdhvo''' nah pdhi* (1, 36, 14), i.e., 

• Sayana refers the demonstrative pronoua esdm to the Vedas. But there is no 
sufficient proof to show that the three Vedas are hinted at in this demonstrative. It 
stands in opposition to devd^idm ; thence it can only refer to men. The meaning of the 
explanatory remark, that " ria has with the gods the same meaning as om (yes), with 
men, " is, that na is here no negative particle, as is generally the case, but affirmative, 
excluding negation, just as om, which is used for solemn affirmation. 

* This and the preceding verse properly refer to Agni, and not to the Yiipa, ,is the 
contents of both clearly show. They form part of a hymn addressed to Agni. They 


" (Standing) upright protect us from distress ; with thy beams burn down 
all carnivorous beings (ghosts). Make us (stand) upright, that we may 
walk and live ! Mayst thou as messenger carry (our offerings) to the gods ! 
The wicked carnivorous beings are the Raksas. Jle calls upon him (the 
Yilpa) to barn the wicked Raksas down. (In the second half verse) the 
word charathdya, " that he might walk, " is equivalent to chararLciya, " for 

(By the word " to live ") he rescues the sacrificer, even if he should 
have been already seized, as it were (by death), and restores him to I'the 
enjoyment of) the whole year. (By the words :) " mayst thou carry, " &o., 
he asks for a blessing. 

(The Hotar then repeats :) " jdto jdyate sudinatce, " &c. (3, 8, 5), i. e., 
" After having been born, he (the Yupa) is growing {to serve) in 
the prime of his life the [77] sacrifice of mortal man. The wise 
are busy in decorating (him, the Yupa) with skill. He as an eloquent 
messenger of the gods, lifts his voice (that it might be heard by the 
gods)." He (the Yupa) is called jdta, i.e., born, because he is born 
by this (by the recital of the first quarter of this verse). (By the 
word) vardhamdna, i.e., growing, they make him (the Yupa) grow in 
this manner. (By the words :) punanti (i.e., to clean, decorate), they 
clean him in this manner. (By the words :) '* he as an eloquent 
messenger, &c.," he announces the Yflpa (the fact of his existence), 
to the gods. 

The Hotar then concludes (the ceremony of anointing the sacrificial 
post) with the verse " yuvd suvdsdh parivitah " (3, 8, 4.), i.e., " theyouth,^ 
decorated with ribands, has arrived ; he is finer (than all trees) which ever 
grew ; the wise priests raise him up under recital of well-framed thoughts 
of their mind." The youth decorated with ribands, is the vital air Uhe 
soul), which is covered by the limbs of the body. ^ (By the words :) " he is 
finer," &c., he means that he (the Yupa) is becoming finer (more excellent, 
beautiful) by this (mantra). By the wise priests (Kavis) those who have 
repeated the hymns are to be understood. Thus by this (mantra) they 
raise him up. 

When the Hotar has repeated these seven verses, which are corn- 
appear toJiave been selected for being applied to the YGpa, only on account of the word 
" wrdhuo, " "erected, upwards," being mentioned in them. The Yupa, when standing 
upright, required mantras appropriate to its position, and these appear to have been 
the only available ones serving this purpose. 

* There is a pun between yitvd, young, a youth, and Yupa. By this '' youth " the 
Yflpa is to be understood. 

' The limbs of the body are to correspond with the ribands to be put on the Y'fipa. 


plete in their form (corresponding to the ceremony for which they are 
nsed), the sacrifice is made successful ; that is, the form is complete, when 
the verse recited alludes to the ceremony which is being performed. Of 
these seven (verses), he recites the first thrice, and the last thrice ; [78} 
that makes eleven. The Tri^tuhh (metre) namely consists of eleven sylla- 
bles {i.e., each quarter of the verse). Tristubh is Indra's thunderbolt.' He 
who has such a knowledge prospers through these verses which reside in 
Indra. By repeating the first and last verses thrice, he ties together botl\ 
ends of the sacrifice to fasten and tighten them, in order to prevent (the 
sacrifice) from slipping down. 

{Speculations on the Yupa, and the Meaning of the Sacrificial Animal.) 

They (the theologians) argue the question : Is the Yupa to remain 
standing (before the fire), or is it to be thrown (into the fire) ? They 
answer : ) For him who desires cattle, it may remain standing. (About 
this the following story is reported). Once upon a time cattle did not 
stand still to be taken by the gods for food. Having run away, they stood 
still (and turning towards the gods), said repeatedly : You shall not ob- 
tain us ! No ! no ! Thereupon the gods saw that Yupa-weapon which they 
erected. Thus they frightened the animals, which then returned to them. 
That is the reason, that up to this day, the (sacrificial) animals are turned 
towards the Yupa, {i.e., the head being bent towards the sacrificial post to 
which they are tied). Then they stood still to be taken by the gods for 
their food. The (sacrificial) animals of him who has such a knowledge, 
and whose Yi^pa stands erected, stand still to be taken by him for his 
food. [79] He (the Adhvaryu) should afterwards throw the Yiipa of that 
sacrificer who desires heaven (into the fire). For the former (sacrificers) 
actually used to throw the Yupa (into the fire), after it had been used for 
tying the sacrificial animal to it. For the sacrificer is the Yupa, and the 
bunch ^ of Darbha grass (prastara) is the sacrificer (also), and Agni is the 

' The Yupa represents Indra's thunderbolt, see 2, 1. Thence the author is anxiously 
looking out for a relationship between the YQpa and anything belonging to Indra. Here 
he finds it in the circumstance, that, if the repetitious are counted, the number of the 
mantras required for the ceremony of anointing, raising, and decorating the Yupa, 
amounts to eleven, which is the principal number of Indra's sacred metre, Tristubh. 

• At the beginning of the sacrifice the Adhvaryu makes of the load of Darbha or 
sacred grass, which has been brought to the sacrificial compound, seven mitjiris or bun- 
ches, each of which is tied together with a stalk of grass, just as the Baresma (Barsom) of 
the Parsis. The several names of these seven bunches are : (I) yaj'amdrm mus^i, the 
bunch kept by the sacrificer himself in his hand as long as the sacrifice lasts. (2) 
Three bunches form the Bnrliis, or the covering of the Vedi on which the sacrificial 
vessels are put. These are unloosened and spread all over the Vedi. (3) Pravtara. This 


womb of the gods. By mfans of the invocation offerings (ahuti), the sacri-* 
ficer joins the womb of the gods, and will go with a golden body to the 
celestial world.' 

The sacrifice rs who lived after the ancient ones, observed that the 
soaruy^'' being a piece of the Yupa (represents the whole of it). He (who 
now brings a sacrifice) should, therefore, throw it, at this time, afterwards 
(into the fire). In this way, any thing obtainable through the throwing of 
the Yupa (into the fire), as well as that one obtainable through its re- 
maining standing, is obtained. 

[ 80 ] The man who is initiated ( into the sacrificial mysteries) offers 
himself to all deities. Agni represents all deities, and Soma represents all 
deities. When he (the sacrificer) offers the animal to Agni-Soma,^^ he 
releases himself (by being represented by the animal) from being offered 
to all deities.^'* 

They say : the animal to be offered to Agni-Soma, must be of two 
colours, ■'•^ because it belongs to two deities. But this (precept) is not to be 
attended to. A fat animal is to be sacrificed ; because animals are of a 
fat complexion, and the sacrificer ( if compared with them) certainly 
lean. When the animal is fat, the sacrificer thrives through its marrow. 

They say : "do not eat from the animal offered to Agui-Soma." Who 
eats from this animal, eats from human flesh ; because the sacrificer re- 
bunch, which must remain tied, is put over the Darbha of the Vedl. (4) Paribho/ani. Prom 
this bunch the Adhvarju takes a handful out for each priest, and the sacrificer and his 
wife, which they then use for their seat, [5) Veda. This bunch is made double in its first 
part ; the latter part is cut off and has to remain on the Vedi ; it is called parivdsana. 
The Veda itself is always wandering from one priest to another, and is given to the 
sacrificer and his wife. It is handed over to the latter only when one of the priests 
makes her recite a mantra. In our passage here, prastara cannot mean the bunch which 
is put on the Vedi, but we must understand by it the Ya/atnanu mtisti. 

' If the Yflpa represents the sacrificer, then his ascent to heaven is effected by 
the throwing into the fire of the former. 

^° Svaru means "shavings." A small piece of the Yupa is put into the Juhu (sacrifi- 
cial ladle) and thrown into the fire by the words : " may thy smoke go to heaven." 

»^ The name of the animal, or animals, sacrificed on the day previous to the Soma 
festival, as well as that of the day itself, is Agni^amiya. 

" The same idea is expressed in the Kauasitaki Brlhmanam 10, 3. ^Rft^'^J^T^f ti^ 

f^^tfrl ^T^oft *Ic^I«| *?3T^ ^['OTI^ ^^ livft^llr^, i.e., He who is initiated (into the sacrificial 
mysteries) falls into the very mouth of Agni-Soma (to be their food). That is the reason, 
that the sacrificer kills on the day previous to the Soma festival an animal being devoted 
to Agui-Soma, thus redeeming himself (from the obligation of being himself sacrificed.) He 
then brings his (Soma) sacrifice after having thus redeemed himself, and become free from 
debts. Thence the sacrificer ought not to eat of the flesh of this (animal). 
'• WLite and black according to SSyaria. 



leases himself (from being sacrificod) by means of the animal." But this 
(precept) is not to be attended to. 

The animal offered to Agni-Soma is an offering to Vritraghna (Indra), 
Forlndra slew Vritra through Agni-Soma. Both then said to him : " Thou 
hast slain Vritra through us, let us choose a boon from thee." Choose 
yourselves, answered he. Thus they LSI] chose this boon from him. 
Thus they receive (now as their food) the animal which is sacrificed the 
day previous to the Soma feast. 

This is their everlasting portion chosen by them. Thence one ought 
to take pieces of it, and eat them. 

(T/ic Apri verses.^*) 

The Hotar repeats the Apri verses. These are brightness and sacred 
knowledge. Through brightness and sacred knowledge the Hotar thus 
makes thrive the sacrificer. 

[82] (First) he recites a Yajya verse for the wooden sticks (samidhah) 
which are used as fuel." These are the vital airs. The vital airs kindle 

"The so called Aprt verses, i.e., verses of invitation, occupy at the animal sacrifice 
the same rank which the praycijas have at the Istis» By means of them certain divine 
beings (who do not get any share in the principal part of the sacrifice) are invited and 
satisfied chiefly with butter. The number of these praydjas or Apri verses varies 
according to the Istis, of which they are the introductory part. At the common Istis, 
Buch as Darsa-purnima, there are five (see Asv. Sr. S. 1, 5), at the Ch&turmdsya-ifti we 
have nine (As'v. 2, 16), and at the Pasu-i§ti (the animal sacrifice) there are eleven used 
(Asv. 3, 2), The nnmber of the latter may, however, rise to twelve, and even thirteen 
(See Max. Miiller's History of Ancient Samskrit Literature, p. 464). At all Prayftjas, at 
the common Istis as well as at the sacrificial sacrifice, there is a difference in the second 
deity. Certain Gotras must invoke Tanunapdt, others must choose instead of this deity 
Nardsamsa. This is distinctly expressed in the words cI<l«NI^3T W^'R?? ^^% %cfi^T 

( sRRi: ) ?Ri5i ^f^ ^^^]f^^^1av^^^^1 m\^ ^^ «n3q^?^f^ ^m. (A&v. i, 5), 

i.e., the second Prayaja mantra (at the Dars'a P(irnima Isti) is : " may Tanflnapat, O 
Agni, taste of this melted butter ;" but a different mantra is used by the Vasistas, 
Sunakas, Atris, Vadhryasvas and individuals belonging to the royal caste. They use the 
mantra: May Narasamsu, O Agni! taste of the melted butter!" On the distribution of 
the ten Apri hymns of the Rigveda Samhita, according to the Gotras, see Max. Muller's 
History of Ancient Samskrit Literature, p. 466. It clearly follows from this distinction 
between the invocation of the two deities Tanunapdt and Nardsuihsa (both representing a 
particular kind of Agni), that certain Gotras regarded TanGnapSt, others Naras'amsa as 
their tutelary deity, or rather as one of their deified ancestors. These Apri verses seemed 
to have formed one of the earliest part of the Aryan sacrifices; for we find them in the 
form of Afrigdn also with the Parsis. See my ' Essays on the Sacred language, Writings 
and Religion of the Parsis. p. 241. 

" The formula by which each Apri verse is introduced, is ^^^'ISfTfl?. For each 
verse there is a separate praisa, i.e., order, requisite. This is given by the Maitrd- 
varuija priest of the Hotar, which always begins with the words fRII'l^ai and the 


this whole universe (give life to it). Thus he pleases the vital airs and 
puts them into the sacrificer. 

He repeats a Yajya verse for Taniinapdt The air inhaled (prana) is 
TanQnapat, because it preserves {apdt) the bodies (tajivah)." Thus he 
pleases the air inhaled, and puts it into the sacrificer. 

He repeats a Yajya verse for Nardsarhsa. t^ara means offspring, 
samsa speech. Thus he pleases offspring and speech, and puts them into 
the sacrificer. 

He repeats the Yajya for Hal}. Ilah means food. Thus he pleases 
food and puts food into the sacrificer. 

He repeats a Y^jya for the Barkis (sacred grass). Barhis is cattle. 
Thus he pleases the cattle and puts it into the sacrificer. 

He repeats the Yajya for the gates (of the sacrificial place). The 
gates are the rain. Thus he pleases (fertility) and puts it into the 

He repeats the Yajya for Dawn and Night. Dawn and Night are 
day and night. Thus he pleases day and night and puts them into the 

He repeats a Yajya for the two Divine Hotars.^' [83] The air inhaled 
and exhaled are the two Divine Hotars. Thus he pleases them and puts 
them into the sacrificer. 

He repeats a Yajya for three goddesses." These three goddesses are 
the air inhaled, the air exhaled, and the air circulating in the body. Thus 
he pleases them and puts them into the sacrificer. 

He repeats a Yajya for Toa.^tdr. Tvastar is speech. Speech shapes 
{td§ti), as it were, the whole universe. Thus he pleases speech, and puts 
it into the sacrificer. 

He repeats a Yajya for Vanaspati (trees). Vanaspati is the life. Thus 
he pleases life and puts it into the sacrificer. 

He repeats a Yajya for the Svdhdkritis.'* These are a firm footing 
Thus he puts the sacrificer on a firm footing. 

name of the respective deity ^f^^ g^ •ITIci, &c., in the accusative. See VSjasaneya 
Samhita 21, 29-40. 

" This etjQiology is apparently wrong. S&yana explains it in a similar way by 
sarirum va pdtayati, he does not make fall the body. 

"They are, according to Sayana's Commentary on the Rigveda SamhitS., i. p. 162 
(ed. Muller), the two Agnis, i.e., the fire on earth, and that in the clouds. See also 
Mddhava's Commentary on the Vajasaneya Samhita, p. 678, ed. Weber. 

" They are : lid (food), Sarasvati (speech), and Mahi or Bhdrati (earth). See Vajasa- 
neya Samhita 2l, 87. 

"In the last Prayaja, at every occasion, there occurs the formula svahd along -with 
all the deities of the respective I ti, of which the Prajayas form part. There are as 


He ought to repeat such Apri verses, as are traceable to a Risi (of 
the family of the sacrificer). By doing so the Hotar keeps the sacrificer 
within the relationship (of his ancestors). 


[84] (The Carrying of Fire round the Sacrificial Animal.) 

When the fire is carried round'^" (the animal) the Adhvaryu 
says to the Hotar: repeat (thy mantras). The Hotar then repeats 
his triplet of verses, addressed to Agni, and composed in the Gayatri 
metre : agnir hotd no adhvare (4, 15, 1-3) i.e. (1) Agni, our priest, 
is carried round about like a horse, he who is among gods the god of 
sacrifices. (2) Like a charioteer Agni passes thrice by the sacrifice ; to the 
gods he carries the ofEering. (3) The master of food, the seer Agni, went 
round the offerings ; he bestows riches on the sacrificer. 

When the fire is carried round (the animal) then he makes him (Agni) 
prosper by means of his own deity and his own metre. " As a horse he 
is carried " means : they carry him as if he were a horse, round about. 
Like a charioteer Agni passes thrice by the sacrifice means : he goes 
round the sacrifice like a charioteer (swiftly). He is called vajapati 
(master of food) because he is the master of (different kinds of) food. 

The Adhvaryu says : give Hotar ! the additional order for despatching 
offerings to the god.^^ 

(85) Then the Maitravaruna proceeds to give his orders by the 
words : may Agni be victorious, may he grant (us) food ! 

They ask ; why does the Maitravaruna proceed to give his orders, 
if the Adhvaryu orders the Hotar to recite ? (The answer is :) The 

many svdhds as there are deities mentioned. Tlie pronunciation of this formula is called 
svdhckriti. Besides the regular deities, there are mentioned the devd d^yapa, i.e., the 
deities who drink melted butter. To make it clear, I write out the fifth PraySja of the 

Diksaniyalsti-^^ ^m^k ^^W^^ ^T5f ^W ?^5TJIT^^ ^TfT t^ «n3^If 
3^^rT ^W WS'R^ ^^^ ^^Z: *•*• (™ay the Gods) for whom we sacrifice, Agni, Soma, Agni- 
Visnu, and the gods who enjoy melted butter, become pleased and eat of (this) melted 
butter, "each of them being invited by {Svdhdy.—Sapta hautra. The latter means 
nothing but " well spoken " (the cu0^/u,€ti/ of the Greeks). 

'" This ceremony is called paryagnikriyd and is performed by the ylgnfd priest. He 
takes a firebrand from the Ahavaniya fire and carries it to the right side, thrice round 
the animal which is to be sacrificed. 

"Agni himself is the deity of the hymn in question; it is in Agni's metro, i.«,, 

"'This second praisa, or order of one of the Hotars, who is here the Maitravaruna 
to the Hotar to repeat his mantras, is called wpopraisu. At the Animal, as well as at the 
Soma sacrifices, the orders for repeating the Yajya mantras are given by the Maitra- 
varuna. As symbol of his power, he receives a stick which he holds in bis hand. The 
Adhvaryu gives at these sacrifices only the order for repeating the Auuv^ky&s. 



Maitr^varuna is the mind of the eacrifice ; the Hotar is the speech of the 
sacrifice ; for speech speaks only if driven (sent) by the mind ; because an 
other-minded^® speaks the speech of the Asuras which is not agreeable 
to the Devas. If the Maitravaruna proceeds to give orders, he stirs up 
speech by means of the mind. Speech being stirred up by his mind, 
he secures the offering to the gods (by preventing the Asuras from 
taking possession of it). 


(The Formula to he Recited at the Slaughter of the Animal. 
SeeAjiv.^r. S.3, 3).»» 

The Hotar then says (to the slaughterers) : Ye divine elaughterers, 
commence (your work), as well as ye who are human ! that is to say, he 
orders all the slaughterers among gods as well as among men (to com- 

Bring hither the instruments for hilling, ye who are ordering the 
sacrifice, in behalf of the two masters of the saerifice^^ 

(86) The animal is the offering, the sacrificer the master of the 
offering. Thus he (the Hotar) makes prosper the sacrificer by means of his 
(the sacrificer's) own offering. Thence they truly say : for whatever deity 
the animal is killed, that one is the master of the offering. If the 
animal is to be offered to one deity only, the priest should say ' medha- 
pataye^^ "to the master of the sacrifice (singular)"; if to two deities, 
then he should use the dual " to both the masters of the offering," and 
if to several deities-, then he should use the plural " to the masters of the 
offering." This is the established custom. 

Bring ye for him fire ! For the animal when carried (to the 
slaughter) saw death before it. Not wishing to go to the gods, the gods 
said to it : Come, we will bring thee to heaven ! The animal consented 
and said : One of you should walk before me. 

^° If " mind and speech " are unconnected. 

^* It is called the Adhrigu-praisa-mantra, i.e., the mantra by which the Adhrigu 
is ordered to kill the animal. The word used for '• killer, slaughterer," is " Samitdj " 
lit, silence-maker. This peculiar term accurately expresses the mode in which the 
sacrificial animal is to be killed. They stop its mouth, and beat it severely ten or twelve 
times on the testicles till it is suffocated. During the act of killing, no voice is to be 

>' Either the sacrificer and his wife, or the two deities, Agnisom^a, to whom 
the sacrificial animal is devoted. Sfty. says : another S&khft has Medha-pataye. In 
the Kausitaki BrShmanam 10, 4, there is also the dual. 

'• This change in the formula is called liha. See S4yapa'« Introduction to fllgveda, 
vol. i., p. 10,ll,ed. MUUer. 

/ 59 

They consented. Agni then walked before it, and it followed 
after Agni. Thence they say, every animal belongs to Agni, for it fol- 
lowed after him. Thence they carry before the animal fire (Agnt). 

Spread the (sacred) grass ! The animal lives on herbs. He (the 
Hotar) thus provides the animal with its entire soul (the herbs being 
supposed to form part of it). 

The mother, father^ brother, sister, friend, and companion should 
give this (animal) up (for being slaughtered) ! When these words 
are pronounced, they seize the animal which is (regarded as) entirely given 
up by its relations (parents, &c.). 

Turn its feet northwards ! Make its eye go to the sun, dismiss its breath 
to the wind, its life to the air, its hearing to the directions, its body to the 
earth. [87] In this way he (the Hotar) places it (connects it) with these 

Take of the thin entire (without cutting it). Before opening the 
navel, tear out the omentum \ Stop its breathing within (by stopping its 
mouth) ! Thus he (the Hotar) puts its breath in the animals. 

Make of its breast a piece like an eagle, of its arms (two pieces, like) 
two hatchets, of its forearms (two pieces, like) two spikes, of its shoulders 
(two pieces, like) two kasyapas, » * its loins should be unbroken (entire) ; 
(make of) its thighs (two pieces, like) two shields, of the two kneepans (two 
pieces, like) two oleander leaves ; take out its twenty-six ribs according 
to their order ; preserve every limb of it in its integrity. Thus he bene- 
fits all its limbs. 

Dig a ditch in the earth to hide its excrements. The excrements 
consist of vegetable food ; for the earth is the place for the herbs. 
Thus the Hotar puts them (the excrements) finally in their proper place. 


Present the evil spirits with the blood ! For the gods having de- 
prived (once) the evil spirits of their share in the Haviryajnas (such as 
the Full-and New-moon offerings) apportioned to them the husks and 
smallest grains, ^ " and after having them turned out of the great sacri- 
fice Csuch as the Soma and animal sacrifices), presented to them the 
blood. Thence the Hotar pronounces the words : present the evil spirits 
with the blood ! By giving them this share he 88 deprives the evil spirits 

" Probably another name for Mrtna, i.e., tortoise. See Satapathabrahm. 7, 5, 1, 2. 

^* The^priest having taken these parts, addresses thetn as follows : '' Thou art the 
share of the evil spirits!" By these words he throws them below the black goat-skin 
(always required at the sacrifices.) So do the Apastambas.— Srfy. 


of any other share in the sacrifice.'" They say : one should not address 
the evil spirits at the sacrifice, any evil spirits, whichever they might be 
(Raksas, Asuras, &c.) ; for the sacrifice is to be without the evil spirits 
(not to be disturbed by them). But others say : one should address 
them ; for he who deprives any one, entitled to a share, of this share, will 
be punished (by him whom he deprives) ; and if he himself does not 
suffer the penalty, then his son, and if his son be spared, then his 
grandson, will suffer it, and thus he resents at him (the son or grandson) 
what he wanted to resent at you. 

However, if the Hotar addresses them, he should do so with a 
low voice. For both, the low voice and the evil spirits, are, as it were, 
hidden. If he addresses them with a loud voice, then such a one speaks 
in the voice of the evil spirits, and is capable of producing Raksas-sounds 
(a horrible, terrific voice). The voice in which the haughty man and 
the drunkard speak, is that of the evil spirits (Raksas). He who 
has such a knowledge will neither himself become haughty, nor will 
such a man be among his offspring. 

Do not cut^'' the entrails which resemble an owl (when taking out the 
omentum), nor should among your children^ slaughterers ! or among their 
[891 offspring, any one he found who might cut them. By speaking these 
words, he presents these entrails to the slaughterers among the gods as 
well as to those among men. 

The Hotar shall then say thrice : Adhrigu (and ye others), hill (the 
animal), do it well ; Mil it, Adhrigdu. After the animal has been 
killed, (he should say thrice :) Far may it^^ (the consequences of murder) 
be (from us). For Adhrigu among the gods is he who silences'^ (the 
animal) and the Apdpa (away, away !) is he who puts it down. By speak- 

" According to the Apastamba SQtras, the priest takes the thick ends of the 
sacrificial grass in his left hand, besmears them with blood, and by the recital of the 
words, raksasum hhcigo si, i.e., " thou art the share of the evil spirits," he shakes it 
up and down, and pours it out from the middle of the bunch. See also the Hiraiiyakesi 
Srduta Satras, 4, 12. 

^^ Bdvistha is here to be traced to the rootrtt = lu, to cut, r being put instead of I, 

•just as we have here wrflfto instead of ulitka, an owl. Sayana explains : lavanam Jturuta. 

. Ravitd, a cutter, and ravat conjunct., are traced by S&y. to the root ru, to roar ; but 

there is no reason to take the word here in another sense than rdvi§tlia in the preceding 


" Apdpa. This formula is evidently nothing but the repetition of the particle apa, 
away ! It was very early misunderstood, as we may see from the very explanation given 
of it by the author of our Br&hmanam ; for he takes it as ap&puh, i.e., guiltless, and makes 
it the name of one of the divine slaughterers. 
** He is the proper Somtta or silencer. 


ing those words, he surrenders the animal to those who silence it (by 
stopping its mouth), and to those who butcher it. 

The Hotar then mutters (he makes japa) : " slaughterers ! may all 
good you might do abide by us ! and all mischief you might do go 
elsewhere." The Hotar » ° gives by (this) speech the order (for killing 
the animal), for Agni had given the order for killing (the animal) with 
the same words when he was the Hotar of the gods. 

By those words (the japa mentioned) the Hotar removes (all evil 
consequences) from those who suffocate the animal and those who butcher 
it, in all that they might transgress the rule by cutting one [90] piece too 
soon, the other too late, or by cutting a too large, or a too small piece. 
The Hotar, enjoying this happiness, clears himself (from all guilt), and 
attains the full length of his life (and it serves the sacrificer) for obtain- 
ing his full life. He who has such a knowledge, attains the full length 

of his life. 


{The Animals fit for being Sacrificed. The Offering of the Puroddsa, 

formingpart of the Animal Sacrifice.) 

The gods killed a man for their sacrifice. But that part in him, 
which was fit for being made an offering, went out and entered a horse. 
Thence the horse became an animal fit for being sacrificed. The gods 
then dismissed that man after that part which was only fit for being 
offered had gone from him, whereupon he became deformed. " 

The gods killed the horse ; but the part fit for being sacrificed (the 
medha) went out of it, and entered an ox ; thence the ox became an animal 
fit for being sacrificed. The gods then dismissed (this horse) after the 
sacrificial part had gone from it, whereupon it turned to a white deer. 

The gods killed the ox ; but the part fit for being sacrificed went 
out of the ox, and entered a sheep ; thence the sheep became fit for being 
sacrificed. The gods then dismissed the ox which turned to a gayal 
(bos goaevus). 

The gods killed the sheep ; but the part fit for being sacrificed went 
out of the sheep, and entered [91] a goat ; thence the goat became fit for 

" The Hotar must recite at the sacrifice the whole formula, from " Ye divine 
slaughterers," &c. The whole of it, consisting of many so called Prdi§as or orders ought 
properly to he repeated, by the Adhvaryu, who generally calls upon the different priests 
to do their respective duties. This exception to the rule is here explained by a reference 
to what Agni, the model Hotar, had once done when officiating at a sacrifice brought by 
the gods. 

*' In the original : himpuru^a. According to the original etymological meaning, the 
word signifies "a deformed or low man." In later mythology, the kimpuru§as or kinnaras 
were nttached to Kuvera, the god of treasures. They were regarded as musicians. But 
this meaning is certainly not applicable here. The author very likely means a dwarf. 


being sacrificed. The gods dismissed the sheep, which turned to a camel. 
The sacrificial part (the medha) remained for the longest time (longer 
than in the other animals) in the goat ; thence is the goat among all these 
animals pre-eminently fit (for being sacrificed). 

The gods killed the goat ; but the part fit for being sacrificed went out 
of it, and entered the earth. Thence the earth is fit for being offered. 
The gods then dismissed the goat, which turned to a ^arahha." 

All those animals from which the sacrificial part had gone, are unfit 
for being sacrificed, thence one should not eat (their flesh)." 

After the sacrificial part had entered the earth, the gods surrounded 
it (so that no escape was possible). It then turned to rice. When they 
(therefore) divide the Purodarfa into parts, after they have killed the 
animal, then they do it, wishing " might our animal sacrifice be per- 
formed with the sacrificial part (which is contained in the rice of the 
Purodatia) ! might our sacrificial part be provided with the whole 
sacrificial essence ! " The sacrificial animal of him who has such a know- 
ledge becomes then provided with the sacrificial part, with the whole 
sacrificial essence. 

[92] {The Relation of the Rice Cake Offering to that of Flesh. 
The Vapd and Puroddsa Offerings). 

The Purod^iia (offered at the animal sacrifice) is the animal which 
is killed. The chaff and straw of the rice of which it consists are the 
hairs of the animal, its husks "* the skin, its smallest particles the blood, 
all the fine particles to which the (cleaned) rice is ground (for making, 
by kneading it with water, a ball) represent the flesh (of the animal), and 
whatever other substantial part" is in the rice, are the bones (of the 
animal). He who offers the Purodaiia, offers the sacrificial substance of 
all animals (for the latter is contained in the rice of the Purodasia). 
Thence they say : the performance of the Purodajia offering is to be 
attended to. 

** A fabulous animal, supposed to have eight legs, and to kill lions. 

** That is to say : all beings vrho owe their origin to a loss of the sacrificial part in 
a higher species of the same class, such as the dwarf, the gayal, the camel, &c., are unfit 
to be used as food. Here is a hint given as to why certain animals are allowed and others 
prohibited to be eaten. We see from this passage clearly, that animal food was 
very extensively used in the Vedic times. 

'* The husks, tusa, fall off when the rice is beaten for the first time ; the thinnest 
particles, which fall off, when the grains are completely made bare and white by couti nued 
beating, are c&Ued. phalikaranas. 

" KiUchitkam sdram. Kiiichitaka is an adjective of the indefinite pronoun Kinchit, 
having, as S&y. remarks, the sense of "all." 


Now he recites the Y^jyi for the Vapd, (which is about to be offered) : 
yuvam ttdni divi, i.e. Ye, Agni and Soma, have placed, by your joint 
labours, those lights on the sky ! ye, Agni and Soma, have liberated the 
rivers which* had been taken (by demons;, from imprecation and defile- 
ment. (Rigveda 1, 93, 5.) 

The man who is initiated into the sacrificial mystery (the DIksita) 
is seized by all the gods (as their property). Thence they say : he 
should not eat of a thing dedicated (to the gods),'' But others 
say : he should eat when the Vap4 is offered ; for the Hotar 
[931 liberates the sacrificer from the gods by (the last words of the mantra 
just mentioned) : " Ye, Agni and Soma, have liberated the (rivers) which 
had been taken." Consequently, he becomes a sacrificer (a yajam&na), 
and ceases to belong as a Dlksita exclusively to the gods." 

Now follows the Yajya verse for the Purodarfa (mentioned; : &nyam 
divo Tndtarisvd (1, 93, 6), i.e., Matariiva brought from heaven another 
(Soma)," and the eagle struck out another (Agni, fire) of the rock, &c. 
(On account of the meaning of the last words " and the eagle," &c., the 
verse is used as Yajya for the Puroda^a offering.) For it expresses the 
idea, that the sacrificial essence had gone out and had been taken away 
(from man, horse, &a.), as it were, just as (Agni) had come out (of the 

With the verse : Taste (0 Agni) the offerings, burn them well, <S;c., 
(3, 54, 22), the Hotar makes the Svi^akrit of the Puroddsa. By this 
mantra the Hotar makes the sacrificer enjoy such an offering (to be 
granted by the gods in return for the gift), and acquires for himself food 
and milky essences. 

He now calls the lid (and eats from the Purod&i^a). For IJa means 
cattle ; (by doing so) he therefore calls cattle, and provides the sacrificer 
with them. 

" The text offers some difficulties ; It literally means : he should not eat of the 
Dlksita, which latter word can here not be taken in its usual sense, " one initiated into 
the sacrificial rites," but in that of a thing consecrated to the gods. Sfiy. gets over the 
difficulty by inserting the word grihe after dik^itasya, and understands it of a meal to be 
taken in the house of a sacrificer when the Vapft offering is performed. 

■' As a Yajam4na, he is allowed to eat again. 

" This refers to the legend of Soma being abstracted from heaven by the Gftyatrt, 
in the shape of an eagle, or by Mfttaris'vA, the Prometheus of the Vodic tradition. 8eo 
Kuhn, Die Herahkunft des Feiiers und Gdtt« rtranks. Ait. Br. S, 31-27. 


{The Offering of Parts of the Body of the Animal. The Manotd). 

The Adhvaryu now says (to the Hotar) : recite the verses • appropriate 
to'° the offering of the [94] parts of the sacrificial animal which are cut o5 
for the Manotd.^^ He then repeats the hymn : Thou, Agni, art the first 
Manota (6, 1). (This hymn being exclusively devoted to Agni), and the 
sacrificial animal belonging to another deity (besides Agni, viz.. Soma), 
they ask : Why does he recite verses, (exclusively) addressed to A'gni, when 
the sacrificial parts (of the animal) intended for the Manota are being cut 
off ? (The answer is :) There are three Manotds among the gods, in 
which all their thoughts are plotted and woven, viz., F^cTt (speech), Gdus 
(the cow), and Agni, in every one of whom the thoughts of the gods are 
plotted and woven ; but Agni is the complete Manotd (the centre for all 
[95] thoughts) ; for in him all Manotas are gathered. For this reason 
the priest repeats verses as anuvdkyds addressed to Agni at that occasion. 
By the verse : "0 Agni-Soma, eat the food which is waiting (for you) 
&c. (1, 93, 7)," he makes the Yajya to the offering, This verse ensures, 
on account of the words " food " (havi^o) and " waiting for you " 
(prasthitasya), success. For the offering of him who has such a know- 

*' After the "Vapft (omentum) and the Pnrodlsa, which forms part of the amrral 
sacrifice have been thrown into the fire, the Adhvaryus offer different parts of the body 
of the slaughtered animal. Most of them are put in the Juhit — ladle, some in the Upabhrit. 
For the Adhvaryu generally holds, when giving an oblation, two ladles, Juhfi and Upabhrit, 
in his harud, placing the first over the latter. The names of the parts of the body which 
are to be sacrificed, are differently stated in the KS.tiya (6,7,6-11) and Hiranyankesi 
Sutras (4, 14), but they appear to mean always the same parts. They are : the heart, 
tongue, the breast, the two sides (with the ribs which are not to be broken), the liver 
(called yakrit in Kat., and taniman in the Hiranyankesi and Baudhayana Sutras), the two 
reins {vakkdu in the K., atasnu in the H. and B. Sutras), the left shoulder blade (savyam 
dos in H. and B., savyasakthipur-vanadukam in K. ), the right part of the loins, the middle 
part of the anus. These are put in the Juhii. The remainder, the right shoulder blade, 
the third part of the anus which is very small, and the left part of the loins are put in the 
Upabhrit. Besides the penis (varsistha), the straight gut (vanistha), and the tail are 
cut off for being sacrificed. If the parts to be given with the Juhii and Upabhrit are fried 
and dripped over with melted butter, then is the Hotar ordered to repeat the AnuvSkyft 
mantra by the words : manotdijdi kavi^o avadiyamanasya anubruhi, i.e., " repeat a mantra 
to the offering, which has been cut off for the Manota." This offering which is called 
the angaydga, is given to the ManotS, the weaver of thoughts, who is said to be Agni. 

*° The word is explained by 8&yana as a compound of wan and otd, which means, 
literally, the " weaving of thoughts," that is, the seat of intelligence. Here it is used as a 
feminine ; but in the hymn referred to, it is evidently a masculine : prathumo manota, 
" the first weaver of thoughts," which means about the same as ^' the first poet or priest," 
another denomiuation of Agni. 


ledge ensures success and goes to the gods (only) by means of all parts 
of a particular ceremony being well performed.'* 

He gives an offering to Vanaspati'' (the vegetable [96] kingdom). 
Vanaspati is tlie vital air ; therefore, the offering of him who, knowing 
this, sacrifices to Vanaspati, goes endowed with life to the gods. 

He gives an offering to the Svi^takrit.^^ The Svistakyit is the 
footing on which he finally places the sacrificer. 

3' The verses should be always in accordance with the sacrificial act. 

*2 The offering of melted butter to Vanaspati (in form of the YQpa) takes place 
immediately after the so-called vasdhoma, or the offering of the water in which entrails 
(heart, &c.) of the slaughtered animal have been fried. In the Apastamba Sutras, the 
performance is thus described as Say. mentions. The Adhvaryu puts a plant on the Jnhii 
(largo ladle), takes once licxuid ajya (melted butter), drips it twice about it (the plant), 
and says to the Hotar : address Vanaspati. He then first repeats an AnuvSkya : devebhyo 
vanaspataye. I give here the text of this mantra, which I found in its entirety only in 
the Sapta-hSutra prayoga. 

i^f^ II 

t. e., Mayst thou, O tree (the YQpa), with golden leaves of old, who art quite straight 
after having been freed from the bonds (with which thou wert tied), carry up, on the 
paths of right, turning towards the south, the offerings for thy own sake to the gods ! 
(The "bonds " refer to the cord with which the animal was tied to the Ydpa ; they are 
to be taken off. The golden leaves refer to the decoration of the YQpa with ribands. 
" For thy own sake ;" this offering belongs to himself.) 

After the Hotar has repeated this AnuvSky&, the Maitrftvaruna then gives the prai^a 
(orders) to repeat the Yfijya mantra by the words : ^y 2?^5^^qf^, ^^' (^^e the mantra 
in fall in the VSjasaneya-Satnh. 21, 46, with some deviations.) 

The Hotar thereupon repeats the YajyS mantra, which runs as follows : 

^ 1 2T5Twt I g^^^ ^^^m f^^ RggRqr g^H'fiif^ f^^^^ ii ^w t^T f^f^it 
5"*i^ sr-g^aRAJj^ g>gT I ^J II 

O tree ! after having been loosened from the nicely decorated cord, thou, who art experi- 
enced in wisdom and knowledge, carry up to the gods the offerings, and proclaim to the 
immortals the (name of the) giver I 

" After the oblation to Vanaspati follows that to Agni Svistakrit, including all the 
deities of the animal sacrifice, viz., Agni, Soma, Agni-Somdu, Indrdgm,Asvindu' Vanaspati, 
Devd djijaijci (deities which drink melted butter). The AnuvakyS of the Svistakrit 
oblation is at the animal sacrifice the same as at other Istis, V!S : f^sft% ^^ra?I%(^'Sveda 
10, 1, 2, Asv. 6r. S. 1, 6). Then follows the prai§a by the Maitrdvaruaa, where the names 
of all the deities of the Isti (as given above) are mentioned. It runs as follows : 

Sf^^lrl^S! -^aptaHautra (compare VSjasaneya S. 21, 47. On the form of the Svistakrit), 
see /is'v. ."ir. S. 1, 8), The YajyA mantra is: ^yq q^g (4,15,14). which is preceded by 


He callei IJa. '• The cattle are I1&. Bj calling her, he calk cattU 
aud provides the sacrificer with them. 

{The Remaining Rites of the Animal Sacrifice. The Pr&tar-anuvAha). 

{Why fire ia carried round the sacrificial animal.) 

The Devas spread the Bacrrfice. When doing so, the Asuras attacked 
them, intending to put an obstacle in their way (to prevent the successful 
performance of the sacrifice). The attack was made against the sacrificial 
post from the eastern direction, after the animal had been consecrated by 
the Apri verses (see 2, 4), and before the fire was carried round the animal. 
The Devas awoke, and surrounded, for their own protection, as well as for 
that of the sacrifice (the place) with a three-fold wall resembling fire. 
The Asuras seeing those walls shining and blazing, did not venture an 
attack, but ran away. Thus the Devas defeated the Asuras on the eastern 
side as well as on the western. For this reason the sacrificers perform the 
rite of carrying fire round (the animal, when consecrated), and have a 
mantra recited ; for they thus surround (the animal) with a three-fold 
wall, shining like fire, for their own protection and that of the sacrifice. 

After the animal is consecrated, and fire carried around it, they take 
il northwards. They carry before it a firebrand, meaning thereby that 
the animal is ultimately the sacrificer himself ; they believe that he will 
go to heaven, having that light (the firebrands [98] carried before him. 
Aud in this way he really goes to heaven. 

The Adhvaryu throws sacred grass (barhis) on the spot where they 
are to kill the animal. When they carry it outside the Vedi, after having 
consecrated and carried fire round it, they make it sit on the sacred grass 

the &gur : ^ 5 qsiTIT^ ^^^ followed by the VasatkAra. One of the rules laid down for 
the Svistakrit mantras and the respective prai^as, as far as they are not taken from 
the Samhiti of Rigveda, is, that all the deities of the Isti must be mentioned along with 
the expression : ^ajf >3TTTTf«t' ^^•' t»eloved residence ; the name of the deity always 
precedes it In the genitive. 

■* After the Svistakrit is over, the remainder of the offerings, which are at the 
animal sacrifice, flesh is eaten by the priests and the sacrificer. The Idftp&tra in which 
the dish is placed is held up and Ilfl, the personification of food, called to appear. This 
"calling," of lift is always the same. The formula is given In the Isval 6r. SOfcrat 1, 7 : 

1 Ai«!dhra hi performing this rits, 6se 2, S. 


They dig a diteh for its eiorementa. The ©leremonts consist of 
herbs ; the earth is the proper place for herbs ; thus he puts them at the end 
in their proper place (by throwing them into a ditch, dug in the earth). 

They say : when the animal is the offering, then many parts (of this 
ofEering) go off (are not used), such as hairs, skin, blood, half-digested food, 
hoofs, the two horns, some pieces of flesh which fall to the ground. (Such 
being the case) in what way then is the deficiency made up ? The answer 
is : if they sacrifice Purodania, divided into its proper parts along with the 
animal, then the animal sacrifice is made complete. When the sacrificial 
essence had gone from the animals, both rice and barley sprang out of it. 
When they offer Purod4ife, divided into its proper parts along with the 
animal, then they should think, " our animal was sacrificed with the 
sacrificial essence in it ; our animal has been sacrificed in its entirety." 
The animal of him who has this knowledge is sacrificed in its entirety. 


(The Offering of the Drops which fall from the Omentum}. 

After the Vap4 (omentum) has been torn out (of the belly), they 
br'ng it (to the fire for being fried). The Adhvaryu causes to drip 
out of a Sruva drops of hot melted butter. When the drops are falling 
[99] (to the ground\ the Adhvaryu orders the Hotar to recite the mantra 
appropriate to the drops (falling down). For the drops belong to all 
deities. He might think, they are not mine. (I, the prie&t, have noth- 
ing to do with them) ; they may, therefore, uninvited go to the gods ; (but 
be ought to repeat mantras for them). 

He repeats the Anuvakygi (for the drops " Be favourable to. our 
loud voice (to be heard at a distance) which is agreeable to the gods^ 
when swallowing our offerings with thy mouth ! (1, 75, 1. )" By thia 
mantra he throws the drops into the mouth of Agni. He further repeats 
the hymn : **_Bring this our sacrifice among the goda '* (S, 21X By th& 
words (of the second pada of the first verse r) " be favourable to our offer- 
ings, Jatavedas [" he begs for the acceptance of the offerings. In the 
words (in the third pada of the first verse :) " eat, Agni^ the drops 
of the marrow ' (and the) melted butter," the drops c^ the marrow and 
the melted butter are mentioned. The words (of the fourth pada of the 
first verse :) " eat, Hotar, having first taken thy seat !" mean: Agni 
(for he is the Hotar of the gods) eat, after having taken, &c. 

(In the first half of the second verse t) " the drops of melted butter 
drip for thee, purifier, from the marrow," the drops both of the melted 
2 By medas, Sij. understande the Yapi, which is oeatainly the right explanation 


butter and the marrow are mentioned. (By the second half:) "grant 
us the best things which are desirable, for worshipping (ttiee) in the 
proper way," he pronounces a blessing. 

(In the first half of the third verse :)" ! Agni ! these drops are 

dripping melted butter for thee, the wise, who art to be worshipped with 

gifts,' the drops (of marrow) are described as " dripping melted butter." 

■ [100] (By the second half :) " thou, the best Risi art kindled ; be a 

carrier of the sacrifice !" he (the priest) orders the sacrifice to be successful. 

(In the first half of the fourth, verse :) " to thee, Adhrigu ! drip 
the drops of marrow and melted butter, Agni ! thou strong one !" the 
drops both, of the marrow and melted butter, are mentioned. (By the 
second half :) " mayst thou, praised by poets, come (to us) with thy 
brightly shining flame ! kindly accept our offerings, wise !" the priest 
asks the acceptance of the offerings. 

(After the recital of the fifth verses :) " we offer to thee the most juicy 
marrow (the Vapa), taken out of the midst (of the belly) ; these drops 
(of melted butter) drip on this thin skin ^ (the Vapa), carry them 
severally up to the gods !" the priest pronounces the formula Vdu^at ! 
for the drops (and thus concludes the offering of the drops). 

He then repeats the same formula (the Anuvasatkara as is sacrificing 
the Soma\ Agni, enjoy the Soma ! (using instead of " Soma " the wor{i 
" (irops.") These drops belong to all the gods. Thence the rain falls, 
divided in drops, down upon the earth. 

{On the Svahahyitw and the Offering of the Vup^). 

They ask: which are the Puronuvakyas, the Praisas and the 
Yajyas for the call : Svaha * ? (The [101] answer is :) The Puronuvakyas 

3 From this passage it is clear that by medas in the whole of this hymn, the Vapa 
or omentum is to be understood ; for it is called here tvach, i.e., skin, which (although 
it is very thin) it resembles. 

* The author of the BrShm. alludes here to a practice which appears to be contrary 
to the general rules established regarding the offering of oblations. To make it clear, 
I here extract the passage concerning it from the Manual, used by the seven Hotri 
priests (called Sapta haiitra). On pp. 22, 23 of my manuscript is said, that the Hotar, 
after having repeated the hymn addressed to the drops dripping from the VapS, is re- 
quested by the Maitravaruna (who then gives the praisa, i.e., order) to* make the 
Svahas (svulidkritis, i.e., the pronunciation of the formula : svaha ! of the ajyci, the medas 
(Vapa) of the drops dripping from the Vapa, of the Svdhnlcritis in general, and of the 
verses which are addressed to the oblations in the hymn mentioned (imam no ijaptam, 3, 21, 
see above). This order the Maitravaruna concludes by the words: "SvahS ! the gods 
pleased with the Ajya may first taste the Ajya ! Hotar, repeat the Yajyft !" Thereupon 
the Maitravaruna repeats a Puronuvakya for the offering of two portions of Ajya. Then 
the Maitravaruna orders the Hotar to recite two Yajyas, one for Agni, the other for Soma, 


t are just the same as those recited (for the drops), the Praisas and the 
Yajyas are^ also the same. They furtlier ask : which are the deities for 
these Svahakritis ? {To this) one should answer, the Visve devdh ; for 
there are (at" the end) 'of the Yajya the words, " may the gods eat the 
oblation over which Svaha ! is spoken." 

The gods conquered by means of the sacrifice, austerities, penances, 
and sacrificial oblations the heavenly world. After the Vapa had been 
.offered, the heavenly world became apparent to them. Regardless of all 
the other rites, they went up to heaven by means of the oblation of the 
Vapil (alone). Thereupon Men and Risis went to the sacrificial place 
of the gods (to see) [102] whether they might not obtain something 
worth knowing. Having gone round about and searched all the place, 
they found nothing but a disembowelled animal lying there. Thence 
they learnt that verily the value of the animal ( for sacrifices) consists only 
in its Vapa, which part is just as much as the whole animal. 

When they, at the third libation, fry the remaining portions (all save 
the Vapa) of the animal and offer them, then they do so, wishing, " may 
our sacrifice be performed with many many oblations ! may our sacrifice 
be performed with the entire animal !" 


The oblation of the Vapa is just like an oblation of ambrosia ; such 
oblations of ambrosia are (besides) the throwing of the fire ' (produced by 
the friction of wooden sticks) into the sacrificial hearth, the oblation of Ajya 
and that of Soma. All these oblations are without an (apparent) body (they 
disappear at once when thrown into the fire). With such bodiless obla- 
tions the sacrificer conquers the heavenly world. The Vapa is just like 
sperm ; for just as the sperm (when effused) is lost (in the womb), the 
Vapa is lost (disappears in the fire on account of its thinness). Further, 
the Vapa is white like sperm, and, without a substantial body, just as 

in order to induce these deities to accept the offering given after the recital of the Ydjya. 
After having repeated them, he is ordered to repeat the YSjya for the medas (Vapfl), 
addressing Agnisomdu. 

Now the deviation from the general adopted rules of the sacrificial practice is, the 
formula Svaha is here several times used without having a proper AnuvSkyS and Yajya. 
To this practice some performers of sacrifices had raised some objections. But the author 
ofourBrahm. defends the practice, asserting that the PuronuvakySs required for the 
Svahakritis are included in those mentioned for the drops (p, 99), their praisa is contained 
in the general praisa, in the words : hotar agnim yaftsat, may the Hotar recite the YSjyS, 
for Agni ! &c., wiiich formula the different Svah&s follow, one of which is, Svdhd 
sv'fMkritindm (see above); and their Yajy& comprised in the general YSjyS., which is 
according to the Asvalay. Sutr. 3, 4, the last verse of the Aprisuktd, 

» See Ait. Br. 1,15. 


apftrra. Blood and flesh making up thd oubstance of tho hody, the Hotor 
therefore should say (to the Adhvaryu) : cut oJEE all that has no blood. 

The Vapa oblation must consist of five parts, even if there are only 
four parts (all except the gold plate) at the sacrificer's disposal. The 
priest first puts * melted [103] butter for the Vapa in the ladle, then 
follows a thin gold plate, the Vapa, the melted butter for the gold plate, 
and (lastly) the dripping of melted butter (on the whole). 

They ask : if there is no gold to be had, what should he do then ? 
(The answer is :) he should first put twice melted butter in the ladle,, 
then the Vap^, and drip twice hot melted butter on it. The melted 
butter is ambrosia, the gold is also ambrosia. Therefore everything 
wished for (by the eacrificer) when throwing the melted butter and 
the gold (into the ladle), is attainable. Together with the melted 
butter (to be taken twice), and the gold, the Vap^ oblation consists of 
five parts.'' 

Man is composed of five parts, viz, hairs, skin, fiesh, bones^ and 
marrow. The priest having (by the Vap& oblation) made (the sacrificerj 
just such a man (composed of five parts), offers him in Agni, who is 
the womb of the gods. For Agni is the womb of the gods ; after 
having grown together in Agni's womb with the (different other) oblations,^^ 
he then goes up to heaven with a golden body. 


{On the Repetition of the Prdtar-anuvdka, or Early Morning Prayer, 
on the Day of the Soma Libation.) 

The Adhvaryu orders the Hotar to repeat the mantras appropriate 
for the gods who appear in the early morning. These gods are Agni, 
Ub&s (dawn), and the Ativins (twilight) ; they come, if each of them 
is addressed in mantras of seven different [104J metres.' They come 
on the call of him who has such knowledge. 

As Prajapati, when he himself was (once) Hotar, was just about 
to repeat the Pratar-anuvaka, in the presence of both the Devas and Asu- 
ras, he first thought, he will repeat the Pratar-anuvaka for our benefit ; 
the latter believed, he will do so for us. He then repeated it for the 
Devas. Thence the Devas became masters of the Asuras. He who has 
such a knowledge becomes master of his enemy, adversary, and 

* The technical term for this proceeding is upa-staranam. 

' The two others are the Vap4 itself and the hot melted butter dripped on it. 

• To each of these three deities are mantras in the following leren metres 
addressed : Gdyatrf, Anu^^up, Triftnp, Br-hatt, Uf»ih, Jagatt and Pankti, 


gainsayer. It is called PrAtar-anuv&ka (morning prayer) ; for Praj&pati 
prayed it early in the morning. It ia to be repeated in the dead of 
night." For people follow in their sayings him, who possesses the 
whole speech, and the full Brahma, and who has obtained the leader- 

Therefore, the Pr&tar-anuv&ka is to be repeated in the dead of 
night : for it must be repeated before people commence talking. 
Should he, however, repeat the Pratar-anuvaka after people have 
commenced talking, he would make the Pratar-anuv&ka (which should 
be the first speech uttered in the morning) follow the speech of 
another. vSuch being contrary to its nature) it must be repeated in 
the dead of night. He should repeat it even before the voice of 
the cock is heard. * ^ For all the birds, including the cock, are the 
[105] mouth (the very end) of the goddess Nirriti (destruction, death.) 
If he thus repeats the Pr&tar-anuvaka before the voice of the cock is heard, 
(he should do so considering) that we cannot utter the sacred words re- 
quired at a sacrifice, should others already (animals or men) have made 
th«ir voices heard. Thence (to avoid this) the Pratar-anuvaka should be 
repeated in the dead of night. Then verily the Adhvaryu should begin 
his ceremonies'" (by calling on the Hotar to repeat the Pratar-anuvAka), 
and the Hotar then should repeat it. When the Adhvaryu begins his 
work (by ordering the Hotar to repeat), he begins with Speech, and the 
Hotar repeats (the Pratar-anuvaka) through Speech. Speech is Brahma. 
Thus every wish which might be attainable either by Speech or Brahma" 
IB attained. 


Praj^pati being just about to repeat the Prdtar-anuv4ka, when he 
was himself Hotar (at his own sacrifice), all the gods were in a state of 
anxious expectation, as to who of them wo^ld be first mentioned. PrajA- 
pati looked about (and, seeing the state of anxiety in which the gods were, 
thought), if I commence by addressing (the mantra) to one deity only. 

• This appears to be the meaning of : mdhati rdtry&h. S&y. explains it rather 
artificially "as the great portion of the night following the day on which the animal 
■acriflce for Agni^omiya had been performed. 

»» The author alludes here to the relation of subjects to the king, and of pupils to 
their teacher. 

11 By safcitni only the cock is to be understood. The original form being Italtutyi, 
vr& are reminded of the very word "cock." Great importance is attached to this bird id 
the Zend-Avesta, where it is named paro-darg. 

" The term used is, updkaroti. 

»* Siy. understands here by speech the worldly «omincn fc«lk, by Srahma the ?a«red 
speech^ ^h« repetition of the mantras. 

how will the other deities have a share (in such an invocation) ? He then 
saw (with his mental eyes) the verse : d.p6 revatir, i.e., the wealthy waters 
(10, 30, 12). Apo,i.e. waters, means all deities, and revatil} {lich) means 
also all deities. He thus commenced the Pratar-anuvaka by this verse, at 
vrhich all the gods felt joy : (for each of them thought), he first has men- 
tioned me ; they all then felt [106] joy when he was repeating the Pratar- 
anuvfika. He who has such a knowledge (i.e., who commences his Pratar- 
anuvaka by the same verse), commences his Pratar-anuvaka with a joint 
address to all the gods. 

The Devas were afraid of the Asuras robbing them of their early 
morning sacrifice (the Pratar-anuvaka), for they (the Asuras) were so very 
strong and powerful. But Indra said to them : '* Do not be afraid ! I shall 
strike them with the three-fold power of my morning thunderbolt." 
He then repeated the verse mentioned (10, 30, 12). This verse is in three 
respects a thunderbolt, viz., it contains " the destroying waters" ^^ {opo nap- 
tryo), it is in the Tristubh (Indra's metre, and it contains " speech"' " (it is 
recited with a loud voice). With this thunderbolt he struck and destroyed 
them. Thence the Devas became masters of the Asuras. He who has such 
a knowledge, becomes master of his enemy, adversary, and gainsayer. 

They say : he should be the Hotar who produces in this verse (when 
reciting it) the number containing all metres. This is the case, if it be 
repeated thrice. This is the production of the metres. 


He who wishes for long life, should repeat a hundred verses. For 
the (full) life of man is a hundred (yearsj ; he has (besides) a hundred 
powers, and a hundred senses.^' (By repeating one hundred verses) 
[107], the priest secures to the sacrificer his full age, his (mental and 
bodily) powers, and his senses. 

He who wishes for (performing successfully the subsequent great) 
sacrifices, should repeat 360 verses. For the year consists of 360 days ; 
such a year (is meant here). The year is Prajapati. Prajapati is the sac- 
rifice. The intelligent Hotar who recites 360 verses, turns (in this way) 
the sacrifice (regarded as a divine being, the mediator between gods and 
men) towards the sacrificer. 

" In the Anukramanikfijthe deity of the song in which this verse occurs, is called 
Apo naptriiah. 

" Vcich has the power of destroying, under certain circumstances, the sacrificer, 
" According to Say., the number of "a hundred" for the senses is to be obtained, 
if the senses are stated at ten, and if to each of them ten tubular vessels, in which they 
move, are ascribed. 


He who wishes for children and cattle, should repeat 720 vereeB. For 
so many days and nights make a year (one of 360 days). Prajapati is the 
year. For, after he is produced {prdjayamdna), the whole universe is pro- 
duced (prajayate).^'' He who has such a knowledge, obtains, if being born 
after Prajapati (by means of the sacrifice), children and cattle. 

If any one who is not recognized as a Brahman, or one who has a bad 
reputation on account of being charged with crimes, should bring a 
sacrifice, then 800 verses should -be repeated. The Gayatri consists of 
eight syllables (three times eight). The gods being of the nature of the 
Gayatri, removed the evil consequences of sin and crime. He who has 
such a knowledge, removes the evil consequences of sin and crime from 
himself by means of the Gayatri. 

He who wishes for heaven, should repeat a thousand verses. For the 
heavenly world is at a distance of about 1,000 days' travelling on horse- 
back from here (this earth). (To repeat a thousand verses, is done) for 
reaching the heavenly world everywhere. (He who then wishes) for 
acquisition of things to be enjoyed, and of communion (with the gods), 
should recite an unlimited number (of verses). For Prajapati is [108] 
boundless. To Prajapati belongs the recitation which makes up the 
Pr&tar-anuvaka. Therein are all desires contained. When he repeats an 
unlimited number (it is done) to obtain fulfilment of all desires. He who 
has such a knowledge, obtains fulfilment of all wishes. 

Thence one should repeat an unlimited '" number (of verses). He 
repeats verses of seven (kinds of) metres for Agni ; for there are seven 
worlds of the gods. He who has such a knowledge becomes successful 
in all of them. He repeats verses of seven (kinds of metres) for Usas ; 
for there are seven (kinds of) cattle* ' in villages. He who has such a 
knowledge, obtains these seven (kinds of) cattle in the villages. 

He repeats seven (kinds of verses) for the Ai^vins ; for Speech spoke in 
seven (different tones). In as many tones {i.e., seven) then spoke Speech 
(in all made men). (These seven tones are made) for comprising the 
whole speech (the worldly talk and singing), the whole Brahma. He 
repeats verses for three deities ; for three worlds are three-fold. (This 
repetition therefore serves) for conquering (all) these worlds of the 

" He is the creator. 

" As many as a Hotar can repeat from after midnight to sunrise. 

" Such as goats, sheep, cows, horses, asses, camels, &c. As the seventh kind, Apastam- 
ba counts man. , 




They ask : how should the Pr4tar-anuv&ka be repeated ? It is to be 
repeated'" according to the metres (verses of the same metre to be put 
together). The metres are the limbs of Prajapati. He who brings the 
sacrifice is Prajapati. For the benefit of the sacrificer, the several verses 
of the Pratar-anuvaka are to be recited pada (foot) by pada." For cattle 
[109] have four feet, (if he do so) he obtains cattle. He should repeat it by 
half verses. When he repeats it in this way, (then he does so for securing) 
a footing (to the sacrificer). Man has two legs, and animals have four. 
He thus places the two-legged sacrificer among the four-legged animals. " ' 
Thence he should repeat the Pratar-anuvaka only by half verses. 

They ask: the (metres of the) Pratar-anuvaka being developed, "' 
how do they become then undeveloped ? The answer should be : if the 
Brihati metre is not moved from its centre. 

Some deities have a share in the invocation offerings, others in the 
Stomas (the qhants of the Sama singers), others in the metrical verses) 
(chhavdas) repeated (by the Hotar). By means of the invocation offerings 
idhutis), one makes pleased those deities who have a share in these offerings, 
and, by means of the chants and recitations, those also who have their 
shares in the Stomas and metres. He who has such a knowledge, makes 
pleased and well-disposed bothi parties of deities (those who have their 
share in the invocation offerings, and those who have theirs in the Stomas 
and metres). 

[110] There are thirty-three gods who drink Soma and thirty-three 
who do not drink Soma. 

Tlie Soma-drinking gods are : eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve 

^ That is to say : he should take together all the verses In the Gfiyatrl, or In the 
Triotubh or other metres, without mixing them. 
'1 There are in most cases four. 

« The four feet of animals are indicated by the division of each verse Into four padae, 
and the two legs of the sacrificer by the stopping of the voice after the repetition of each 
half verse. 

2' Asv. Sr. Siitr. 4,18. The regular order of metres which commences by Gfiyatri 
and goes on by Usnih, Anustubh, &c., based on the increase by four syllables of each 
subsequent metre, is not kept in the Pr4tar-anuvS.ka, U^nih is hero not second, but fifth ; 
Aunstubh is second. The expression vyiiUia means, one metre being produced by an 
increase of the number of syllables out of the preceding metre. This increase In the 
Pritar-anuvfika goes as far as the fourth mentre, the Brihati, which is the centre ; 
then the turn from the lower number to the higher commences again. The first 
turn is G4yatri, Anustubh, Tris.tubh, and Brihati ; the second U^nih, Jagati, and 
Pankti. There being after the Brihati a return to lower numbers, the development is 
stopped : thenco the Prsltaranuvfika is avyulha also. 


Adityas, Prajdpati and Va§at-kc^ra. The not-Soma- drinking gods are : 
eleven Prayajas,'* eleven Anuyajas," and eleven Upay^jas.'" They 
[111] have their share in the sacrificial animal. With Soma, he pleases 
the Soma-drinking deities ; with the animal, those who do not drink Soma. 
Thus, he who has such a knowledge, makes both parties pleased and well- 

2'' These are the eleven verses of the Apr! hymns, see 2, 4. 

^' At the animal sacrifice, there are eleven Anuyajas required. This is briefly stated 
in Asv. 6'r. S<itras4, 6, where, however, in addition to those occurring at a previous 
sacrifice (Chaturmfisya Isti), only two are mentioned ; and on refereice to the rules on 
the ChAturmSsya Ibti (2, 16), wo find also, in addition to three which are supposed to be 
already known, only six mentioned. The three primitive ones are then to be found in the 
ruleson the Darsa pQrpima-istis (1, 8). The formula is for all Anuy&jas the same. First 
comes the name of the respective deity in the nominative, then follow the words : vasuvane 
vasudheyasya vein (or vit&m, or vyantii). The first Anuydja, which is addressed to the 
barhis, or sacrificial seat, runs for instance, as follows : ^^ ^%^^^ ^[g^^^'l ^ 
t e. " may the divine sacrificial seat, O giver of wealth (Agni) ! taste of the wealth (food) 
which is to be put by." The latter expression refers to the remainder of the sacrificial 
food which had been eaten by the priests and the sacrificer just before the offering of the 
Anuyajas. The gods are to have a share in the food already eaten. Foodlis regarded ass 
the wealth to be put by ; for it serves for the acquisition of vigour and strength. The 
term vasu is frequently used with reference to food at the time of eating the remainder 
of the sacrifice. See 2,27. The order of the Anuydjah deities at the animal sacrifice is 
the following : (1) devir dvdrali (the gates), (2) u0id-naMd (dawn and night), (3) devl 
jo^tri (satiation), (4) urj and dhuti (vigour and oblation), (5) daivy/i hatdrd (the two divine 
Hotars, i.e., the fire on earth and that in the sky), (6) tisro devir (the three deities : 
lid, Surasvuti, and BJiaratl, see 2, 5), (7) harhis, {8) nardsamso (see2, 5>, (d) vamtspati, 
(10) harhir vdritindm (the stalks of kusa grass, thrown in water jars, (II) Agni Svi^taJirit. 

*• The Upmjdjas, or supplementary offerings, accompany the AnuySjas. At the same 
time that the Hotar is repeating the Anuyaja mantras, and the Adhvaryu is throwing at 
the end of each an oblation into the fire, the PratiprasthStar, who is the constant assistant 
of the Adhvaryu, offers eleven pieces of the guts of the slaughtered animal, and 
accompanies his offerings with eleven Yajusmantras (see them in the VSjasaneya 
Samhita 6, 21, and Taittriiya Samh. 1, 3, 11). All conclude with : svdhd. On comparing 
their text in the Vdjasaneya 8., with that in the Taittiriya 8., we find sonae differences 
in the order of these mantras. The deities are the same. They are according to the Taitt. S. 
the following ones : (1) Ocean, (2) Air, (3) Savitar, (4) Day and Night, (5) Mitravaruna, 
((J) Soma, (7) the Sacrifice, (8) the Metres, (9) Heaven and Earth, (10) the TMvine Clouds 
{nabhas, invoked for giving rain according to Sdyana's commentary on the Taitt. S. vol. i. 
p. 550, ed. Cowell), (11) Agni Vaisvanara. The Hotar has nothing to do with the UpaySjag, 
All is performed by the Pratiprasthatar. We find the whole ceremony minutely described 
in the Hiranyakesi-8rauta-S(itras (4, 16, 17). The charcoals for kindling the fire for these 
offerings are taken from the fire which is on the place where the animal is slaughtered. 
These charcoals are (as I am orally informed) put on the so-called Dhisnya, or small 
fire-place behind. which the Hotar is sitting, and which is between the Agnidhra and 
Marjaii fires. On the same place the tail of the animal, the principal part of which 
belongs to the " wives of gods, " is sacrificed. 


He concludes with the verse : ahhdd u^d rusatpdsur (5, 75, 9), i.e., 
aurora appeared with the roaring cattle. 

They ask : if he repeats three liturgies (kratus)*'' addressed to Agni, 
Usfis, and the Ai^vins, how can his concluding (the whole liturgy) with 
one verse only be accounted for ? (The answer is :) all three deities are 
contained (in this verse). (The first pada :) " aurora appeared with the 
roaring eattle, " is appropriate to Usas. (The second pada:) "Agni is 
put in at the proper time, " belongs to Agni. (The second half verse :) 
" 0, ye mighty (brothers !), your immortal carriage is yoked, hear my sweet 
voice !" belongs to the Ativins. When he thus concludes with (this) one 
verse, then all three liturgies have their place in it. 

{The Apo "Naptrtyam Ceremony. The Updrhsu and Antarydma Oblations. 
The Rotar has no share in the Bahi^pavamdna Meal. The Libation for 
Mitrd-Varuj^a to be mixed with milk. On the Puroddsas belonging 
to the Libations. Havi^pafikti. Akgara-pankti, 'Nardaarhsa-pafikti. 


{iStory of the ^ildra Ri§i Kava^a^). 
The Ri§is, when once holding a sacrificial session on (the banks of) 
the Sarasvati, expelled Kavasa, the (113) son of Ilfasa, from (their) Soma 

*' This term denotes the parts of the Pratar-anuvSka which introduces the Soma 

* In the Eausitaki Br&htnanam (12, 3), the story of Kavasa is reported in the 
following way : — 

mv^mi: mm^ ^mnm^ turif^ «^> ?rs^ f^^m^ i cf t*« ^^rpf^^n I f# s^5^ t 

i.e., the Risis, called the "middle ones" (Gritsamada, Visvamitra, Vaniadeva, Atri, 
Bharadvfija, Vasistha, see Asv. Grihya Sutras, 3, 4), hold once a sacrificial session on 
the Sarasvati. Amongst them there sat Kavasa. These (Risis) reproached him (that 
he had come among them) saying : " Thou art the son of a slave girl, we shall neither eat 
nor drink with thee." Having become angry, he ran to the Sarasvati, and obtained her 
favour by moans of this hymn (pra devatrd braUmane). She followed him. These Risis 
then thought that he was guiltless. Turning to him, they said, "Risi ! adoration be to 
thee, do us no harm ! thou art the most excellent among us, for she (Sarasvati) follows 
thee." They made him the manager of the sacrifice, and thus appeased his wrath. This 
is the importance of Kavasa, and he it was who made that hymn known. 

The occasion on which Kavasa had this hymn revealed to him, is thus related in 
the Kan.^itaki Brahra. (12, 1) : - 


sacrifice (saying) : How Bliould the son of a slave-girl, a gamester, who is 
no Brahman, remain among us and become initiated (into all sacrificial 
rites) ? Tbey turned him out (of the place) into a desert, saying, that 
he should die by thirst, and not drink the water of the Sarasvati. After 
having been driven (from this place), into a desert, he, being vexed by 
thirst, saw (the mantra called) Apo naptriyam: pra devatrd hrahmane 
gdturetu, &c., i.e., may there be a way leading to the gods for the Brahman 
(may he be received among them). By this means he obtained the favour 
of the waters. They went out (of their house) to (meet) him. Sarasvati 
surrounded him on all sides. Therefore that place is called Parisdraka 
('from enam-kava^am-parisasdra). As Sarasvati had surrounded him en 
all sides, the Risis said, the gods know him ; let us call him back. All 
consented, and called him back. After having called him back, they 
made Apo naptriyam, by repeating : pra devatrd hrahmarie (10, 30) ; by 
its means they obtained the favour of the waters and of the gods. He 
who, having this knowledge, makes the Apo naptriyam," obtains the 
favour of the waters and the gods, and conquers the highest world (the 

[114] He should repeat it without stopping. (If he do so) the god 
of rain (Parjanya) will bless his children with incessant rain. Should he 
stop at regular intervals, when repeating (the hymn, as usual), then the 
rain-god would keep away in the clouds the rain from his children. 
Thence it is to be repeated without stopping. If he repeats thrice the 
first verse of this (hymn) without stopping, in this manner the whole (of 
the hymn) becomes repeated without stopping.' 

(The Ceremony of Mixing the Vasativari and Ekadhand Waters.) 
After having repeated these (first) nine verses (of the hymn, 10, 30) in 
the same order as they follow (one another in the Samhita), he repeats the 

Of old the Raksas, the disturbers of the sacrifice, guarded the waters on the bathing 
places. Some persons had come to the waters. Thereupon the Rak^as killed them all. 
Kavasa then saw this hymn which comprises fifteen verses : pra devatrd. He then 
repeated it, and by means of it turned the Raksas from the bathing places, and killed 

* The priests take water from a river, putting it in an earthen vessel. This water 
serves for squeezing the Soma juice. 

* He to repeat only the first verse thrice without stopping, whilst all remaining 
verses of the hymn may be repeated in the usual manner. For, the repetition of the first 
holds good for the whole remaining part. 


(Uth verse), hinotd no adhvararh,&c.,B,s the tenth, and (after it, he adds the 
10th : ) dvarvrUatir, when the waters* filled (in jars) by the Ekadhanins are 
£116]I turned away (from the river or tanlc whence they have been taken 
to the sacrificial compound). When they are seen (by the Hotar), he 
repeats : prati yad dpo adrisram (10, 30, 13). When the waters approach 
(the Chatvala), then he repeats the verse : ddhenavah payasd (5, 43). 
When the (Vasativari and Ekadhana) waters are joined together (in the 
Chamasas of the Hotar and Maitravaruna), then the Hotar repeats : savi 
anyd yanti (2, 35, 3). 

(To illustrate the origin of this rite, the following story is related.) 
Both kinds of waters, those called Vasativari, which were brought 
the day previous (to the Soma feast), and those called Ekadhands, which 
were brought on the very morning (of the Soma feast), were once jealous 
of one another, as to which should first carry up the sacrifice. Bhfigu, 
becoming aware of their jealousy, bade them to be quiet, with the verse : 
sam anyd yanti, &o. He restored peace among them. The waters of him 
who, having such a knowledge, restores peace among them (in this 
manner) will carry his sacrifice. 

[1163 When (both kinds of waters) the Vasativaris and the 
Eltadhands are poured together in the Chamasa of the Hotar, he repeats : 
dpo na devir upayanti (1, 83, 2). Then the Hotar asks the Adhvaryu : 
* I subjoin here a more detailed description of the Ap6 naptriyam ceremony, 
or the joining of the water jugs. My statements are taken from a Soma prayoga 
(a manual of the Adhvaryu priests), the Hiranyakesi SrAuta Sfltras, and oral infor- 
mation. After the Hotar has finished the Pr^tar-anuvaka, the Adhvaryu addresses 
to him the words : •' Ask for (tsya) the waters, " to which the Hotar answers : " Apo 
naptriya" (calling upon them). The Adhvaryu continues his orders (before the Hotar 
can answer) : Chamasa-adhvaryu of the Maitravaruna, come hither I ye Ekadhanins 
(bringer of the Ekadhand waters) come ! Nestar bring the wife (of the sacrificer) I 
Agnid (Agnidhra), turn the Chamasa (Soma cup) of the Hotar and the vasatwan waters 
towards one another in the Ohdtvdla (a hole, for making ablutions) I The Chamasa- 
adhvaryu of the Maitravaruna then brings a Chamasa. The Ekadhanins, i.e., those 
who carry the so-called Ekadhana waters, then come with three jags for the 
ehadhand, that the Adhvaryu should first throw one stalk (ekadhana) into the jag, and 
thus consecrate it. Thence these waters are called ekadhands. The Nestar brings 
the wife who holds a jug in her hand. After all have come, the Adhvaryu throws one 
stalk of kus'a grass into the waters, and after having repeated the mantra, devir dpah, 
he puts four sruvafuls of ghee on the stalk, and sacrifices it. The Adhvaryu brings the 
Chamasa of the Hotar and that of the Maitrfivaruna, in which the Ekadhana waters are, 
into mutual contact, and puts the Vasativari vl'ater jug near it. He pours water from 
it into the Chamasa of the Hotar, and leads it into that of the Maitravaruna, and again 
from that of the Maitravaruna into that of the Hotar, When the waters poured by the 
Adhvaryu from this jug come near the Hotar, the latter asks the Adhvaryu thrice, 
adhvaryo aver apa— Hast thou brought the waters, Adhvaryu ? Instead of this formula, 
we find in the Kaujtaki Br. (12, 1,) ^srmn t^W ^ which means exactly the same. 


Hast tliou obtained the waters ? For the waters are the sacrifice. (Tlie 
question therefore means:) Hast thou obtained^ the sacrifice? The 
Advharyu answers : These (waters) are completely obtained. ® This means : 
see these waters. 

(The Hotar now addresses to the Adhvaryu the following words:) 
" With these waters you will squeeze, Adhvaryu, for Indra, the Soma, 
the honey-like, the rain-giving, the inevitably-successful-making ' at 
the end, after having included so many ceremonies (from the first 
to the last) ; (you will squeeze) for him (Indra), who is joined by the 
Vasus, Rudras, Adityas, Ribhus, who has power, who has food, who 
is joined by Brihaspati, and by all gods ; (you will squeeze the Soma) 
of which Indra (formerly) drank, slew his enemies, and overcame his 
adversaries. Om ! " (After having spoken these words) the Hotar 
rises from his seat (to show his respect). Respect is to be paid to 
the waters by rising, just as people rise to salute a distinguished 
[ H*^ ] person who is coming near. Thence the waters are to be 
saluted by rising from the seat, and turning towards them. For, in the 
same manner, people salute a distinguished man. Therefore the Hotar 
must go behind the waters for saluting them. For, the Hotar, even if 
another one brings the sacrifice, has (in this way) the power of earning 
fame. Therefore the jrepeater (of the mantra) should go behind them. 
When going behind them, he repeats : amhayo yanty adhvahhiljL (1, 23, 16), 
i.e., the waters which are the friends of the sacrificers come on (various) 
ways mixing their (own) liquid with honey. (In the word viadhu, honey, 
there is an allusion to Soma.) If a man, who has not tasted (formerly) the 
Soma juice, should wish to earn fame (he ought to repeat this verse). If 
he wishes for beauty, or for the acquirement of sacred knowledge (Brahma 
splendour), he should repeat the verse, amur yd upa sHrye (1, 23, 17). If 
he wishes for cattle, he should repeat, apo devir upahvaye (1, 23, 18). 

* The word aver, in the formula used by the Hotar, is here explained by *' avidah," 
thou hast obtained. 

• In the original, Dtem anannamur. The formulas appear to be very ancient. 
Avannamur is an imperfect of the intensive of the root vam. In the Eaut^itakl 
Br&hmanam stands tjj^e same formula. 

' l^ivrdntam. The word, tivra, " pungent, " is here, no doubt, used In a figurative 
sense, as S^y. explains it. It means a thing that is ultimately to the point, that hits at 
its aim, just as the sting of an insect, b&y.'s explanation is, on the whole, certainly 
correct. That this is the true meaning, is corroborated by the following word, bahura- 
madJiyam, i.e., which has much (i.e., many ceremonies) between the commencement and end. 
Both expressions seem to belong together, forming a sort of proverbial phrase, the 
import of which is that, notwithstanding the many ceremonies, the fruit of the Soma 
sacriflcG is not lost, but ultimately sure. ' « 


Should he, when repeating all these verses, go behind (the water8\ he 
would obtain fulfilment of (all) tbese wishes. He wbo knows this, obtains 
these wishes. 

When the Vasativari, and Ehadhands are being put (on the Vedi), 
then he repeats, imd agman revatir jiva dhanyd (10, 30, 14) j and with the 
verse, dgmann d'pah. (10, 30, 15), he concludes when they are (actually) 
put (on the Vedi). 


{The Libations from the ZTpdrhiu and Antarydma Qrahas. 

The Haling in and out of the Air hy the Hotar). 

The Pratar-AnuvSka is the head of the sacrifice (Soma sacrifice). 

The Uparfasiu and Antaryama [US] Grahas") are the air in- 
haled (prdna) and the air exhaled (apdna^). Speech is the weapon. 
Therefore, the Hotar should not make his voice heard before the 
libations from the Updrniu and Antarydma gralias are poured (into 
the fire). Should the Hotar make his voice heard before these two have 

^Updihsu and Antarydma are names of vessels from which the two first Soma libations 
are poured into the Ahavaniya fire, as soon as the jnice is obtained by squeezing. 
Both libations which precede those from the other Soma vessels (AindravAyava, &c.) 
poured into the fire of the Uttar4 Vedi, are not accompanied with mantras recited by the 
Hotar, as all other libations are, but they are performed by the Adhvaryu, whilst the 
Hotar is drawing in his breath, or haling out the air which was breathed in. "When 
doing the first, the libation from the Upfims'u graha is poured into the fire ; when doing 
the latter, that from the Antarydma graha is given. The Adhvaryu repeats some sacri- 
ficial formulas (see the Taittiriya Samhita 1, 4, 2, 3). whilst the Hotar mutters only the 
two formulas (the technical name of such formulas repeated by the Hotar is nigada) which 
are mentioned here (2, 21), and also in the Asv. Sr. Sfltras (5, 2). 

In the books belonging to the Yajurveda, we meet the terms updmsu graha and 
upamsti pfitra, and likewise antaryama graha, and antarydma pdtra. These terms require 
some explanation. The pdtra is a vessel, resembling a large wooden jar with but a very 
slight cavity on the top, in which the Soma juice is filled. The graha is a small cup, 
like a saucer, made of earth, and put over the cavity of the Soma vessel, in order to 
cover the " precious " juice. The bottom of it is first put in water, and a gold leaf placed 
beneath it. There are as many srrahas as there are p&tras ; they belong together just as 
cup and saucer, and are regarded as inseparable. The word graha is, however, taken 
often in the sense of the whole, meaning both graha and pdtra. On the different names of 
the grahas required at the three great libations, see the Orahakdnda in the Satap. 
BrShm. 4, and the commentary on the Taittiriya Samhita (vol. i. p. 593-693 ed. Cowell). 
I am in possession of several grahas and patras, 

•At the end of the Pratar-anuvaka, the Hotar must, after having repeated with a 
low voice the mantra, prdnam yachha, «&c., draw in the breath as strongly as he can. 
Then he repeats with a low voice, apdnam yachha, &c., and, after having finished, he 
exhales the air (through the nose) as strongly as he can. He repeats with a low voice, 
vydiidyn, &c., and when touching the stone by which the Soma for the Upamsu graha is 
flqueezeil, he is allowed to speak aloud. (Oral information). 


£119J been poured into the fire, then he would carry off the vital airs of 
the sacrificer by means of the speech, which is a weapon. For (if he do 
bo) some one should say to the Hotar (afterwards), that he has made the 
vital airs of the sacrificer go off, (and he, the Hotar) would lose his life.*' 
It happens always thus. Thence the Hotar should not make his voice 
heard, before the libations from the Uparfasiu and Antaryama grahas are 
poured into the fire. He should, when the libation from the Upams(u 
graha is given, mutter the words : " Keep in the air inhaled ! Svaha ! il emit) 
thee, speech of good call for pleasing the sun (which is thy presiding 
deity)." He should then draw in the air, and say (with a low voice) : " 
breath, who goest in (my body), keep in (my body) the breath !" He should, 
when the libation from the Antaryama graha is given, mutter the words : 
" Keep in the air exhaled ! Svaha ! (I emit) thee, speech of good call 
for pleasing the sun." (After having spoken these words) he should hale 
out the air, and say, " air, haled out, keep this very air (which is to be 
haled out, in my body)." By the words" (I emit) thee (0 speech!) for 
the air, circulating (in my body)," he then touches^ ^ the stone used to 
squeeze the Soma juice for the Upanijiu graha, and makes his voice heard. 
This stone to squeeze the Soma juice for the Upaihi^u graha is the soul. 
The Hotar, after having put (thus) the vital airs in his own self, emits his 
voice, and attains his full age (100 years). Likewise, does he who has such 
a knowledge. 

[120] {The Hotar has no share in the Bahis-pavamdna Meal. The Soma 
Libation for Mitrd-Varuv-a to be mixed with Milk). 

(After the libations from the Upamj^ii and Antaryama have been 
poured into the fire, the Soma squeezed, and poured into the different 
vessels — grahas — such as Aindaooyava, &c., which are then kept in readi- 
ness for making the libations, five of the priests : Adhvaryu, Prastotar, 
Pratihartar, Udgatar, and Brahma, one holding the hand of the other 
— samanvdrabdhd — walk in the direction of the Chdtvdla, and ultimately 
take their seats for performing the ceremony of the Stotra, i.e., chanting 
a sacred verse — a Sdman. Now the question is, whether the Hotar is 
allowed to walk or not at the same time that the other priests just 
mentioned do so.) 

At that (occasion, when the priests walk) they (the theologians) ask, 
whether he (the Hotar) ought to walk or not (togetlier with the others). 

*' That is to say, some one might charge him afterwards with having murdered the 

" Not struck against another, as is done when the Soma juice is being squeezed, 


Some say, he ought to walk; for tliia meal" in honour of the Ba/ii?- 
pavamdna-stotra^^ (which is aboat to [121] be performed by the 
Sama singers) is enjoyed equally by both gods and men ; hence (both 
gods and men) participate in it. But those who say so are not to 
be attended to. Should he walk (along with the Sama singers), then 
he would make the Rik (which is repeated by the Ho tar) follow 
the Saman. (If any one should see him do so) he at that occasion 
should tell him : " The Hotar here has been behind the Sama singers, 
and ceded his fame to the Udgatar ; he has fallen from his place 
and will (in future) also fall from it." So it always happens to the 
Hotar (who walks after the Sama singers).^* Therefore he ought to 
remain where he is sitting, and repeat the following Anumantraiiia *' 
verse : ** which Soma draught here at the sacrifice, placed on the sacred 
grass, on the altar, belongs to the gods, of this we also enjoy a share." 
Thus the soul of the Hotar is not excluded from that Soma draught 
Cwhich is drunk by the Sama singers after the Bahis-pavamana Saman ia 
over). Then (after having repeated the mantra mentioned) he ought 
to repeat : " Thou art the mouth (of the sacrifice) ; might I become the 
[1221 mouth (^first among my people) also! For the Bahis-pavamana 

" Thus I translate b/m/csa. It refers to the eatiug of Charu or boiled rice by the Sama 
singers before they chant. The Hotars are excluded from it. 

'• This stotra consists of nine richas commencing with: upismcii g^yatdnarah, which all 
are found together in the Sdmavcddrchikumli. 1-9. All nine richas are solemnly chanted 
by the three Sama singers, Pcastotxr, [Jdg ftar, and Pratihartar, Each of these verses is 
for the purpose of chanting, divided into four parts : Prastdva, i.e., prelude, the first being 
preceded by hum, to be sung by the Prastotar; Udgitha, the principal part of the Saman, 
preceded by om, to be chanted by the Udgatar ; the Pratihdra, i.e., response introduced by 
hiiiii, to be chanted by the Pratihartar, and the Nidhana, i.e., finale, to be sung by all three. 
To give the student an idea of this division, I here subjoin the second of these richas in the 
8&ma form, distinguishing its four parts : — 

Prastdva : gji^ ^ ^jvi^T ^^1 ii 

Udgitha : ^^qm^foTt ?lRl?rit3^t^I'^^T '• 

'Pratihdra: ^ ^Tl^l^T H 

l^idhana : ^T'^ II 

The Nidhanas, i.e., finals, are for the nine Pavam/Sna-stotra verses, the following onea: 
cm, WR[ %^U, %-SJ, ^I^, and ^ji^o^ the four last verses). 

" The Rik is regarded as a solid foundation on which the SSman is put. See the 
passage in the Chdadogya-Upatii^ad (I, 6, 1), here quoted by Sayaiia :" The Rik is the 
earth, the Saman Agni ; just as (the fire is put) on the earth, the S&man is placed 
over the Rik (as its foundation) ; thence the SSman is sung placed over the Rik." This 
means, before the singers can sing the SSmaii, the Rik which serves for this purpose, 
is first to be repeated in the form in which it is in Rigveda. This is generally done. 
See, besides, Ait. Br. 8, 28. 

" This is the repetition, with a low voice, of a verse or formula, by the Hotar, after 
a ceremony is over. 


draught is the very mouth of the sacrifice (sacrificial personage)." He 
who has such a knowledge, becomes the mouth of his own people, the 
chief among his own people. 

An Asura woman, Dirghajihvi (long-tongued), licked the morning 
libation of the gods. It (consequently) became inebriating everywhere. 
The gods wished to remedy this, and said to Mitra and Varuna : 
"Ye two ought to take off tliis (the inebriating quality from the Soma)." 
They said: "Yes, but let us choose a boon fiom you." The god said : 
Choose! They chose at the morning libation curd of milk whey {-payasya) 
in milk. This is their everlasting share ; that is, the boon chosen by 
them. What had been made by her (the Asura woman) inebriating, that 
was made good (again) by the curd ; for both Mitra and Varuna removed, 
through J,bis curd, the inebriating quality, as it were (from the Soma 
juice). ^^ 

{Purodasa Offerings for the Libations.) 

The libations {sav.andni) of the gods did not hold (they were about 
falling down). The gods saw the rice cakes (Puroddsas). They portioned 
them out for each libation, that they sliould hold together the libations. 
Tiience their libations were held together. When, therefore (at the 
libations) rice cakes are portioned [123] out for holding together the 
libations, the libations offered by the sacrificers are then (really) held 
together. The gods made these rice cakes he fore (the Soma offering). 
Thence it is called purodasa (from pure, before). 

About this they say : for each libation one ought to portion out ric© 
cakes, one of eight potsherds (a ball put on eight kapalas) at the morning, 
one of eleven potsherds at midday, and one of twelve at the evening,, liba- 
tion. For the form of the libations is defined ^' by the metres. But this 

" The translation of this sentence offers some difficulty. I follow here Sayapa» 
who refers the one asydi to Dirghajihvi, the other to payasyd. We have here an allu- 
sion to mixing the Soma with sour milk {dadhydsih), in order to make it less inebriating. 
The curds put in it, are Mitra 's and Varuna's everlasting share. By the story which is 
here told, the author tries to account for the fact, that the libation for Mitra-Varuna 
is mixed with curds of milk whey. At present, the Soma is not generally mixed with 
sour milk. A large quantity of water is taken, in order to weaken its strength. 

" That is ta say, at the morning libation Gdyatri, each pada of which consists of 
eight syllables, is the leading metre, whilst at the midday libation Trii^tuhli (with four 
padas, each of eleven syllables'), and at the evening libation Jugati (with four padas, 
each of twelve syllables), are the leading metres. Therefore, some sacrificial priests were 
of opinion that, in accordance with the number of syllables of the leading metre of each 
libation, the number of kapdlas (potsherds) should be eight at the morning, eleven at the 
midday, and twelve at the evening, libtaion. 


(opinion) is not to be attended to For all the rice cakes, which are por- 
tioned out for each libation, are Indra's. Thence they ought to be put 
(at all three libations) on eleven potsherds only. ' ' 

About this they say : one ought to eat of such a portion of a rice 
cake which is not besmeared with melted butter, in order to protect the 
Soma draught. For Indra slew with melted butter as his thunderbolt 
Vritra. But this (opinion) is not to be attended to. * ' For the offering 
(besmeared with butter) is a liquid sprinkled (into the fire), and the Soma 
draught is such a liquid sprinkled (into the fire). (Both — Ghee and Soma — 
being thus of the same nature) the sacrificer [124] should eat of any part 
of the offering (whether besmeared with ghee or not). 

These offerings, viz., melted butter, fried grains of barley (dhdndli), 
karambha, '" parivdpa, " puroddsa, and payasyd, " come by themselves to 
the sacrificers from every direction. To him who has such a knowledge 
come these (offerings) by themselves. 

{Havi^-pafikti. Ah^ara-pahkti. I^ardsarhsa-pankti. 

He who knows the offering consisting of five parts prospers by means 
of this offering. The offering consisting of five parts {havis-paiihti) 
comprises (the following five things) : fried grains of barley, karambha, 
parirdpa, puroddsa, and payasyd. 

He who knows the Aksara-paikti sacrifice (offering of five sylla- 
bles), prospers by means of this very sacrifice. The Aksara-pafikti com- 
prises (the following five syllables) : su, mat, pad, vag, cZe." He, who has 
such a knowledge, prospers by the sacrifice consisting of five syllables. 

He who knows the Nard'samsa-pafikti '* sacrifice [1^5], prospers by 

^' The reason is that Indra's metre, Tristubh, consists of eleven syllables. 

^' The Soma is not to be brought into contact with anything that is supposed to have 
been an instrument of murder, as in this case the melted butter was. 

'" This is a kind of pap, prepared of curds and barley juice {saktu) by kneading both 
together. Instead of curds, slightly melted butter (sarpts) might be taken. See KfityS- 
yana Srauta Siitra. 9, 1, 17. 

2^ This is another kind of pap, prepared of fried grains and barley juice. 

" See 2, 22. p. 122. 

** These five syllables are to be muttered by the Hotar when making japa (the utter- 
ing of mantras with a low inaudible voice), after the havis-paiikti is over. They, no 
doubt, correspond to the five parts of the huvi?-pahkti offering. 

" This means : the assemblage of five Narasumsas. Nardsamsa is, as is well- 
known, a name of Agni, and of some other gods, identical with the Ndiryo-sunha of the 
Zend-Avesta (see Hang's "Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of 
the Parsees," p. 2S2). According to the explanation given by Sayana, who follows 


means of it. For two Naraj^amsa offerings belong to the morning, 
two to the midday, and one to the evening, libation. This is the 
Narasiamsa-pafikti sacrifice. He who has such a knowledge prospers by 

He who knows the Savana-pafikti sacrifice, prospers by it. This 
Savana-pankti sacrifice consists of the animal which is sacrificed the 
day previous to the Soma feast (pasur upavasaihe), the three libations 
{, and the animal to be sacrificed after the Soma feast is over 
{pasur anithandhydh). This is the Savana-pafikti sacrifice. He who 
has such a knowledge prospers by means of the Savana-pafikti sacrifice. 

The Yajya-raantra for the havis-pankti is : " -"May Indra, with his 
" two yellow horses, eat the fried grains (first part of the havis-pahkti\ 
" with PAsan, the karamhha ; may the parivdpa (be enjoyed) by 
** Sarasvati and Bhdrati, and the cake (apitpa-puroddsa) by Indra !" 
The two yellow horses Qiari) of Indra are the Bik and Sdman. Pil^ari 
(the guardian of flocks, the divine herdsman) is cattle, and karamhhd is 
food." As to the words : sarasvati-vdn and hhdrativan, Sarasvati is speech, 
[126] and Bhdrata (bearer) means vital air. Parivdpa is food, and 
apUpa is sharpness of senses. 

(By repeating this Yajya-mantra) the Hotar makes the sacrificer 
join those deities, assume the same form, and occupy the same place 
with them. He (the Hotar) who has such a knowledge becomes (also) 
joined to the best beings and obtains the highest bliss. 

The Yajya-mantra for the Svistakfit of the Puroddsa offering at 
each libation is " Agni, eat the offering.'"'' 

one of the masters (Acharyas), the word Nardsamsa, i.e., belonging to Nardsamsa, means 
the Soma cups {chamasa), after one has drunk out of them, sprinkled water over them, 
and put them down. For, in this condition, they belong to Nardsamsa, At the morning 
and midday libations, the Soma cups (chamasa) are filled twice each time, and at the 
evening libation only once. Thus the Soma cups become during the day of libations five 
times Nardsafnsas. This is the Nardsaihsa-pahkti sacrifice. 

" It is not in the Samhita. As it stands here, it appears to have been taken from 
another Sdkhd. For, whilst we found above, five parts of the havii}-pahkti menliouod, 
here in this mantra we have only four, the pmjasyd being omitted. 

" According to Sayana, the meaning of the latter sentence is : Pw-san is called by 
this name from his feeding (pus) the cattle, and karambha is called food from being 
itself the nourishment. 

" The Kausitaki Brahmanam (13, 8) furnishes us with a fuller report on the origin 
of the Svistakrit formula required for the Purod&.s'a offerings which accompany the tjoma 
libations. It is as follows : — 

?$>aT f f^<^ i^.t^ f f^^rfn sftf^mf^5=?ici w^ ^??i?i*i^?iT: ^gJT ^i* 5i?g- 


[127] By repeating this mantra, Avatsdra fan ancient Risi) 
obtained Agni's favour and conquered the highest world. The same 
happens to hira who has such a knowledge, and who knowing it has 
this havis-panhti offered {i.e., the sacrificer), or repeats the Yajya-mantra 
belonging to it (i.e., the Hotar). 


(The Dvidevdtya Graha Libations, i.e., the Libations poured from the 
Aindravayava, MaitravarutiLa, and A'svina Grahas. ^ituydjas. The 
Silent Praise). 


(Story of a Eace run by the Gods for obtaining the right to drink first 
from a Soma Libatioji. The Aindravayava Graha. Explanation of a 
certain custom with the Bhdratas), 

The gods could not agree as to who of them should first taste the 
Soma juice. They (all) wished for it, (each saying) "Might I drink 
first, might I drink first." They came (at length) to an understanding. 
They said: "Well, let us run a race.^ He of us who will be victor^ 
shall first taste the Soma juice." So they did. Among all those who 
ran the race, V-dyu first arrived at the goal ; next Indra ; next Mitra 
and VaruTja, then the Asvins. Indra thinking he would be beforehand 
with Vayu, (ran as fast as he could [128] and) fell down close to him. He 

^rfT^i^f^jpj^ ^^ ^q: JTsnfor^^sfjrlf w^ ^^^^ ^^% fmrfg sftc^TssTrf^ggf^^ r 

i.e., The Hotar uses, as Yajya of the Svistakrit offering of the Purodfisa which accom- 
panies the libations, the formula : " Agai, eat the offering." 

(On the origin of this formula, the following is reported:) Avatsftra, the son of 
Prasravana, was (once) the Hotar of the gods. In that abode of light, Death (one of 
the gods) attached himself to him ; for Agni is Death. Ho pleased Agni with an oflering^ 
repeating : " Agni, eat of the offering," and was released. 

(There is another story reported on the origin of this formula, which runs as 
follows : -) 

The gods went by means of their innate light and splendour to the celestial world. 
In that abode of light. Death attached himself to them. Agni is Death. They pleased 
Agni with an offering, repeating " Agni, eat "the offering," and were released. 

This formula (havir agne vihi) consists of six syllables ; the soul consists of six 
parts,— is six-fold. Thus the sacrificer redeems (by means of this formula) through a 
soul (represented by this formula) his own soul, and clears off his debts. This is the 
mantra of Avatsara, the son of Prasravana. 

* The expression in the original is : djim aydma. See 4, 7. 


then said, " We both have (arrived at the goal) together ; let both of 
us be winners of the race." Vayu answered, " No ! I (alone) am 
•winner of the race." Indra said, " Let the third part (of the prize) 
be mine ; let both of us be winners of the race !" Vayu said, " No ! 
I alone am winner of the race." Indra said, " Let the fourth part (of 
the prize) be mine; let us both be winners of the race!" To this 
Vayu agreed, and invested him with the right to the fourth part (of the 
first Soma cup presented). Thence Indra is entitled only to the fourth 
part ; but Vayu to three parts. Thus Indra and Vayu won the race 
together ; next followed Mitra and Varuna together, and then the An^vins. 

According to the order in which they arrived at the goal, they 
obtained their shares in the Soma juice. The first portion belongs to 
Indra and Vayu, then follows that of Mitra and Varuna, and (lastly) that 
of the Aslvins. 

The Aindravdyava Soma jar (graha) is that one in which Indra 
enjoys the fourth part. Just this (fourth part as belonging to Indra) 
was seen (by means of revelation) by a Risi. He then repeated the 
mantra appropriate to it, niyutvdn Indrdht sdrathir, i.e., Vayu ' (and) 
Indra his carriage-driver ! Thence, when now-a-days the Bharatas' spoil 
their enemies (conquered in the battle-field), those charioteers who 
[129] seize the booty, say, in imitation of that example set by Indra, 
who won his race only by becoming the charioteer (of Vayu), " the fourth 
part (of the booty is ours) alone." * 


{On the Meaning of the Libations from the Aindravdyava, Maiti'dvaruria, 
and Asvina Grahas. The two Anuvdkyds for the Aindravdyava Graha.) 
The Soma jars (^?'a/irt) which belong to two deities^ are the vital 
airs. The Aindravdyava jar is speech and breath, the Maitrdvaruna 
jar is eye and mind ; the Ahina jar is ear and soul. Some (sacrificial 
priests) use two verses in the Anustubh metre as Purontivakyas, and two 
in the Gayatri metre as Yajyas when offering ithe Soma juice) from the 

' Niyutvdn is a frequent epithet of Vftyu. See the hj^^mu 2, 41, meaning, one who has 
teams, oxen, cows, &c. 

* Sayana does not take this word here as a proper name, in which sense we gener- 
ally find it in the ancient Samskrit Literature, but as an appellative noun, meaning 
*' warriors." He derives the word from bhara cattle, and tan to extend, stretch ; to 
•which etymology no modern philologist will give his assent. Satvan is here eyplaincd 
by Sayana as " charioteer ;" but in his commentary on Rigveda 1,62, 2, he takes it in 
the sense of " enemy " which is, we think, the right one. 

* The author of the Brahmanam explains here the reason of the custom why the 
charioteers are entitled to the fourth part of the booty made in a battlo. 

* Th^ee vessels are called : Aiudvai'dynva, MaHrAvaruna, and Asvina. 


Aindravayava jar. As the Aindravayava jar represents speech and breath, 
thus the proper metres 'Anustubh being speech, and Gayatri breath) will 
be applied. But this (practice) ought not to be observed. For, where the 
Puronuvakya mantra exceeds in (syllables) the Yajya mantra,® there is no 
success in the sacrifice ; but where the Yajya exceeds the Puronuvakya 
(in syllables) there is success. 

(Likewise success is not obtained) by using the same metres (for 
Anuvakya and Yajya mantras). In order to obtain any desire what- 
ever, referring to speech and breath, the Hotar ought to do so {i e., 
[130] to repeat two verses in the Anustubh metre as Anuvakyas, and 
two in the Gayatri metre as Yajya mantras). In this way (all he desires) 
will be fulfilled. The first Puronuvakya belongs to Vayu (1, 2, 1), the 
second to In dra and Vayu (1,2,4). By that Yajya ^ which belongs to 
Vayu, the Hotar makes (produces) breath (in the sacrificer). For Vayu 
(wind) is breath, and by means of that pada(foot) of the Indra-Vayu-Yajy& 
mantra, which refers to Indra, he makes speech. For speech is Indra's. 
He (thus) obtains every desire fgranted) which refers to breath and speech, 
without producing any inequality (by having the one set of mantras too 
long, the other too short) in the sacrifice.' 


{The Rite of Drinking from the Aindravayava, Maitravaruija, and Asvina 
Grahas hy the Hotar. The Formulas repeated at those occasions.) 

The Soma offerings belonging to two deities are the vita^ airs ; ^ but 
they are offered in the same jar for both (deities) ; for the reason is, that 
(all) the vital airs are of one and the same nature. They are sacrificed from 
two * grahas (jars with small cups), for the vital airs are a pair (such as the 

' This would be the case if the Anustubh metre should be used for the Puronuv&kyS, 
and the Qdyatri as Yajyfi ; for the Anustubh consists of thirty-twd, and the Gftyatri 
only of twenty-four syllables. 

^ The two first verses of 4, 46, are used as Yfijyas. 

* This latter remark refers to the opinion of those who maintained that the 
Puronuvakya and Yajya mantras ought to be of the same metres. 

* By these, speech, eyes, and ears are meant. 

* At the Soma offerings, there are always two Grahas required ; on© is held by the 
Adhvaryu, the other by his assistant Pratipasthfitar. The contents of both the grahas 
belong to the same pair of deities ; both are therefore dvidevatya, belonging to two 
deities. The author of the Brahmana attempts here to explain the circumstance that, 
though the Soma offering contained in one graha belong to two deities (Vayu and 
Indra, Mitra and Varuiia, «fec.), there are always two Grahas used, and their contents 
simultaneously sacrificed. 

• so ^^ 

©yes). [131J VVlieQ (after the Soma ofieriug has been given to the two res- 
pective deitiea) the Adhvaryu hands over (the Soma cup to drink of the re- 
mainder of the juice) to the Hotar, he receives it with the same mantra by 
which the Adhvaryu presents it (to him). By the (words) : " This is a good,'' 
" this is a multitude of goods ; here is good, a multitude of goods ; in me is 
" the good (when the Soma is drunk), a multitude of goods ; rule of speech" I 
" protect my speech 1 " the Hotar drinks Soma from the Aindravayava 
" graha. (Then he repeats) : * Speech with breath is called hither (by me) ; 
" may speech with breath call also me 1 The divine Risis, the protectors of 
" (our) bodies, ' who are born from austerities {tapoja) are called hither (by 
" me) I may the divine Risis, the protectors of our bodies, who are born 
** from austerities, call (also) me V By the divine Risis, who are the 
•* protectors of (our) bodies, the vital airs are to be understood. Thus he 
" calls (invites) the Risis. 

(By the words) : " This is a good which has knowledge ; here is a good 
" which has knowledge ; in me is a good which has knowledge ; ruler of the 
eye, protect my eye !" the Hotar drinks Soma from the Maitravaruna graba. 
(Then he repeats) : "The eye with the mind is called hither. May the 
" [132} eye with the mind call (also) me I The divine Risis," &c. (just as 

(By the words) :" This is a good, a good which is lasting; here is a 
" good, a good which is lasting ; in me is a good, a good which is lasting ; 
" ruler of the sense of hearing !' protect my sense of hearing !" the Hotar 
drinks Soma from the Arfvina graha. (Then he repeats) : " Tlie sense of 
"hearing with the soul is called hither : may the sense of hearing with the 
" soul call (also) me ! The divine Risis," &c. (just as above). 

When drinking from the Aindravayava graha, the Hotar facing the 
cup turns its mouth towards his face (and drinks) ; for the inhaled and 
exhaled airs are in his front. In the same manner, be drinks from the 
Maitravaruna jar ; for the two eyes are in his front. When drinking from 

• This formula resembles very much one of the most sacred prayers of the Parsis, uu., 
a shem vohuvahistemasti which is particularly repeated when the Zota priest (the Hotar of 
the Brahmans) is drinking the Homa (Soma) juice ; uo?»i is etymologically uasu, which is 
very frequently used in formulas repeated by the Hotar before he tastes the sacrificial 
food ; vahistem is the superlative of iiohu, conveying the same sense as puriivasu. 

' In this translation I followed the reading qr^qr. One of my Manuscripts and Sayana 
read qriqr, which appears to be only a lapsus calami for qraqi, 

' The expression in the original is : taH/ip.7urt»as ta)i:'a/i, the term "body" being thus 
put twice. 

' Slyaiia explains mn by Rii?» 

90 • , ■ 

the Asvlna jar, he turns ita mouth • round about ; for men and animals 
hear speech sounding from all sides. 


{On the Repetition of the Tivo Ydjyd Mantras for Libation from the Dvidet- 
yagrahas. No Anuva^atkdra allowed. On the Agur for those Ydjyds). 
The Soma jars belonging to two deities are the vital airs. The Hotar 
ought to repeat the (two) Yajya mantras (for the offering poured out of 
such a jar) [133] without stopping (at the end of the first mantra), in order 
to keep together the vital airs and to prevent their being cut off. The 
Soma jars belonging to two deities are the vital aira. (Thence) the Hotar 
should not make the Anuvasatkara {i.e., not pronounce the formula: 
"Agni, eat the Soma!"^" with the formula Fait §ai ! after the Yajj^a 
has been repeated). If he do so, then he stops the (circulation of the) 
vital airs which are not stopped (in any other way). For this formula, 
(the anuvasatkara) is a stop. (If one should observe a Hotar repeat the 
Anuvasatkara) one ought to tell him, that he had stopped the vital airs, 
which are not stopped (otherwise), and that he would (consequently) lose 
his life. This always happens. Thence he ought not to repeat that 
formula (the anuvasatkara) when pouring oblations from the Soma jars 
belonging to two deities. 

They ask, (what is the reason that) the Maitravaruna priest gives 
twice his assent that the Yajya mantra should be repeated, and calls 
twice (upon the Hotar) to do so, whilst the Hotar declares his readiness 
to repeat the Yajya mantra only once, and (concludes with) pronouncing 
twice, Vau^at! Vausat! (instead of doing it once^ ? What is the 
(meaning) of the Hotar's declaration of his readiness to repeat the Yajya 
mantra* ' (that he repeats it only [134} once at the beginning, and not 
before the second mantra } ? 

• The Aindravayava graha has oue, the Maitravaruna two, mouths. The drinking from 
the two latter ones is described as purastdt prat]jancham, that is, to take the graha in 
one's hands, so that its mouth faces the mouth of the drinker, and, when drinking, to turn 
the lower part of the vessel aside. 

The Asvina graha has three mouths. The drinking from it is described as pariluiramf 
that is, to turn its three mouths one after the other to one's mouth when drinking, so that 
the whole vessel becomes turned round, (Oral information.) 
" The recital of this formula is called amivamtkdra. 

" The words " assent that the YSjya mantra," &c,, and "declaration of his readiness 
to repeat," &c., are only a translation of the term dgur, stating its fall import. After the 
Hotar has repeated the two PuronuvakyS, mantras, mentioned on p. 180, he is addressed by 
the MaitrSvaruna priest in two formulas, following immediately one another, which are 
called Praisa-mantra, i.e , mantras containing an order to repeat. Both commence by 


(The answer is .) The Soma jars belonging to two deities are the vital 
airs. The Agur formula is the thunderbolt. If, therefore, the Hotar were 
to put between (the two YajyS. mantras) the Agur formula, he would de- 
prive the sacrificer of his life (as if striking him) with (a weapon like) 
the thunderbolt. (If one should observe a Hotar doing so) one ought to 
tell him, that for having, by means of the Agur weapon, deprived the 
sacrificer of his life, he himself would also lose his life. Thus it always 
[135] happens. (Therefore) the Hotar ought not to repeat the Agur 
formula in the midst of (the two Yajya mantras>. 

And, further, the Maitravaruna priest is the mind of the sacrifice, 
and the Hotar its speech. Speech speaks only when instigated by the 
mind (to do so). If any one utters speech different from what he thinks, 
such a speech is liked only by the Asuras, but not by the Devas. The 
Agur formula of the Hotar is contained in the two Agur formulas {hold 
yaksat) pronounced at this (occasion) by the Maitravaruna priest. 

The mantras repeated for the offerings to the Ritus \' (seasons) are 

the formula : Hotel yaksat, i.e., may the Hotar repeat the Yajya mantra. The Hotar being 
obliged to repeat botli Yajya mantras uno tenore withou t stopping, he can declare his readi- 
ness to respond to the order given by the Maitravaruna only before he commences to repeat 
the proper YajyS mantras. His readiness he declares by the woids ^ a ^^T7r§- Tiiis is 
the agur cf the Hotar. That ^ is to be pronounced with pluti, i,e., with three moras, is 
remarked by Panini 8, 2, 88 / ^ 2|a"*4f^ V Patanjali, in his Mahabhdsya, explains^ 
as an elliptical expression, implying the whole verse— ^ ^^I^T f^S^^I?^ ?ZI (Rigveda, 
1, 189, 11). On the Agur formula, see Asval. ferauta Sfitras 1, 5, where it is said that the 
Agur formula, ^ ^^fllf^> i^ required at the so-called PraySjas (at the first and fifth) 
and principally 5, 5. In this latter passage, the rule is given to which the author of the 
Brahmana refers, that the two Yajyas for the Aindravayava graha require two Praisas, 
i.e. orders, one Agur, and two Vasatkaras ; whilst the two other grahas, the Maitravaruna 
and the As'vina, require each only one Yajj-a, one Praisa, and one Vasatkara. See also 
the Sdnkhchjana Sutras 7,2. The formula q' ^^jjj^ is always at the beginning of the 
Yajya, as well as the words yy^i ^^cT ^^ that of the Praisa mantra. The proper order 
to repeat is conveyed at the end of the latter by the words ^Tg?f;3f i-e-, Hotar, repeat the 
Yajya mantra, whereupon the Hotar repeats the YajyS. The repetition of this formula 
appears to go back to a very remote antiquity. For we find both the formula and its 
technical term in the Zend-Avesta. Yajdmahe is completely identical with the Zend 
Yazamdide, which always precedes the names of Ahura-mazda, the archangels, and other 
divine beings, and the souls of the deceased, when homage is paid to them. The technical 
term for repeating this formula is : d-ghare (the same as a-gur). See the Fravardin 
Yasht 50, kahe no idha ndmd dglmirydt, i.e., to whose name of us will he pay homage by 
repeating Yazamdide, i.e., we worship. That the word dghairydt has this meaning, is well- 
known to the Parsi Dasturs. 

" There are twelve Grahas for the Ritus, from which the Soma juice is offered in 
three sections ; first six, then four, and, lastly, two are taken. The mantras required 


the vital airs. By performing [136] them, they (the priests) provide 
the sacrificer with vital airs. By repeating six mantras containing the 
singular ritund to the Ritus, they provide the sacrificer with the air 
inhaled (prdna) ; by repeating four mantras containing the plural rituhhihy 
they provide him with the air exhaled (apdna) ; by repeating, at last, two 
mantras containing the singular Titund, they provide him with the cir- 
culating vital air (vjjdna). For the vital airs are three-fold, viz., air 
inhaled, air exhaled, and the air circulating in the body. (These Ritu 
offerings being made in three sections) in the first (series of mantras when 
six are given), the singular ritiind is used ; in the second, the plural 
fituhhih ; and in the third, the singular again fitund are applied. (This 
is done) to keep together the vital airs, to prevent them from being cut 

are to be found among the so called 'prai^a suktai. See As'val. Sraut. 8. 5, 8, Sankh^yana 
7, 8. About the particulars of the Ritu YSjas, see Taittiriya Samhit^l 1, 4, 14 and G, 5, 8, 
■with Slyaua's commentary, ed. Cowell, i., p. 843-48. The YajyS mantras and the Praisas 
for the Ritu offerings are essentially the same. All (12) Praii^as are given by the 
Maitravaruna. The first is addressed to the Hotar, and runs as follows : f'"' 'J^i^? 
^iSTrfl^f^'^ m ri^km TRJ^ %rfif^3 ^ffl'i'fl. i.e., May the Hotar repeat the Y^jya mantra for 
Indral May he drink Soma from the cup of the Hotar with the Ritu! The YAjyi 
contains the same words, with the only difference that, instead of yah^at, the appropriate 
formula ^ « v^im% is used. 

In the second Rituyaja, which is repeated by the Potar, the Marutas are invited 
to df ink with the Ritu from the offering of the Potar. The third belongs to Tvastar 
and the wires of the gods. It is repeated by the Nectar (^ * »I9IT^^ jTf^i ^gif^Jt jatfii^jT 

The fourth, which is repeated by the Agnidhra, belongs to Agni. The fifth belongs 
to Indra-BrahraS, and is repeated hy the BrahmaiiSchhansi. The sixth is repeated for 
Mitra-Vnruna (wlio are called uajT^itf) by the Maitravaruna. These six mantras 
contain the formula 'Sfin'Jl ^\^ fqjirT. 

The seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth Rituyajas which are repeated by the Hotar, 
Potar, Ne tar and Acbhavaka respectively, belong to deua drai'i'ioddJi (a name of Agni). 
These four mantras contain the term -snn^: ^i^ mj. The eleventh and twemh Rituyajas 
are repeated by the Hotar with the term '5ff?i5it%^ The eleventh belongs to the Aavins 
as the two Adhvaryus ; the twelfth to Agni Grihapati. 

The -first Soma libation for the Ritus is poured from the Hotrap^tra, the second 
from the Potra-patra, the third from that of the Ne-tar, the fourth from that of the 
Agnid, the fifth from the Brahmana-p&tra, the sixth from that of the Praiftstar 

The seventh, eighth and ninth from the Pfltras of the Hotar, Potar, and Net tar 
respectively. The tenth libation is not poured from one of these PStras already mentioned, 
but in addition to the P&tras of the Hotar, Potar, and Nectar, a " fourth vessel " {turhjam 
pitratn) is mentioned, which is called amartxjam, i.e., immortal. The devo draviiioddh 
(Agni) is called upon to prepare the Soma draught himself and repeat himself the Yajy4. 
The eleventh libation is poured from the Adlivaryava-pfttra, and the twelfth from the 
Garhaputya. {Sapln-Htiitra), 

[137] The Ritu Y&jaa*' are the vital airs. (Thence) the Hotar ought 
not to repeat the Anuva^atkdra. For the Ritus have no end ; one (always) 
follows the other. Were the Hotar to repeat this formula (the anuva^at- 
lidra) when making the offerings to the Ritus, he would bring the endless 
seasons (their endless succession) to a stand still. For this formula is a 
stand still. Who (therefore) should repeat it, would bring the Ritus to 
a stand still, and difficulty would be created (for the sacrifice). This 
always happens. Thence he ought not to repeat that formula, when 
i^peating the mantras for the offerings to the Ritus. 


{The Eotar Eats the Puroidsa and Drinlta frovi the Qrahas.) 

The Soma jars belonging to two deities, are the vital airs, and cattle 
is food (I'Za). (Thence) after having iliunk from the Soma jars belong- 
ing to two deities, he calls lid (food). '* lid is cattle. He thus calls cattle, 
and 'consequently) provides the sacrificer with cattle. 

They ask, Should the Hotar first eat the food (remainder of the 
Purodarfa offering previous to the Soma offering) which he has in his 
hand, or should he drink'' first from his Soma cup {chamasa)? (The 
£138] answer is) he should first eat the food which he has in his hand, 
then he may drink Soma from his cup. In consequence of the circums- 
tance that he first drinks from the Soma jars (grahas) belonging to two 
deities, the Soma draught is first (before he takes any other food) enjoyed 
by him. Therefore (after having tasted already the Soma juice by 
drinking from the Grahas belonging to two deities) he ought to eat the 
food (Purodasia) which he has in his hand, and then drink from his own 
cup (chamasa). In this way, he takes (for himself) nourishment of both 
kinds (food and drink). 

By taking both Soma draughts (from the gi'aha and the chamasa) he 
obtains (for himself) nourishment (of all kinds). 

(The Hotar pours some drops of Soma from the Graha into his 
Chamasa ; the meaning of this proceeding is given in the following :) 

*' The same speculations on the nature of the, viz., that they are the vital 
airs, we find in the Kausitaki Brahm. 13, 9, and in the Gopatha BrShrn. 8, 7. 

'* The term used for "drinking " is bMk^ayati, which is also the common word for 
eating. That bliak? must have been used already in very *ncient times for " drinking " 
the Soma juice, is shown in a passage in the noma Yasht of the Zend-Avesta (see Yasna 
10,1'?.) yase tc hddha haoma zaire gatn iristahe bak?aiti, i.e., who enjoys thee, O Homa, 
(Soma) when being dead (by bruising and squeezing^ in the yellow milk. (The Homa 
juice of the Parsis is of yellow colour, and actually mixed with a little fresh milk). 

'" 'J he formula for calling Ha is to be found in the Asvalflyaua .'>r4utB bfttra 1, 7 : 
Uopahi'ttd, &c. 


The Soma jars belonging to two deities are the vital airs ; the 
Chamasa of the Hotar is the soul. By pouring drops from the Soma jars 
belonging to two deities in the Chamasa of the Hotar, the Hotar puts (in 
his own body) the vital airs for obtaining his full age. He who has such 
a knowledge attains to his full age (100 years). 

(The Origin of the Tusnnim Samsa,^* i.e., Silent Praise, Explained.) 
The Asuras performed at the sacrifice all that the Devas performed. 
The Asuras became thus of equal [139] power (with the Devas), and did 
not yield to them in any respect). Thereupon the Devas saw (by their 
mental eyes) the tusniin samsa, i.e., silent praise. *' The Asuras (not 
knowing it) did not perform this (ceremony) of the Devas. This "silent 
praise" is the silent (latent) essence (of the mantras). Whatever weapon 
(vajra) the Devas. raised against the Asuras, the latter got (always) aware 
of them.'^ The Devas then saw (by their mental eyes) the "silent praise" 
as their weapon ; they raised it, but the Asuras did not get aware of it. 
The Devas aimed with it a blow at the Asuras and defeated the latter, 
who did not perceive (the weapon which was aimed at them). Thereupon 
the Devas became masters of the Asuras. He who has such a knowledge 
becomes master of his enemy, adversary, and hater. 

The Devas thinking themselves to be victors spread the sacrifice 
(i.e., made preparations for performing it). The Asuras came near it, 
intending to disturb it. When the Devas saw the most daring (of the 
Asuras) draw near from all quarters, they said : let us finish this sacrifice, 
lest the Asuras slay us. So they did. They finished it by repeating 
the "silent praise." (The words which constitute the "silent praise" 
now follow.) By the words, bhur agnir jyotir jyotir agnih, they finished 
the Ajya and Pra-uga Sastras (the two principal liturgies at the morning 
libation). By the words, indro jyotir hhuvo jyotir indrah, they finished 
the Niskevalya and Marutvatiya Sastras [140] (the two principal 
liturgies at the midday libation). By the words, surya jyotir jyotih svah 

" See about this particular part of the Soma service, Asval. Br. 6. 5,9, which pass- 
age is quoted by Sayana in his commentary on the Aitareya Brahmanam. The three for- 
mulas which constitute the Silent Praise (as mentioned here) form also, with the exception 
of the vydhritis (the three great words bhur, bhuvah, svah) a chant called the Jyotirgd<iu, 
which is sung by the Udgiitar when holding the cloth through which the Soma juice is 
strained (it is called dasdpautfru) in his hand. The metre of the three formulas (if all 
are taken together) is Gayatri. The Risi to whom it was revealed .is said to be Puskala 
(Sama prayoga). 

1' Mantras, sacred formulas and words, are alwaj's regarded as personages. 

*' The term in the original is : prat ijabudhijanta. Sayana explains it by na^^.i^ ^g fii^ 
they retaliate, take rovcnge. 


surijah, they jfinislied the Vai^\'adeva and Agnimaruta Sastras (the tu-o 
liturgies of the evening libation). ' ■ 

Thus they finished the sacrifice by the "silent praise." Having thas 
finished the sacrifice by means "of the silent praise" they obtained the 
last mantra required for the safety of the sacrifice.'^ The sacrifice is 
finished when the Hotar repeats the "silent praise." 

Should any one abuse the Hotar or curse hira after having repeated 
the "silent praise," he should tell him (the man who abuses or curses him) 
that he (the abuser) would be hurt by doing so. 

(In order to make abuses or curses retort upon their author, the 
Hotar repeats the following mantra :) " At morning we (the Hotars) 
finish to-day this sacrifice after having repeated the "silent praise." Just 
as one receives a guest (who comes to our houses) with ceremony, in the 
same way we receive (the sacrifice as our guest with due honours) by 
repeating this (silent praise)." He who having such a knowledge should 
abuse or curse the Hotar after he has repeated the " silent praise," suffers 
injury. Thence he who has such a knowledge should not abuse or curse, 
after the "silent praise" has been repeated. 

(On the Meaning of the Silent Praise.) 

The "silent praise" are the eyes of the (three) libations. BhUragnir, 
&c., are the two eyes of the morning libation. Indro jyotir, &c., are the two 
eyes [141] of the midday libation. Suryo jyotir, &c., are the two eyes of 
the evening libation. He who has such a knowledge, prospers by means 
of the three libations which are provided with eyes, and goes by means 
of such libations to the celestial world. 

This " silent praise " is the eye of the sacrifice (the sacrificial man). 
There being only one of the "great words" (bhur, hhuvah, svar), (in the 
"silent praise" of every libation), it must be repeated twice, for, though the 
eye is (according to its substance) only one, it is double (in its appear- 

The " silent praise " is the root of the sacrifice. Should a Hotar wish* 

to deprive any sacrificer of his standing place, then he must not at his 

sacrifice repeat the " silent praise;" the sacrificer then perishes along 

with his sacrifice (the sacrificial personage) which thus has become 


1' The sacrifice is believed to be a chain; none of its links is to be broken. If 
finished, it is rolled up. The last raautra represents the last link. Without the last link, 
a chain cannot be wound tip. 


About this they say : the Hotar ought to recite (it at any rate) ; for rt 
is for the priest's own benefit when the Hotar repeats the " silent praise." 
In the priest rests the whole sacrifice, and the sacrificer in the sacrifice. 
Thence the " silent praise," ought to be repeated. 


The Dif event Parts of the Ajya ^dstra : Ahdva, Nivid, Sdkta.) 


The call, soihsdvom^ (called dhava) is the Brahma ; [142] the address 
(Nivid)' is the K^atram (royal power), and the hymn (sitkta) are the subjects 
(vis). By repeating (first) the call sorhsdvom (representing the Brahma), 
and then setting forth the titles (representing the royal power), the Hotar 
joins subsequently the Ksatram to the Brahma. By repeating the Nivid 
before he recites the hymn, he joins subsequently the subjects to the 
Kijatram, the Ksatram being the Nivid, and the hymn the subjects. 

Should the Hotar wish to deprive the sacrificer of his Ksatram, he 

* This formula, which is very frequently used, is only a corruption and con- 
traction of sjgra ^^ ».«., let us both repeat the SAstra. To this call by the Hotar 
the Adhvaryu responds with the words : ^g:^r^q i.e., we repeat, God! {deva me*ning 
here only priest). This call of the Hotar is called Ahdva, and the response of the 
Adhvaryu Pratigdra. See As'val. Sr. S. 5, 9, where the following rules rejcard- 
ing the repetition of the AMva, by which the Adhvaryu is informed that the Hotar 
is about to repeat his recitation, are giv^n : ^>» iqr^i^: umi^^'i si^aff^ 'l»jT«W^«ft*ii^ ^fl^in: 
^^ ?i^n4i7tr^: this Ahava (the call somadvom with a loud voice by the Botar) takes place at 
the commencement of the Sastras at the morning libation, and at the beginning of the 
several parts of the Sdstras (as in those of the Pra-uga fe'&stra), and everywhere (at all 
feAstras) within the tastra of which it forms an integral part. The first syllable tH is 
always pluta, i.e., spoken with three moras, and also the om {pranav) at the end. In the 
Prayogas it is thus written : ^^ gi^Ul- ■^t ^^^ midday libation, the ahdva is preceded by 
the word ^vjiif Adhvaryu (As'v. Sr. 8. 5, 14), which is wanting at the morning libation. At the 
evening libation, there is another modification of the ahdva, viz., ^«g4f ^r^g^T^i the syllable 
io being repeated twice. This dhdva is regarded as a matter of great importance, and 
required at the beginning of all SSstras, be they recited by the Hotar, or the Maitr&varutia 
or Brfihmapachhansi or the AchhovSka. (See 8, 12.) 

' The Nivid is an address either to a single deity or to a class of deities, inviting them 
to enjoy the Soma libation which had been prepared for them. It generally contains the 
enumeration of the titles and the qualities of the respective deities. Its proper place 
is only in the midday and evening libations. All the Nivids for these libations are given 
in full in the Sankh^yaua Sr. S, 8,1.6-23. The twelve formulas addressed to Agui which 
are enumerated in 2, .84, are properly, speaking, no Nivid, but only a Puroruk, i.e. a mere 
preliminary address. They are actually called so in 2, 40. We find the word also in the 
Zend Avesta in the verbal form : niuaedgy^rnt i.e., I address my prayer to such and such 
beings (which are then mentioned). 


lias only to put in the midst of [143] the Nivid the hymn. By doing 
so, he deprives him of his Ksatram, 

Sliould the Hotar wish to deprive the sacrificer of his subjects (his 
income, &c.) he has only to put in the midst of the hymn the Nivid. 
By doing so, he deprives the sacrificer of his subjects. 

But should he wish to perform the sacrifice in such a way as to 
keep the sacrificer in the proper possession of all he had {Brahma, 
Kmira, or Vi'sf, then he must first repeat the aliava {soihsclvom,) then 
the nivid, and (lastly) the snkta (hymn). This is the proper performance 
for all (the three castes). 

Prajapati was in the beginning only one (not distinguished from 
the world). He felt a desire of creating (beings) and (thus) multiplying 
himself. (Therefore) he underwent austerities, and remained silent. 
After a year had elapsed, he uttered twelve times (words) which con- 
stitute the Nivid of twelve sentences. After this Nivid had been pro- 
nounced, all creatures were produced. 

(That the world had been created by means of the Nivid) this' saw 
(also) a Riei {Kiitsa by name) when repeating the following verse in 
which there is an allusion to it : sa pitrvayd nividd (1, 96, 2) i.e., "he 
" (Agni) created through the first Nivid, through the praise of life in 
"songs, all the creatures of the Manus (regents of large periods of time); 
" through his lustre shining everywhere (he made) the heavens and 
"water; the gods (priests) kept Agni (back on earth), the giver of 
'* treasures." 

This is the reason that the Hotar gets offspring, when he puts the 
Nivid before the hymn (sukta). He who has such a knowledge, is blessed 

with children and cattle. 

[144] {The Several Words of the Nivid are Explained). 

The Hotar repeats : Agjiir deveddhah,^ i.e., Agni lighted by the 
gods. The Agni lighted by the gods is that Agni (in heaven) ; for the 
gods kindled him. By these words, he (the Hotar) has command over 
that Agni in that world (the fire in heaven). 

The Hotar repeats : Agnir manviddhah, i.e., Agni lighted by 
men. The Agni lighted by men is this one (on earth) ; for men lighted 
him. Thus he has command over Agni who is in this world (on earth). 

* That is to say, if he does not wish to deprive one of the royal caste of his nobility, 
or a Vais'ya of his caste. 

* The address to Agni at the IXarsapfirnamiisa-isti, after the names of the chief 
patriarchs {pravara) of the sacriflcer's family have been pronounced, is jiist like this one 
mentioned here, which is required at the Ajya Sastra. Aaval. fir. 8. 1, 3, 


The Hotav repeats: Agnih susamit, i.e., Agni who lights well. 
This i3 Vayu. For Vayu lights himself through himself and all that 
exists. Thus he has command over Vilyu in the airy region. 

He repeats : hold devaavritah, i.e., the Hotar chosen by the gods. 
The Plotar chosen by the gods is that Agni (in heaven). For he is every- 
where chosen by the gods. Thus he has command over him in that 
world (heaven). 

He repeats : hold mamivritah, i.e., the Hotar chosen by men. The 
Hotar chosen by men is this Agni (on earth). For this Agni is every- 
where chosen by men. Thus the Hotar has command over Agni in this 

lie repeats: pray^ir yajfuhidm, i.e., the carrier of sacrifices. 
Vayu is the carrier of sacrifices. For, when he blows (pi^driitiX then the 
sacrifice exists, and consequently the Agnihofram. Thus he has command 
over Vilyu in the airy region. 

He repeats : rathir adhvardndm, i.e., proprietor of the carriage 

[ 145 ] laden with offerings. The proprietor of the carriage 

laden with offerings is that one (Agni in heaven, Aditya). For he moves 

to his place (to which he wishes to go), just as one who has a carriage. 

Thus the Hotar has command over him (Agni) in this world. 

He repeats : atiirto hotd, i.e.] the Hotar who 'is not to be overcome. 
This Agni (the Agni on earth) is the Hotar who is not to be overcome. 
None can come across his way. Thus the Hotar has command over 
Agni in this world (on earth). 

He repeats : turnir liavydvat, i.e., the runner who carries the offerings. 
Vayu is the runner who carries the offerings. For Vayu runs in an 
instant through the whole universe ; he carries the offerings to the gods. 
Thus he has command over Vciyu in the airy region. 

He repeats : a devo devdn vaks^at, i.e., may the god bring hither 
the gods. That god (Agni in heaven) is it who brings hither the gods. 
Thus he has command over that (Agni) in that world. 

He repeats : yahsad agnir devo devdn, i.e., may Agni, the god, repeat 
the sacrificial mantras addressed to the gods. This Agni is it who 
repeats the sacrificial mantras addressed to the gods. Thus he has 
command over Agni in this world. 

He repeats : so adhvard kai'ati, jdtaveddh, i,e. may J^taved&s (Agni) 
prepare the sacred food. Vayu is Jatavedas. Vayu makes the whole 
universe. Thus he has command over Vayu in the airy region. 



(On the Recitation of the Sithta of the Ajya Sastra. The Peculiar 
Recitation of the First Verse Represents Copulation.) 

(When the Hotar repeats) the (seven) Anustubh verses : p)'a vo 
devdya agnaye (3, 13), he separates [146] the first pada (from the second 
one). For a female divaricates her thighs (at the time of coitus.) He joins 
the two last padas (when repeating the hymn). For a male contracts his 
thighs (at the time of coitus). This (represents) copulation. Thus he 
performs the act of copulation (in a mystical way) at the very beginning 
of the recitation (of the Ajya Sastra), in order to produce (offspring and 
cattle for the sacrificer). He who has such a knowledge, is blessed with 
the production of offspring and cattle. 

By separating, the two first padas when repeating (this hymn), he 
thus makes the hindpart of the weapon (represented by the Ajya Sastra) 
very thick, and by joining the two latter padas (of the hymn), he makes 
its forepart thin. (The same is the case with) an iron club or with an 
axe (that is to say, the forepart, the shaft .is thin, and the (iron) part of 
them thick). Thus he strikes a blow with the weapon at his enemy and 
adversary. Whatever (enemy) of his is to be put down, this weapon will 
accomplish it. 

(Why the Rotfi Priests Repair to the Dhisnyas or Fire Places, stretching a 
Straight Line from the Agntdlira Hearth. On the Name of the Ajya 
Sastra. The Sastra of the AchJidvdka belongs to Indra Agiii). 

The Devas and the Asuras were fighting in these worlds. The 
Devas had made the Sadas (sitting place) of the priests (on the right side 
of the Uttara Vedi) their residence. But the Asuras turned them out of 
it. They then repaired to the Agnidhra^ hearth (on the left of the 
Uttara Vedi). Thence they were [147] not conquered by the Asuras. 
Therefore, the priests take their seats near the Agnidhra, and not in 
the Sadas. For, when sitting near the Agnidhra, they are held (from dhri 
to hold). Thence that hearth is called Agnidhra. 

The Asuras extinguished the fires of the sitting place of the 
Devas. But the Devas took the fires (which they required) for their 
sitting places ^ from the Agnidhra. By means of them they defeated 

' The legend is here related, iu order to account for the fact, that the priests -when 
performing the feastras, have their usual sitting place near the Mdrjdlvja fire and take 
their seats (d/it.?»ij/a) near the Agnidhra fire. 

• The places to which the Bi-dhmanam alludes are the so-called DJiiji.iyas, extending 
in a straight lino from the Marjali to the Agnidhra fire. They are eight in number, all 


the Asuras and Rak§as, and drove them out. Thence the sacrificers, 
by taking out the different fires (required) from the Agnidhra, defeat the 
Asuras and Raksasas and turn them out. 

They conquered {ajayanta) by means of the (four) Ajya Sastras 
at the morning libation and entered (the place) which they had conquered. 
Thence the name djya (from ji to conquer, and d-ya to come near, 

Among the bodies of the minor Hotri priests (Maitravaruiia, 
Brahmanachhansi, and Achhavfika), that of the Achhavaka was missing 
when they conquered and entered (the place) ; for in his body Agni 
and Indra had taken up their abode. x\gni and Indra are of all the 
gods the strongest, mightiest, defeating best (the enemies), the most 
excellent, saving best (their friends). Thence the Sastra of the Achha- 
vaka' at the morning libation belongs to [148] Indra and Agni (whilst in 
those of the other Hotri priests, Agni alone is praised). For Indra and 
Agni took their abode in his (the Achhavaka's; body. Thence the other 
Hotri priests walk first to their sitting places, and last comes the 
Achhavaka. For he who is behind, is missing ; he will join (the others) 
at a later time. 

Thence the sacrilicer should have a very strong Bahvficha ' 
Brahmaiia to repeat the Achhavaka Sastra, for only then (if he be strong) 
his (the priest's) body will not be missing. 


{On the Meaning of the Ajya and Pra-uga Sastras. How they correspond 
with their respective Stotras. On the Ydjyd of the Hotar.) 

The sacrifice is the carriage of the gods. The Ajya and Pra-uga 
bastras are the two reins between (the carriage and the horses). By 
repeating the Ajya iSastra after the Pavamanah Stotra (has been 
sung by the Sama singers), and the Pra-uga after the Ajya Stotra," 

occupied by the so-called Hoti-i priests in the following order, commencing from the 
MarjSli fire : Maitrftvaruna, Hotar, Brahmanachhansi, Potar, Nes^ar, Achhavaka, and 
Agnid. Before each of these priests there is a small earthen ring, in which sand, dust, &c., 
are thrown and a little fire lighted on it for the protection of the Hotri priest who stands 
near it. See Mahidhara's commentary on the VajasaneyaSamhita, p. 151-52, ed. Weber, 
and the Katiya SGtras 8, 6, 16-23. (p. 708-10, ed. Weber). 

' The fciastra of the Achhfivaka consists of a hymn addressed to Indragui, viz,, 
indrdgnid gataju (3, 12). 

• This means a Iligvedi, i.e., a repeater of the mantras, of which the Rigveda 
Bamhitd is made up. 

' Each felastram or recitation of one of the Hotri priests pre-supposes a Stotram, 
or performance of the SAma singers. There are always as many bastras as there are 


the Hotar holds asuuder the reins of the c^^rriage of the gods, in order 
to prevent it from being broken to pieces. In imitation thereof 
charioteers hold asunder the reins of human carriages. Neither the 
divine nor the human carriage of him ^ho has such a knowledge will 
be broken. 

They (the theologians) ask *. How does the Ajya Sastra of the Hotar 
which belongs to Agni, correspond with the PavamAnya verses (for the 
fermentation of the Soma juice) which are chanted by the Sama singers, 
(the rule being) that the Sastra [149] should be just like the Stotra?'^ 
(The answer is :) Agni is pav mdnal}, I.e., purifying, as even a Risi 
(already) said : Agnir ris^il} yavamanal} (9, 66, 20). The Ajya Sastra, 
which begins with verses addressed to Agni, thus corresponds with 
the Pavamanya verses of the Stotra (for Agni is also pavamanah). 

They ask : Why is the Stotram of the Stima singers in the Gayatri, 
and the Ajya Sastra of the Hotar in the AnuBtubh metre, (the rule 
being) that the Stotram must be like the Sastram [i.e., both must be 
of the same metre) ? He ought to answer : one ought to look only to the 
total. There are seven verses {i.e., the hymn of the Ajya Sastra) in 
the Anustubh metre ; by repeating the first and last verses thrice, the 
number is brought to eleven ; as the twelfth verse, the Yajya, in the 
Virafc metre is to be counted, for the metres are not changed by an 
excess of one or two syllables.^^ These twelve (Auusfcubhs) are equal 
to sixteen Gayatris. The Sastra being in the Anustubh metre, cor- 
responds with the Gayatris of the Stotram (the metres thus being 

The Yajya mantra (belonging to the Ajya Sastra of the Hotar) is, 
aqna indraseha ddsuso (3, 25, 4.) (.Instead of the regular order indrdgni, 
there is agna indrascha in the Yajya, Agni thus being iirst ; but this 
must be so, for) these two (deities) did not conquer, as Indrdgni, but 
they conquered, when being made, Agnendrdu. The reason that the 
Hotar repeats a Yajyti verse addressed to Agni-Indra is that he might 
be victorious. This verse is in the Viraf. metre, which consists of thirty- 
three syllables. [150] There are thirty-three gods, vb. : eight Vasus, 
eleven Rudras, twelve Adityas, one Prajapati, and one Vasatkara. Thus 
he makes the deities participate in the syllables at the very first recita- 
tion (the Ajya Sastra being the first among the twelve recitations of 

^' There appeared to be an exception to tbo rule in the fact that the b'astra and 
the Stotra have not the same doity, the first being addressed to Agul, and the latter to 
ludra, whilst, according to the rule, both baatra and Stotra ought to rofor to one and 
the same deity. 

" The Anustubh has thirty-two syllables, but the Virat thirty-three. 


the Soma-day). According to the order of the (thirty-three) syllables, the 
gods severally (one after the other) drink (the Soma). Thus the deities 
are satisfied by the vessel holding the gods.'" 

They ask, Why is the Yajya verse addressed to Agni-Indra, whilst 
the Ajya Sastra of the Hotar belongs to Agui alone, (the rule being) 
that the Yajya verse is to correspond with the Sastra (to which it be- 
longs) ? (The answer is) The Agni-Indra-Yajya is the same with the 
Indra-Agni one ; and this Sastra belongs to Indra-Agni, as may be seen 
from the (Aindragna) Graha (mantra), and the " silent praise" (used at 
this occasion). For the Adhvaryu takes the Graha under the recital of 
the following mantra: indrdgnt dgatam sutam^^ (3, 12,1. Vajasaneya- 
Samhita 7, 31), i.e., " Come ye, Indra and Agni ! to the Soma juice, 
(which is like a) fine cloud. Drink of it, driven by your mind. " The 
" silent praise " is, hhur agnir jyotir jyotir agniv, indro jyotir hhuvo 
jyotir indrah ; suryo jyotir jyotih sval} siiryali. Thus the Yajya, verse is 
in accordance with the Sastram. 

(The Japa which is Repeated before the Libations from the Dvidevatya 
Grahas are given. Its Several Sentences Explained.) 

The Japa ^ * which the Hotar mutters, is the seed. [151 j The 
eSusion of seed is inaudible ; so is the Japa. It is, as it were, the 
effusion of the seed. 

1* This mystical devapcitra, i.e., vessel holding the gods, is here the YajyS verse 
iu the Virat metre. 

" This is the Yajya mautra which is repeated by the Achhavaka. 

^' This Japu or inaudible utterance of words is the very coinmeucemeut of the Ajya 
b'astra. It is given in full, Asval. fer. S. 5, 9, First the Adhvaryu is called upon by the 
Hotar to turn away his face with the words : q^i ^^g^, i.e., Away, Adhvaryu ! Then ho 
commences the Japa with the words : su-mat, &c. (see 2, 24). We here give the whole of 

5JTctT5»t ^^ m^m %f I q^T >3i?f^f«iT ^^m ju^ft^i^j fl?^^?fhnf^ 

i.e., " May the father Matarisvan (wind, breath) make the verse feet without a breach I 
May the Kavis repeat the recitations without a breach ! May Soma, the all-possessing, 
guide our performances ! M ay Brihaspati repeat the recitations (and) the joyful 
choruses ! Vach (speech) is life, she has the whole life. She is life. Who will repeat 
this (bastra) ? Ho {i.e., I, the Hotar, representing Vach) will repeat it." Prom the 
contents of this Japa, it is evident tbat the Hotar invokes the deities presiding over 
breath, speech, and literary skill, for a successful recitation of the whole fe'astra, tu 
accomplish which is regarded as an arduous task. In one of the sentences of this Japu 
the repeaters are called kavis, which appears to have been the more ancient name of 
the Hotri priests. It is mentioned as signifying a class of priests in the Zend-Avesta 



He mutters the Japa before the call sorhsdvom. For all that is 
repeated after the call, soihsavom, forms part of the ^astra. The Hotar 
addresses this call {soihsdvom) to the Adhvaryn, when the latter witli his 
face turned away is lying prostrate on the earth (using the two hands as 
his two forelegs like beasts). For four-footed beings (animals) emit their 
sperms (at the time of copulation) having turned their faces away from 
one another. He (the Adhvaryu) then stands upright ' on his two legs. 
For two-footed beings (men) emit their sperms when facing one another 
in a straight lino. 

(The several sentences of the Japa are now explained). 

He mutters, pitd mcitarisvd. The breath is pita (father), and the 
breath is mdtarisvd ; the breath is seed. 

[152] By repeating these words, he (the Hotar) emits the seed 
(for a spiritual birth). 

Aehhidrd padd dhd.^' Achhidrd, i.e., without breach, is seed. 
Thence a being which is unbroken (a whole) rises ont of the seed.. 

Achhidrd iLkthd havayah saihsann. Those who have learnt by heart 
(the mantras) are called havis. The sentence means '> " They produced 
this unbroken (matter), i.e., the seed." 

Somo visvavid — sarmi^at. Brihaspati is Brahma ; the Soma, who is 
praised by the singers, is the Ksatram. The ntthdni and ultthd maddni 
are the Sastras. By repeating this sentence, the Hotar recites his 
Sastras, instigated {prasuta) by the divine Brahma and by the divine 
Ksatra. Both these (Brihaspati and Soma) preside over the whole 
creation, whatever exists. For all that the Hotar is doing without being 
incited by these two (deities), is not done. (Just as) they reproach one (in 
common life, when something is done without order, saying) he has done 
what was not done (not to be done). Of him who has such a knowledge 
all that is done will be done, and nothing that is done be undone. 

Vdg-dyur. Ayuh (life) is breath ; seed is breath ; the womb is 
vdch. By repeating this sentence, he pours the seed into the womb, 

Kaidam-samsi^^yati. Kah (who ?) is Prajapati. The meaning of the 
sentence is, Prajapati will generate. 

{On the Meaning of the Six Members of the " Silent Praise," and the Tiuelve 
Members of the Puroruk. Why Jdtavedds is mentioned in the Puroruk. 
The Meaning of the Ajija-siihta.) 

Having called soihsdvom, he recites the " silent praise." This trans- 

" As'val., dhdt. 


forma the seed (represented by [158] the Japa). First the effusion of 
the seed takes phice ; then follows its transformation. 

He repeats the '* silent praise" without proper articulation of the 
voice >fi (in order to make its proper words unintelligible even to those who 
stand nearest). For, in the same way, the seeds are transformed (going 
across one another). 

He repeats tihe "silent praise " in six padaa^' {i.e., stopping six 
times). For man is six-fold, having six limbs. Thus he produces by 
transformation the soul as six-fold, consisting of six parts. 

After having repeated the " silent praise," he repeats the Furornh 
(Nivid 2, 34). Thus he brings forth (as a birth) the seed which had been 
transformed. The transformation (of the seed) occurs first ; then follows 

He repeats the Puroruk with a loud voice. Thus he brings him (the 
mystical body of the sacrificer) forth with a loud voice (crying). 

He repeats it in twelve padas. The year has twelve months ; Prajd- 
pati is the year ; he is the producer of the whole universe. He who is the 
producer of the whole universe, produces also him (the sacrificer) and 
(provides him) with offspring and cattle for propagation. He who has 
such a knowledge, prospers in offspring and cattle. 

He repeats a Paroruk addressed to Jdtavedas^^ (Agni), the word Jata- 
vedas occurring in the last (twelfth part (of it). 

[154] They ask, Why do they repeat at the morning libation a 

Puroruk addressed to Jatavedas, whereas this deity has its proper place 

at the evening libation ? (The answer is) Jatavedas is life. For he 

knows {veda) all that are born. As many as he knows of are born {jata- 

nam), so many (only) exist. ^ " How could those exist of whom he does not 

know (that they are born ?) Whosoever (what sacrificer) knows that he 

himself is made a new man (by means of the Ajya Sastra), he has a good 



He repeats the (hymn), pra ro (7emi/a Agnaye {,?>, 13). ^^^ (The wordj 

pm means 'prd.yiia (life). For all these beings move only after having been 

^° This is called : tira iva, i.e., across as it were. 

' ' Its six parts are as follows : (1) nrfN^if^^ (2) ^^rf^^^ (3) f«=5l«5lif^MlT (4) s^f^ft^'T 

(5) ^Wt^^i^^ (6) 3^: ^g:^^. See As'val. .Sr, S. 5, 8. Properly speaking, the "silent 
praise " consists only of tliree padas. See Ait. Br. 2, 31. 

'' This refers to the last pada of the Puroruk or Nivid, where Agni is mentioned by 
the name of Jatavedas. See 2, 34. 

'• This is an explanation of the name " Jatavedas." 

" This is the Ajya-sfikta, the chief part of the Ajya-s'astra. 


endowed with prdria- Thus the Hotar produces the prdm (for the sacri- 
ficer), and makes it ready (for use). 

Ke le^eata, didivdrhsam apdrvyajn (3,13, 5)." For the mind has 
become shining {diddya), and nothing exists anterior (apilrvyam) to 
the mind. Thus he produces the mind (of the sacrificer), and makes it 
(ready for use). 

He repeats, sa rial} sarmdni vitaye (4). Vdch is sarma (refuge). For 
they say about one who is repeating with his speech (the words of 
another). "I have stopped his talkativeness (sarmami)."" By [155] 
repeating this vsrse, the Hotar produces speech (in the sacrificer), and 
makes it ready (for use). 

He repeats, uta no hrahman (6). Brahma is the sense of hearing. 
For, by means of the ear, one hears the Brahma ; ' ' Brahma is placed in 
the ear. By repeating this verse, he produces (in the sacrificer) the sense 
of hearing, and makes it ready (for use). 

He repeats, sa yantd vipra (3). The air exhaled is Yantfi,, i.e., restrainer. 
For the air inhaled (prdria) is held back by the air exhaled (apdna), 
and does (consequently) not turn away. By repeating this verse, he 
produces the apdna (in the sacrificer), and makes it ready (for use\ 

He repeats, fitdvd yasya rodasi (2). Rita, i.e., true is the eye. For 
if two men have a dispute with one another (about anything), they believe 
him who says, "I have seen it by the exertion of (my own) eyes." By 
repeating this verse, he produces the eye (in the sacrifice), and makes it 
ready (for use). 

With the verse, nil no rdsva (7), he concludes. The whole (man) 
"endowed with thousand-fold gifts, with offspring, and thriving well," '* 
is the dtmd (soul). By repeating this verse, he thus produces the soul as 
the aggregate man, and makes it ready (for use). 

He repeats a Yajya mantra. The Ydjyd is a gift, meritorious, and 

21 Though in the Sfikta the fifth verse, it is the second, if this hymn is used as the 
principal part of the Ajya Sastra. 

" The words, sr^^ii^nrifl are no doubt an idiomatical phrase of the ancient 
Sanskrit, the exact meaning of which it is now impossible to determine. S&yana ex- 
plains it in the following way : ^ftn^TrfiT^ ^qim^xf^ Risiw si^^n j^jtiwN^ #ni* i A^mn 
n^^ I ^ fiiwi wraift ^»i»Bm pRjTiiSfl^ The irrepular form m^m instead of ^^ ho takes 
a Vedic anomaly. The phrase, he further adds, is applied in common life when one's 
speech is stopped. The author of the BrShmana adduces this phrase only in illustration 
of the supposed identity of Vdch with Sarma, 

'* Sfty. takes it in the sense of Veda, which appears to be the right interpretation, 
if the word is restricted to the Mantras, 

•* These are words of the Mantra. 

106 * 

fortune. By repeating it, he makes him (the sacrificer) a pure (goddess) 

of fortune ' ' and prepares her for assisting him. 

He who has such a knowledge, merges in the deities, after having 

been identified with the metreS; [166] the deites, the Brahma, and 

immortality. He who thus knows how to become identified with metres, 

&c., has (certainly) a good knowledge ; it is beyond the soul and beyond 

any deity {i. e., this knowledge is of higher value than the soul, or any 



(The Meaniu(j of the Several Verses of the Ajya Silkta.) 

He repeats the "silent praise" in six padas. Ther^ are six seasons. 
By doing so, he makes the seasons and enters them. 

He repeats the Puroruk in twelve padas- There are twelve months. 
By doing so, he makes the months and enteis them. 

He repeats, pra vo devdya " (3, 13). Fra is the air. For all beings 
go after air. By repeating this verse, he makes the air and enters it. 

He repeats, dtdivdmsam. The sun is diddya, nothing is earlier" than 
the sun. By repeating this verse, he makes the sun and enters it. 

He repeats, .sa ?za7j sarmdni vUaye. Sar?nd?ii (places of refuge) means 
Agiii. He, gives nourishment. By repeating this verse, he makes Agni 
and enters Agni. 

He repeats, iita no brahman. The moon is Brahma. By repeating 
this verse, he makes the moon and enters her. 

He repeats, sa yantd. Vayu is yantd (the restrainer) ; for by Vayu 
(wind) the universe is kept up, who prevents the air from gathering in the 
atmosphere only. By repeating this verse, he makes Vayu and enters 

[157 J He repeats, ritdvd yasya. rodasi. Heaven and earth are the 
two rodas. Thus he makea heaven and earth and enters them. 

He concludes with the verse, nu no rdsva. The year is a whole with 
thousand-fold gifts, produces, and well-being. Thus he makes the year 
as a whole and enters it. 

He repeats a Yajya mantra. The Yajya is rain (and rain is) light- 
ning. For lightning (produces) rain, and rain gives food. Thus he makes 
lightning and enters it. He who has such a knowledge, becomes identified 
with (ail) these things "" and with the deities. 

- '* Tho word lafc.jnii here evidently expresses the idea of "destiny" in general. 

" The Ajya-svjkta (3, 13), which has been explained in the preceding chapter, is hero 
explained again. 

" This is an explanation of the term apurvyam in tho verso in question. 

" Such as the seasons, months, Agni, &c., which are severally mentioned in this 


[ 158 ] (The Pra-uga Sastra. Vamthdm. The Tslivids.) 

(The Prorurja Sastra.) ^ 
(The deities of the Pra-uga Sastra.) 
The Pra-nga Sastra is the recitation appropriate to the Soma offer- 

» The Pra-iiga Kastra is the most peculiar of all the recitations by the Hotar 
on the day of the Soma feast ; for it comprises a larger numl)er of deities, divided 
into regular sections, than any other one, and has neither a proper Nivid, nor Pragathas, 
nor Dhayyas, nor Sflktas, as we constantly find at the 8astras of the midday and evening 
libations. It consists only of the verses in seven sections, mentioned in the Rigveda- 
Samhitii (1, 2-3). Bach section is preceded by a so-called Puroruk, along with the AhSva. 
Before the Puroruk of the first section there are, besides, the HimkSra and the three 
great words required. I here write these introductory words in the same order in which 
they are repeated by the Hotri-priests up to the present day : Jg-* vrum ^^a ^2 ^^3 

May Vayu who walks first, be the enjoyer of the sacrificer, come with his mind to the 
sacrifice ; (may he come) the happy with his happy crowd ! Om I Come, O Vayu, &c. 
The Puroruk of the second triplet (I. 2, 4-6), which is addressed to Indravayn, is : 

* fll^ei^lf^ %'»«|5rTi'!ft 5Rf ^j qrft ?if*iE^ I ^T^ 3f%« g*nlf ^ ^n^\ %^ 9?ti«> 

i.e., the two divine men who come of golden paths, the two masters (who are) for protec- 
tion, Tndra and Vayu, the happy ones, &c. 

Puroruk of the third triplet, which is addressed to Mitra-Yaruna (1, 2, 7-9): 

5[ff^o ^T«n ^T5IR! ^?fT ^^^ ^'^ I f^T^^I ?IV?W??f ^ filT^SIf^o the two K»vyas 
(descendants of the Kavis), the two kings (who are distinguished) through skilful perform- 
ance (of sacrifices) at home, and who destroy the enemies in the combat. 

Puroruk of the fourth triplet, which is addressed to the Asvin, (1, 3, 1-3) : 

Ye two divine Adhvaryus whose skin is sun-like, come up with (your) carriage ; may ye 
anoint the sacrifice with honey ! 

Puroruk before the fifth triplet, which is addressed to Indra (I, 3, 4-6) : 

is most stimulated (to action) through the recitations (of the Hotris), and is the lord of 
booty, he, with his two yellow horses, the friend of the Soma drops. 

Puroruk before the sixth triplet, which is addressed to the Vis ve Devflh (1, 3, 7-9) : 

l^mri ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ rl^^aJ fk^ «T ^Wftcl^T^ J^WI^^o ^Ve can all the gods the 
well-adorned to this sacrifice ; may these gods come to this sacrifice with divine thought, 
favourably accepting the seat (prepared for them) at tlie preparation (by cooking) of the 
self-making sacrifice (i.e., of the sacrificial personage whose body is always restored by 
itself, when the sacrificial rites are performed) ; (may) all (come) to drink the Soma ! 



ings from the Grahas. Nine' such Gi-ahas are taken at the morning. 
With nine [159 J verses forming the Bahis-pavam^na chant,' they are 
praised by singers. After the singers have finished [160] their chant, the 
Adhvaryu takes the tenth Graha (for the Ajivins) ; the sound " hirn' 
uttered by singers when chanting the other verses, counts as the tenth 
part. Thus, an equality* of the Grahas and verses of the chant is obtained. 
The Hotar repeats a triplet addressed to Vayu (1, 2, 1-3). By this 
the Vayu graha is celebrated. He repeats a triplet addressed to Indra- 
Vayu (1, 2, 4-6). By this the Indra-Vayu graha is celebrated. He repeats 
a triplet addressed to Mitra, Varuna. By this the Mitra-Varuna graha is 
celebrated. He repeats a triplet addressed to the AsJvins (1, 3, 1-3). By 
this the A^vin graha is celebrated. He repeats a triplet addressed to 
Indra (1, 3, 4-6). By this the Sukra and Manthi grahas are celebrated. 
He repeats a triplet addressed to the Vijive Devfih (1,3, 7-9). By this 
the Agrayana graha is celebrated. He repeats a triplet addressed to 
Sarasvati (1, 3, 10-12), though there is no Sarasvati graha (no such vessel 
as in the other cases). Sarasvati is Speech. Whatever grahas are taken 
by means of Speech (under recital of a mantra), all these are celebrated 
by means of Sastras. He who has such a knowledge gets (thus) cele- 
brated (all his Grahas), 

( On the Meaning of the Several Parts of the Pra-uga ^astra.) * 

By means of the Pra-uga Sastra one obtains food. In (each 
part of ) the Pra-uga Sastra, there is always another deity praised, and 
(thus) always another being celebrated. He who has such a knowledge 
[161], keeps different kinds of food in his Grahas.' The Pra-uga 
Sastra is, as it were, most intimately connected with the sacrificer. 
Thence they say, the greatest attention is to be paid to it by the sacrificer. 
For by means of it the Hotar makes him (his new body) ready. 

Parornk before the seventh triplet, which is addressed to Sarasvati (1, 8, 10-12) : 

Vi\ ^T^fl? ^ ^^%lK?g''^ g^?IT m^^ 5^[fltfqra?ToI (invoke) the goddess 
of Speech with my excellent speech at this sacrifice ; we invoke Sarasvati, &c. (Sapta- 

' The nine Grahas here alluded to are the Upftmsu, Antaryfima, V&yava, Aindravftyava, 
Maitrfivaruna.As'vina, Sukra, Manthis Agrayana. The libations from these nine Grahas 
belong to the Bahis'pavamftna Stotra, and the Pra-uga Sastra. 

» See page 120. 

* The expression in the original is, to ad sammd, no doubt an idiomatical expression, 
implying "this and that is the same." 

• The whole Pra-uga is intended for providing the sacrificer with food. A variety 
in food is produced by changing the deities in every part of the Sastra. 


He repeats a triplet, addressed to V&yu, because they say, life is Vayu, 
seed is life. Seed is first produced (in the body) before a man is produced 
(out of it). By repeating a triplet addressed to V&yu, the Hotar makes 
the prdi^a (air inhaled) of the sacrificer. 

He repeats a triplet, addressed to Indra and Vayu. Where there is 
prdna (air inhaled), there is apdna (air exhaled). By repeating a triplet, 
addressed to Indra and Vayu, he thus makes the prdijta and apdtm of the 

He repeats a triplet, addressed to Mitra-Varuna. That is done, 
because they say, the eye is first produced when a human being is being 
called into existence. By repeating a triplet, addressed to Mitra-Varuna, 
he thus makes eyes to the sacrificer. 

He repeats a triplet, addressed to the AjJvins. Because parents say, 
in their conversations about a child when it is born, " it has the desire of 
listening (to us) ; it is very attentive." By repeating a triplet, addressed 
to the Aiivins, he makes to the sacrificer the sense of hearing. 

He repeats a triplet, addressed to Indra. Because parents say, in 
their conversations about a child, when it is born, " it endeavours to raise 
its neck, then its head." By repeating a triplet, addressed to Indra, he 
makes to the sacrificer, strength. 

He repeats a triplet, addressed to Viive Devah. Because a child 
when it is born, uses hands and feet [162] after (it has been able to use 
the eye, ear, and to raise its neck). The limbs (for they are many) belong 
to the Virfve Dev&h, i.e., All Gods. By repeating a triplet, addressed to 
the Vidve Devah, he thus makes the limbs to the sacrificer. 

He repeats a triplet, addressed to Sarasvati. Because Speech enters 
the child, when it is born, last. Sarasvati is speech. By repeating a 
triplet, addressed to Sarasvati, he thus makes speech to the sacrificer. 

The Hotar who has such a knowledge, as well as the sacrificer for 
whom the Hotfi priests repeat the recitations (Sastras), are, though 
already born (from their mother), born again from all these deities, from 
all the recitations (i^astras), from all the metres, from all the triplets of 
the Pra-uga iSastra, from all the '^ three) libations. 

{The Hotar has it in his power to deprive the Sacrificer of his life, &c., by not 
repeating the several parts of the Pra-uga Sastra in the proper way.) 

This Pra-uga Sastra represents the vital airs. The Hotar addresses 
tliis recitation to seven deities. For there are seven vital airs in the 
head. By doing so, the Hotar places the vital airs in the head (of the 


There ia the question" asked, Whether the Hotar might be able 
to produce woe as well as happiness to the sacrificer ? (The answer 
is) He who Tuight be the Hotar of the sacrificer at that time (when 
the Pra-uga ^astra is to be repeated) can do with him what he 
pleases. If he think, " I will separate him from his vital airs," he need 
only repeat the triplet addressed to Vayu confusedly, or forego a 
pada, by which means the (several parts of the) triplet become con- 
[163]. fused. In this manner, he separates him (the sacrificer) whom he 
wishes so to separate, from his vital airs. 

Should he think, "I will separate him from his p?'d /za and apdiia,'' 
he need only repeat the triplet addressed to Indra-Vfiyu confusedly, or 
forego a pada. In this way, the triplet becomes confused, and he thus 
separates the sacrificer, whom he w^ishes so to separate, from his prana 
and apdna. 

Should he think, " I will separate the sacrificer from his eye," he need 
only repeat the triplet addressed to Mitra-Varuna confusedly, or forego 
a pada. In this way the triplet becomes confused, and he thus separates 
the sacrificer, whom he wishes so to separate, from his eye. 

Should he think, " 1 will separate him from the sense of hearing," 
he need only repeat the triplet addressed to the Asvins confusedly, or 
forego a pada. In this way, the triplet becomes confused, and he separates 
the sacrificer, whom he wishes so to separate, from the sense of hearing. 

Should he think, " I will .separate him from his strength," he need 
only repeat the triplet addressed to Indra confusedly, or forego a pada. 
In this way, the triplet becomes confused, and he separates him, whom he 
wishes so to separate, from his strength. 

Should he think, " I will separate him from his limbs," he need only 
repeat the triplet addressed to the Vij^ve Devah confusedly, or forego a 
pada. In this way, the triplet becomes confused, and he separates the 
sacrificer, whom he wishes so to sepaiate, from his lim]3s. 

Should he think, " I will separate him from his speech," he need only 
repeat the triplet addressed to Sarasvatt confusedly, or forego a pada. 
In this way, the triplet becomes confused, and he separates the [164] 
sacrificer, whom he wishes so to separate, from his speech. 

Should he think, " I will keep him joined with all his limbs and 
his soul," he ought to repeat the triplet, as it w^as first told (to him 
by his master) in the right way. Thus he keeps him joined with all 
his limbs and his whole soul. He who has such a knowledge remains 
joined with all his limbs and the whole soul. 


(All the Deitie$ of the Pm-uga Sastra are said to he forms of Agnl) 
They ask, How (can it be accounted for) that the verses addressed 
to Agni which the Sama singers chant,*' are celebrated by a recitation of 
the Hotar commencing with a verso addressed to Vayu, (the rtde being) 
that the Sastra exactly corresponds to the Stotra ? (The answer is) 
Those deities are only the bodies of Agni. When Agni is blazing up, 
as it were, that is his Vayu (wind) form. Thus he celebrates by means 
of this (Vayu form) that (Agni form). 

Divided into two halves, the fire burns. Indra and Vayu are two. 
That is his Indra- Vayu form. Thus he celebrates by means of this 
(Indra- Vayu form) that (Agni form). 

It moves up and down (when being lighted or extinguished) ; this 
is his Mitra-Varuna form. Thus he celebrates by means of this (Mitra- 
Varuna form) that (Agni form). 

[165] The dangerous touch' of Agni is his Varuiia form. Uis Mitra 
form is (shown in the fact) that men who make friends with him may sit 
near him, though his touch be dangerous. Thus he celebrates by means 
of these '(Mitra and Varuna forms) that (Agni form). 

His Aj^vina form is that they produce him by friction through two 
arms and two wooden sticks, the Asivins being two. Thus he celebrates 
by means of this (Asivina form) that (Agni form). 

That he burns with a loud crackling voice, imitating the sound 
balahd, as it were, on account of which all beings flee trembling from him. 
This is his Indra form. Thus the Hotar celebrates by means of the (Indra 
form) that (Agni form). 

That they divide him into many parts (when taking lire from the 
hearth), though he is only one. This is his Visive Devah form. Thus the 
Hotar celebrates by means of this (Vitlve Devah form) that (Agni form). 

That he burns with a roaring noise, uttering speech, as it were. This 
is his Saravati form. Thus the Hotar celebrates by means of this (Saraa- 
vati form) that (Agni form). 

In this way, the triplet of the Sama singers' becomes celebrated, 
notwithstanding theSe (different) deities in the several triplets, for him who 
thus has commenced (the Sastra) with a verse addressed to Vayu. 

• The recitation of the Pra-uga -Sastra is preceded by the singing of the so-called 
Ajija-stotra : agim aydhi vitmje (Sama-veda 2, 10-12). The deity of it is Agni, whilst the 
deities of the Pra-uga Nastra, to which it is said to stand in connection, are difiercnt. 

' Qhora-sams pursa. See the Kausitaki Brahma yam 1, 1, where Agni aays ; 

* The Ajya Stotra, see note 1. It consists of three versos. 


Having repeated the ^astra addressed to all the gods^ {Pra-uga), 
he recites a Yfvjya mantra addressed [166] to the Y'live Devah (all gods) : 
visvehhil} somyan madhvagna (I, 14, 10). Thus he satisfies all deities,^ 
giving to each his due share. 


(On the Va^atkdra and A7iuva^atkdra.) 

The Va§atkara^** (the formula vau^atl) is the drinking vessel of 
the gods. By making the Vasatkara, the Hotar satisfies the deities with 
(presenting) a drinking vessel. 

He makes the Anuvasatkara (the formula " Agni, eat !"}. In this 
way, he satisfies the deities by repeatedly placing before them the Vasat- 
krira (representing the drinking vessel), just as men place before their 
horses or cows repeatedly grass, water, &c. ' * 

They ask, Why do they sacrifice in the same Agni (the Agni of the 
TJttara Vedi) where they did it before, and make the Vasatkara there, 
when sitting near the Dhisnya^' fires (after having left the place near 
the Uttara Vedi) ? (The answer is) By making the Anuvastkara, 
" Agni, taste the Soma ! " he makes there the Vasatkara and pleases the 

They ask, Which is the Svistakfit portion of the Soma at those 
offerings," of which the priest tastes without having finished them, and 
without making the Anuvasatkara? (The answer is) By repeating the 
Anuvasatkara (when repeating the Yajyas for the Sastras), '* Agni, taste 
the Soma !" they (complete the ceremony and) drink from the Soma juice 
after the completion (of the [167] ceremonyl'* This very (Anuvasat- 
kara) is the Svistakrit portion of the Soma. (Thence) he makes the 
Va§atkara (and Anuvasatkara). 

• The Pra-uga Sastra is here called vaisvadevam, i.e., belonging to all the gods, on 
account of the large number of deities, comprising the Visve Devah contained in it. 

^' The paragraphs from 5, 8, are found also with very little change and a few omis- 
Bions in the Gopatha BrShmanam 3, 1—6. Both evidently come from one source only. 

" This is the full meaning of ^tf^v^T^Tf as explained by Sayana. 

" See above. 

" These are the dvidevatya grahas, see 2, 

" The priests are not allowed to eat from the sacrificial food, or drink of the Soma, 
before all the ceremonies pertaining to the offerings to the gods are completed. The 
Svibtakrit ceremony is regarded as the completion of the principal rites attending any 
oblation given to the gods. At this ceremony, the Anuvasatkfira does not take place. 
After it is completed, the priests are allowed to eat the remainder of the food or drink the 
remaining jjnice. 



( On the Meaning of the Va^atkdra and its Dijf event Parts). 

The Vasatkara is a weapon. If one has an enemy (and wishes to 
destroy him), one has only to think of him when making the Vasatkiira, 
in order to strike him a blow with a weapon ( in the form of the 

■ The word §at (six) is contained in the formula vau-^at^^ (the so- 
called Vasatkara). There are six seasons. Thus he makes the seasons 
and establishes them. He who is established in the seasons becomes 
afterwards (also) established in all other things. He who has such a 
knowledge, obtains a firm footing. 

Hiraiiyadan, the son of Beda, said about this (the Vasatkara) as 
follows : By this part sat (six) of the formula (vausat), the Hotar estab- 
lishes these six (things). The sky rests on the air ; the air on the 
earth ; the earth on the waters ; the waters [168] on the reality {satya) ; 
the reality on the Brahma ; the Brahma on the concentrated heat of medi- 
tation (tapas). If these places are established, then all things are con- 
sequently established. He who has such a knowledge has a firm footing. 

The part vdu of the formula vausat means the six seasons. B}* 
repeating the Vasatkara, the Hotar places the sacrificer in the seasons, 
gives him a footing in them. Just as he does unto the gods, the gods do 
unto him. 


[The Three Kinds of the Vasatkara: VaJ7'a,.Damachhad, and Bikta. 
In what Tone the Vasatkara is to he Repeated. The Hotar can, hy 
not repeating it properly, injure the Saerifieer.) 

There are three (kinds of the) Vasatkara, vajra (weapon), damachhad 
(who covers beings), and rikta (empty, void). 

It is a vajra (weapon), in consequence of its being pronounced with 
a loud and strong voice by the Hotar. With it he strikes, whenever he 
pleases, a blow to his enemy and adversary who is to be put down by 
him, in order to put him clown. Thence is this weapon, in the form of 
the Vasatkara, to be used by the sacrificer who has enemies. 

It is damachhad, i.e., protecting the beings, on account of its being 
pronounced as an integral part of the verse to which it belongs without 

'^The etymology whieli is here given of tlie word vau!:at is of course quite fanciful. 
It is only a very much lengthened pronunciation of a conjunctive form vok?at, of the 
root vail, to carry, meaning, may he (Agni) carry it (the offering) up. Instead of the 
original ok, dii was substituted. 

15 " - 


omitting any part ol it.^^ Oliildien and cattle stand near (tliis part of 
[169] the Vasatkara) and follow it. Thence ought he, who desires 
children and cattle, to make this Vasatkara. 

It is rikta, i.e., void, the syallable sat being pronounced with a low 
accent- He thus makes void [rikta) the soul, and the sacrificer. He who 
makes such a Vasatkara becomes a great sinner, and also he for whom 
such a Vasatkara is made. Thence he should not wish to make it. 

As regards the question whether the Hotar might make the sacrificer 
happy or unhappy, the answer is, that he wlio might be the Hotar of any 
sacrificer can do so. At this (occasion, />., at the sacrifice), the Hotar 
may just do with the sacrificer as he pleases. 

Should he wish to deprive the sacrificer of the' fruit of his sacrifice, 
he has only to repeat the (Yajya) verse, and the Vasatkara in the same 
tone'^ (i.e., monotonously). If he do so, he deprives the sacrificer of the 
fruit of his sacrifice. 

Should he wish to make the sacrificer liable to the consequences of a 
great guilt, he has only to repeat the (Yajya) verse with a very loud voice, 
and the Vasatkara with a very low one. (If he do so) he makes the 
sacrificer liable to the consequences of a great guilt. 

Should he wish to make the sacrificer very happy, he has to repeat 
the (Yajya) verse with a very low, and the Vasatkara with a very loud, 
voice. (That is done) for obtaining fortune. By doing so, he puts the 
sacrificer in (the possession of) fortune. 

The ^satkara is to form an integral part of the (Yajya) verse (no 
stopping between the end of .the [170] verse and vausat being allowed), 
in order to have an uninterrupted whole. He who has such a knowledge 
becomes possessed of children and cattle. 

(The Danger which might be imminent upon the Hotar and Sacrificer, in con- 
sequence of tlie VasatMra weapon, is to he averted by certain 


The Hotar ought to think of the deity to whom the oblation is given 

" The term in the original is iiirluinaycha, i.e., without losing any \ia,vt of the Rich. 
This means, that no vowel is to be dropped at the end of the Yajj-a verse when Vanjot 
is joined to it as an integral part. The remark is made on account of the way in which 
the syllable om (when pra'java is made) is joined to the last syllable of a verse. In that 
case, the last vowel disappears and 6 is substituted in its stead. If, for instance, the last 
syllable of the 2itc7i be yd, then in the Pranava yom is pronoanced. See the rules for 
making the Pranava in the Samidheni verses, As'v. Sr. S. 1, 2. 

1' The YSjyS. is repeated monotonously, and, at the morning Jibation, in a low tone, 
whilst the Vasatkara is pronounced with a loud voice. 


when lie is about to repeat the Vasatkara. Thus he pleases the deity 
personally, and addresses the Yajya mantra direct to it. 

The Vassftkara is a weapon.'* The weapon is like a flash when 
one strikes with it without having conjured its evil effects. " Not 
every one knows how to conjure it, nor its (proper) place. Therefore the 
mantra, va^ oja/i(A5^v. Sr. S. 1,5) is at such occasions, when even many 
are killed (as is the case in a battle), the propitiation, and the assignation 
of the proper place (after the Vasatkara\ For this reason, the Hotar has, 
after every Vasatkara, to repeat the Anumantrana'° formula, vug ojah. 
If thus propitiated, the Vasatkara does not hurt the sacrificer, ' 

[ 171] The sacrificer ought to repeat this Anumantrana formula : " 

" Vasatkara, do not sweep me away, I will not sweep thee away. I call 

" hither (thy) mind with great effort, thou art a shelter (having joined 

' thy) body with the air circulating (in my body). Go to (thy^ place, let 

' me go to (my) place." 

Some one (a theologian) has said : this (just mentioned aniunautranain) 
is too long and has no effect. (Instead of it) the sacrificer ought to repeat 
after the Vasatkara the words, ojah saha ojah. Ojah (vigour) and sahah 
(strength) are the two most beloved bodies (forms) of the Vasatkara. 
By making him repeat this Anumantrana formula, he thus makes the 
sacrificer prosper through (the Vasatkara's) own nature. He, who has 
such a knowledge, prospers through (the Vasatkara's) own nature. 

The Vasatkara is speech, and prma (air inhaled) and apdna (air 
exhaled). These (three) leave as often as a Vasatkara is repeated. 
(But that ought to be prevented ; thence) he ought to include them (their 
names) in the Anumantrana formula. (This is done by repeating the 
following formula) vdg ojah saha ojo mayi ptxmdpdndu, i.e., May speech, 
vigour, strength (and) the prana and apana (be) in me ! Thus the Hotar 
puts speech, pnxna and aprma in himself (he prevents them from going), and 
reaches his full age. He who has such a knowledge reaches his full age. 

1' This idea is clearly expressed in an Anumantrana formula : ^^Z^l^^ ^^^ 
^ftsWF'^f^ ^ ^ cl«j f^^n^ ff^J '^■^•> I ^^^Jy with the Ya>atkara as a weapon, him who 
hates us as ^Yell as him whom we hate ( Asv. 8r. S. 1, 3). 

'■' For the mischief done by a weapon, he who strikes with it, is answerable. To 
guard himself against the evil consequences of such an act, propitiation (.sdJiti) is required. 

^■^ This is the technical name of those formulas which are to be repeated by tlie 
Hotar and the sacrificer after the proper mantra has been recited. They folloio tke 
mantra.* Thence the name, annmantyano. They must be always uttered with a low voice. 

'^' Up to the present day, the b'rotriyas or sacriQcal priests never dare to 
pronounce this formula save at the time of sacrificing. They say that, if they would do 
ao at any other time, they Avould be cursed by the f?ods. 



{Etymology of the words Praisa, Puroruk, Vedi, Nivid, Graha.) 
The sacrifice went away from the gods They wished it (to return) 
by means of the Praisas.^' [172] That is the reason that the Praisas 
(orders to repeat a mantra given by the Adhvaryu or Mitra Varuna to the 
Ho tar) are called so (from pm + is, "to wish"). They made it shine forth 
(prdrochayanti) by means of the Puroruks. Thence the Puroruk is called 
so (from 'prdrochayanti). They found it on the Vedi. Thence this place 
is called Vedi (from vid, to find). After having found it, they caught it 
with the Grahas ; thence they are called so (from grih, to catch, seize). 
Having found it, they announced it to the gods by m'eans of the Nivids. 
Thence they are called Nivids (from nivedayati, he announces). 

A person who wishes to recover something lost, wants either much 
(of it) or little. Among two, the elder (most experienced) wishes for the 
best (portion). He who knows that the Praisas are exceedingly strong 
(give most power), knows (at the same time) that they are the best portion. 
The Praisas being the desire to recover something lost, he (the Mitra- 
Varuna) repeats them with his head lowered {'prahvas) (just as suppli- 
cants do). 


[On the Proper Place of the Nivids in the Three Lihations.) 
The Nivids are the embryos of the Sastras (uhthas). At the morning 
libation, they are put before the Sastras {uMlias), because the embryos 
are lying in the womb with their heads turned downward, and thus 
they are born (the head coming first out of the womb). At the midday 
libation, the Nivids are put in the midst (of the Sastras). This is 
done because the embryos have their hold in the middle of the womb. 
At the evening libation, the Nivids are repeated at the end (of the 
Sastras.), because the embryos are coming down from thence (the womb) 
[173] when they are brought forth. He who has such a knowledge is 
blessed with children and cattle . 

The Nivids are the decorations of the Sastras. They are put, at 
the morning libation, before the Sastras, just as a weaver weaves deco- 
rations in the beginning of a cloth. 

At the midday libation, they are put in the midst (of the Sastras), 
just as a weaver weaves decorations in the midst (of a cloth). 

At the evening libation, they are put at the end (of the Sastras), just 
as the weaver weaves decorations in the end of a cloth (avaprajjaim). 

VI The Praisas here alluded to are those used at the animal sacrifice. They corres- 
pond to the PraySja (Apri) mantras. 8ee the White Yajurveda 21, 29-40. 


He who has such a knowledge is ornamented on all parts with the decora- 
tion of the sacrifice. 


(Hoio the Nicids should he Repeated. How to Correct Mistakes 
Arising from Confusion.) 

The Nivids are deities connected with the sun. When they are put 
at the morning libation at the beginning (of the Sastras), at the midday 
libation in the midst, and at the evening libation at the end, then they 
follow the regular course of the sun. 

The gods had obtained (once) one portion of the sacrifice after the 
other ipach-chhas). Thence the Nivids are repeated pada by pada. 
When the gods had obtained the (whole of the) sacrifice, a horse came 
out of it. Thence they say, the sacrificer ought to give a horse to the 
reciter of the Nivids. By doing so (presenting a horse), they present really 
the most exquisite gift (to the reciter). 

The reciter (of the Nivid) ought not to forego any of its padas. Should 
he do so, he would make a rupture in the sacrifice ; if this (rupture) 
increases, the sacrificer then becomes guilty of the consequences [174] of 
a great sin. Thence the reciter ought not to forego any of the padas of 
the Nivid. 

He ought not to invert the order of two padas of the Nivid. Should 
he do so, he would confound the sacrifice, and the sacrificer would be- 
come confounded. Thence he ought not to invert the order of two padas. 

He ought not to take together two padas of the Nivid. Should he 
do so, he would confound the sacrifice, which would prove fatal to the 
sacrificer. Thence he ought not to take together two padas of the Nivid 
when repeating it. 

He ought to take together only the two padas, predam hrahma and 
predam hsatram.*^ If he do so, it is (done) for joining together the 
Brahma and the Ksatra. Thence the Brahma and Ksatra become joined. 

He ought, for the insertion of the Nivid, to select hymns consisting 
of more than a triplet, or stanza of four verses ;"* for the several padas of 
the Nivid ought to correspond, each to the several verses in the hymn.''" 

25 These two sentences form part of every Nivid, iised at the midday or evening 
libation. They occur in the following conneption.s :^^\ ^g) ^^f^TJ^^^ ^5^7 f^??T I ffT 

'^ This refers to the st'ikta or hymn which stands in connection with the Nivid. 

" The expression richam suktam jirati is evidently a Hendiadyoin ; for the distri- 
butive meaning of prati can only refer to rich, but not to siikta ; because there are not as 
manysflktas as there are padas of the Nivid. The sentence, ^ <2^ ^ =^39^'=^ ^fgW?^ 


Thence he ought, for the insertion of the [175] Nivid, to select hymns 
cpnsisting of more than of stanzas with three oi- four verses. Through 
the Nivid the celebration of the Saman is made excessive.'* 

At the evening libation, he ought to put the Nivid when only one 
verse (of the Sastra) remains (to be recited). Should he recite the 
Nivid when two verses (of the Sastra) are still remaining, he would thus 
destroy the faculty of generation, and deprive the offspring of their 
embryos. Thence he ought to repeat the Nivid at the evening libation 
when only one verse (of the Sastra) remains (to be recited). 

He ought not to let fall the Nivid beyond the hymn (to which it be- 
longs).''' Should ho, however, do it, he ought not to revert to it again 
(not to use the hymn), the place (where the Nivid is to be put) being de- 
stroyed. He ought (in such a case) to select another hymn which is addres- 
sed to the same deity and in the same metre, to put the Nivid into it. 

( In such a case ) he ought, before (repeating the new) Nivid hymn, 
to recite the hymn : ma pragdma [176] patho vayam (10, 57), i.e., let 
us not go astray. For he loses his way wlio gefs confounded at a sacri- 
fice. (By repeating the second pada) ma yajndd indra saminah (10, 57, 1) 
i.e., (let us not lose) Indra, the Soma sacrifice, he prevents the sacrificer 
from falling out of the sacrifice. (By repeating the third pada) md antah 
sthuv no ardtayah^ i.e., "May no wicked men stand among us !" he turns 
away all who have wicked designs, and defeats them. 

In the second verse (of this hymn) yo yajnasya prasddJianas tantur, 
i.e., " Let us recover the same thread which serves for the performance 

f%f^?[T*i, ^^^ easily be misuiiclerstood. At the first glance it appears to mean "he ought 
not to think of selecting any other hymn for inserting the Nivid, save such ones as consist 
of three or four verses." Say. followed this explanation which Qiost naturally sug- 
gests itself to every reader. Jjut, in consideration that all the Nivid hymns, actually in 
use, and mentioned in the Aitareya Er. exceed in number four verses (some contain 
eleven, others even fifteen verses), that explanation cannot be correct. The passage 
can only have the sense given to it in my translation. 

^^ The .Sastra thus obtains more verses than are properly required, 

2' The meaning is : he should not repeat the Nivid, after he might have repeated 
the whole of the hymn in which it ought to have been inserted. Should he, however, 
have committed such a mistake, tlien he must select another hymn, and put the Nivid 
in its proper place, i.e., before the last verse of the hymn. The Hotar is more liable to 
commit such a mistake at the evening libation than at the two preceding ones. For, 
at the evening libation, there are seven Nivids (to Savitar, Dyavaprithivi, Ribhus, Vais- 
vanara, Vis'vedevah, Marutas, and Jatavedas) required, whilst we find at the morniug 
libation only one (which is x-ather a Puroruk than ■. Nivid), and at the midday libation 
two (to the Marutas and Indra), 


of sacrifice, and is spread among the gods"* by means of which was 
((hitherto) sacrificed (by us)," the expression tantu (thread) means off- 
spring. By repeating it, the Hotar spreads {samianoti) offspring for the 

(The words of the third verse are) memo nu a huvamahe navd- 
kimsena somena, i.e., " Now we bring an offering"* to the mind {manas) 
by pouring water in the Soma cups (devoting them thus to NarAs- 
amsa)." By means of the mind, the sacrifice is spread ; by means of 
the mind, it is performed. This is verily the atonement at that occasion 
(for the mistake pointed out above). 


[177] (^The Manitvattya and Niskevalija Sasti'as.) 

(0)1 the Ahdva and Pratigara.) 

They (the theologians) say ; the subjects of the gods' are to be pro- 
cured. (To achieve this end) one metre is to be put in another metre. 
(This is done when) the Hotar calls (the Adhvaryu) by ^oihsdvom, " Let us 
both repeat, yes !" which (formula) consists of three syllables. At the 
morning libation, the Adhvaryu responds (prati-grihndfi) (to this formula 
of three syllables) with one consisting of five : ^avisdmo daivomJ This 
makes eight on the whole. The Gayatri has eight syllables {i. e. each of 
its three padas). Thus these two (formulas) make the Gayatri at the com- 
mencement of the recitation at the morning libation. After the Hotar has 
finished his recitation, he uses this (formula of) four syllables : iihtham 
[178] vdchi,^ i.e., the recitation has been read, to which the Adhvaryu 
^- Say, has, in his commentary on the Rigveda Samhita, the follo\\ing remark : 

^' Of ^jy^lj^^ Say. gives two different explanations in his commentaries on the Ait. 
Br. and in"^ that on the Rigveda Saiiihita. In the first, ho explains it by ^w^ii^ I call 
hither (from live to call); in the other, he derives it from liii, to sacrifice. The latter expla- 
nation is preferable. 

> Sec 1, 9. 

'See about the Pratigara, i.e., response ]j^' the Adhvaryu to the recitations of the 
Hotar, Asv. fer. S. 5, 9. The most common prutigaru repeated by the Adhvaryu is otMmo 
daiva ; but at tiie time of the dhciva (the call somsdvom) it is : ^amsdmo daiva. At the end 
of the Pratigura, the proijaun, (incorporation of the syllable om) required, is daivom. 

2 The formula ?<?c<7!ajn mc/a", with some additional words, always concludes a .Sastra. 
In the Kausitaki Brahmauam (14, 1), and in the SankhSy. .Srauta Sutras (8, 16, 17-20), 
this formula is called achha virijam. In the Asvj^l. Sutras, no particular name is given 
to it. The Kausitaki and Sankhay. .Sakhas differ here a little from that of Asvalayana. 
According to the former, uktham vdcJii is always preceded by a few sentences which are 


(responds) in four syllables : om uktlia^d, i.e., thou liast repeated the recita- 
tion'* {uktham, ^astram). This makes eight syllables, The Gayatri consists 
of eight syllables. Thus the two (formulas) make at the morning libation 
[179] the Gayatri' at both ends (at the commencement and the end). 

At the midday libation, the Hotar calls : adhvaryo somsawm, i.e., 
" Adhvaryu, let us two repeat ! Om ! " with six syllables ! to which the 
Adhvaryu responds with five syllables, the samsamo daivom. This 
makes eleven syllables. The Tristubh has eleven syllables. Thus he 
makes the Tristubh at the beginning of the Sastra at the midday 
libation. After having repeated it, he says, uktham vdcloi indrdya, i.e., 
the Sastra has been read for Indra, in seven syllables ; to which the 
Adhvaryu responds in four syllables : om ukthasd. This makes (also) 
eleven syllables. The Tristubh has eleven syllables. Thus the two 

not to be found in Asval. Thus, we have, for instance there, at the end of the Marut- 
vatiya Sastra, the following formulas : ^qjig^if qf^^q g^Tf^tlTI^I Vl^flT'ZO^^ 
=^N;'»?T^l^?T'T In the Asval. Satras (5, 14), there is instead of it only : 3^4 qi'^^l?? 
SZ^% ^\ At every .Sastra repeated by the Hotar, there is a little difference in the 
appendages to this formula. The rules, as grivon here in this paragraph, refer only to the 
conclusion of the h'astras of the minor Hotri priests ; they alone conclude in the way 
here stated, without any other^ appendage (see Asval. 5, 10). The concluding formulas 
for the Hotar are, according to Asval. -Sr. S., as follows : 

(a) For the Ajya Sastra : 3^«i m^ ^t^m c^T (5, 9). 

(b) For the Pra-uga Sastra : ^q mf^ ^qjt^T^l ^\ (5, 10). 

(c) For the Marutvatiya Sastra (see above). 

(d) For the Niskevalya Sastra : g^ qi'^P^I^IT^Z'Tg^ ?^T (5, 15). 

(e) For the Vaisvadeva Sastra : ?^sf ^I'^S'^T?? ^t*«T W^^ ?^I (5, 18). 
(/) For the Agnimaruta Sastra : 3^4 ^R^^I^T ^#¥3? ^I^?TR f^ (5, 20). 

All these appendages express the idea, that the god to whom the recitation is 
addressed should hear it, and take notice of it. So ghoshdija tvd means that "it 
(the recitation) might be sounded to thee ; " upasrbivata tvd, " that it might be for 
thy hearing." The active participle in the present tense must here have something 
like the raeanhig of an abstract noun, corresponding with tilokuya and diruUjdi. Literally, 
npaivinvate appears to mean that " the hearing (of this recitation might come) to thee." 

After the repetition of these formulas which conclude all Sastras, the Yajyfl, verse 
belonging to the particular Sastra is recited. 

* This alone can be the meaning of the obscure formula, ukthasd, which comes no doubt 
from the remotest antiquity. It is perhaps a corruption of uktham sds, the neutral charac- 
term being left out. Say. explains : ?^ :a^^^, " thou art the repeater of the Sastra." 
But this meaning is not appropriate to the occasion at which the formula is used. This 
is done only when the recitation is over. The only proper meaning of the formula 
therefore is either " the recitation is repeated," or " thou hast repeated the recitation." 

° The Gayatri is the characteristie metre of the morning libation ; thence its form 
(eight syllables) is to appear in souie shape at the commencement as well as at the end 
of the Sastra. 


(formulas) make the Tristubh at both ends of the ^astra at the midday 

At the evening libation, the Hotar calls : aclhvaryo ^orh-^orhsavom, 
in seven syllables, to which the Avdharyii responds in five syllables : 
samsdmo daivom. This makes twelve syllables. The Jagati has twelve 
syllables. Thus (with these two formulas taken together) he makes the 
Jagati at the beginning of the Sastra at the evening libation. After 
having repeated the Sastra, he says, in eleven syllables : uktliam vaehi 
indrdya devehhyah, i.e., " the Sastra has been repeated for Indra, " for 
the Devas, to which the Adhvaryu responds in one syllable: om! This 
makes twelve syllables. The Jagati has twelve syllables. Thus the two 
(formulas) make the Jagati at both ends at the evening libation. 

This (the mutual relation of the three chief metres to one another 
and to the sacrificer) saw a Risi, and expressed (his opinion) in the 
mantra: yad gdyatre adhi (1, 164, 23), i.e., "those who know that 
[1801 the Gayatri is put over a Gayatri, and that out of a Tristubh 
a (another) Trishtubh is formed, and a Jagat (Jagati) is put in a Jagat, 
obtain immortality. "° 

In this way, he who has such a knowledge puts metre in metre, and 
procures " the subjects of the gods. " 

{On the Distribution of the Metres among the Gods, Aniistuhh 

Prajdpatis Metre.) 

Prajapati allotted to the deities their (different) parts in the 
sacrifice and metres. He allotted to Agni and the Vasus at the morning 
libation the Gayatri, to Indra and the Rudras the Tristubh at the mid- 
day libatioD, and to the Visve Devah and Adityas the Jagati at the 
evening libation. 

His (Prajapati's) own metre was Anustubh. He pushed it to the 
end (of the ^astra), to the verse repeated by the Achhavaka (which is 
the last).- Anustubh said to him : " Thou art the most wicked of all 
gods ; for thou hast me, who am thy metre, pushed to the end (of the 
bastra), to the verse repeated by the Achhavaka." He acknowledged 
(that he had wronged her), (In order to give redress) he took his own 
Soma "(sacrifice) and put at the beginning, at the very mouth of it, 

• The meaning is, that no pacia of a metre, neither that of the Gayatri nor Tristubh, 
nor Jagati can stand alone, but must be joined to another pada of the same metre. The 
dhd oa a.nd pratigara must, therefore, be at the beginning as well as at the end of the 
Sastra in tlie same metre ; for each time they consist only of one pada, and that is not 



Auufetubb. Theiice Anu^tubh is joined (to the '^astras; as the first metre, 
as the very mouth-piece at all libations. 

He who has such a knowledge becomes the first, the very mouth 
(of the others), and attains to supremacy. Prajapati having thus made 
(the beginning [181] of all libations) at his own Soma sacrifice (with 
Anustubh), the sacrificer (who does the same) becomes master of the 
sacrifice, and the latter becomes (properly) performed. Wherever a 
sacrificer has a sacrifice performed, so that he remains master of it, it is 
performed for this (the whole) assemblage of men' (who might be with 
the sacrificer). 

( tioio Agni, as Hotar of the Gods, Escaped the Meshes of Death.) 
When Agni was the Hotar of the Gods, Death sitting in the Bahis- 
pavamana Stotra lurked for him. By commencing the Ajya Sastra® 
with the Anustubh metre, he overcame Death. Death repaired to the 
Ajya Sastra lurkiug for Agni. By beginning (to repeat) the Pra-uga 
oastra, he overcame Death (again). 

At the midday libation, Death sat in the Pavamana Stotra^ ''lurking 
for Agni. By commencing the Marutvatiya Sastra with Anustubh, he 
overcame Death. Death could not sit, at that libation, in the Brihati 
verses (repeated by the Hotar at the commencement of the Niskevalya 
^astraj. For the Brihatis are life. Thus Death could not take away 
the life. This is the reason that the Hotar begins (the Niskevalya 
Sastra) with the Stotriya triplet (corresponding to the Saman which is 
sung) in the Brihati metre. The Brihatis are life. By commencing 
[182] his second Sastra (with Brihatis), he has the preservation of (his) 
life in view. 

At the evening libation, Death sat iu the Pavamana Stotra lurking 
for Agni. By commencing the Vai^vadeva Sastra with Anustubh, Agni 
overcame Death. Death repaired to the Yajnd yajniya Sdman.^^ By 

' The sacrificer is to make the sacrifice, i.e., the sacrificial man, his own, i.e, he must 
subject it to liis own will, just as Praj&pati did. Thus he makes it beneficial to others, just 
as PrajSpati benefited gods and men by it. 
See page 120. 

* See the hymn : pravudivLiya agnaije, 2, So, which is in the Anustubh metre and 
which is meant here. 

^° Vchchd te jdtcnn andhaso. Samaveda Samh. 2,22-29. 

'' <(^ ^^ <j^ V3T^ I Samaveda Samh. 2, 53-54. 


commencing the Agni-^I.initfi ^astra, with a hymn addressed to Vaisi- 
vanara, he overcame Death. For the hymn addressed to Vaisivanara is a 
weapon ; the Yajna yajniya Saman is the place. By repeating the Va\i- 
vanara hymn, he thus turns Death out of his place. 

Having escaped all the meshes of Death, and his clubs, Agni came 
off in safety. The Hotar who has such a knowledge, comes off in safety, 
preserving his life to its full extent, and attains to his full age ^of a hun- 
dred years). 

{Marutvatiya oastra. Indra Gonceals Himself . Row he was -found.) 
Indra, after having killed Vritra, thought, * I might perhaps not have 
subdued him' (apprehending his revival), and went to very distant regions. 
He (ultimately) arrived at the most distant place. This place is Anus- 
tubh, and Anustubh is Speech. He having entered Speech, lay down 
in her. All beings scattering themselves here and there went in search 
of him. The IHtaras (manes) found him one day earlier than the gods. 
This is the reason that ceremonies are performed in honour of the Pitaras 
previous to the day on which they sacrifice for the gods.^" They .(the 
gods) said, " Let us squeeze the [183] Soma juice; (then) Indra will 
come to us very quickly." So they did. They squeezed the Soma 
juice. By repeating the verse, d tva ratham {S, 57 , \) y they made him 
(Indra) turn (towards the Soma juice). By the mantra, idam vaso sutam 
(8, 2, 1), he became visible to the gods on account of the term (siita), 
?.e., squeezed (contained in it). '* By the mantra, nicZm nediya ed ihi 
(8,53, 5),'* they made him (Indra) come into the middle (of the sacri- 
ficial place). 

He who has such a knowledge, gets his sacrifice performed in the 
presence of Indra, and becomes (consequently) successful by means of the 
sacrifice, having Indra (being honoured by his presence). 

{hidra-Nihava Pragdtha.) 
As Indra had killed Vritra, all deities thinking that he had not 
conquered him, left him. The Maruts alone, who are his own rela- 
tions,*' did not leave him. The "maruto svayayal}" (in the verse, Indra 

'' The Pitaras are worshipped on the Am§vasya day (New Moon), and the Dars'a- 
pfimima isti takes place on the pratipoda (first day after the New Moon).— Sdy. 

" These two first are called the 'p%'aiiT^ad and anucliara of the Marutvatiya 
b'astra, the beginning verse and the sequel. 

^* This mantra is called, indra-nihava pragdtha, i.e., pragatha for calling Indra near. 

»' 8v&pi, which term occurs in the Indra-Nihava Pragatha (8, 58, 5), is explained 
by Say. g gf^cfc T^sfq ^'aJlTIT: But this interpretation, which is founded on 
VedanMc ideas strange to the poets of the Vedic hymns, is certainly wrong ; for, "being 


nediya) are tbe vital airs. Tlie vital airs did Dot leave him [l84] (Indra). 
Thence this Pragatha, which contains the term svapi{in the pada) dsvdpe 
smpibliir, is constantly repeated (at the midday libation of all Soma 
sacrifices). When, after this (Pragatha), a mantra addressed to Indra 
is repeated, then all this (is termed) Marutvatiya (Sastra). If this 
unchangeable Pragatha, containing the term svdpi, is repeated (then 
always the Marutvatiya bastra is made). 

(BrdJimanaspati Pragatha. To tcliat Stotras the Indra-Nihava and 
Brdhmavtaspati Pragdtha belong. The Dhdyyds.) 

He repeats the Pragatha'^ addressed to Brahmanaspati. Led by 
Brihaspati as Purohita (spirirual guide), the gods conquered the celestial 
world, and were (also) victorious everywhere in this world. Thus the 
sacrificer who is led by Brihaspati as his Purohita, conquers the celestial 
world, and is (also) victorious everywhere in this world. 

These two Pragathas,^^ not being accompanied by a chant, are recited 
with repetition*^ (of the last pada of each verse). They ask, " How is it 
that these two Pragathas,- which are not accompanied by a chant, are re- 
cited with repetition (of the last pada of each verse), the rule being that no 
oastra verse can be recited with such a repetition, if it be not accompani- 
ed by a chant ?" (The answer is) The Marutvatiya (Sastra) [185] is the 
recitation for the Pavamana Stotra ;" they perform this Stotra (in singing), 
with six verses in the Gayatri, with six in the Biihati, and with three 

in profound sleep," does not suit tlie sense of the passage at all. How could the Maratas 
assist Indra when they were in ''profound sleep" (sn^upti) ? In order to countenance 
his interpretation, Say. refers to the meaning "^imua," life, attributed to the word by the 
author of the Ait. Br. itself in this passage. The word is, however, to be traceable 
only to su-upi or sva-dx)i. That dpi means " friend, associate," follows from several 
passages of the Samhita. See Boehtlingk and Roth's Samskrit Dictionary, i., p. 660. 

" A Pragfitha comprises two ricluis, according to Asv. fer. S. 5, 14 : ^^T? SRfl^^^T 
Si'^T! JrnW; i e., the Pratipad (opening of the Marutvatiya JSastra) and its Anuchara 
(sequel) consist of three richas, the Pragathas of two richas. 

^' The Indra-Nihava and Brahmanaspatyah PragStha. 

^^ The two Pragatha verses are to be repeated, so as to form a triplet. This is 
achieved by repeating thrice the fourth pada of each verse, if it be in the Brihati metre. 
In a similar way, the Sama singers make of two verses three. 

1' The PavamSna Stotra or the performance of the Sama singers at the beginning of 
the midday libation, consists only of three verses in the GSyatri (v.chchd tg ;Vfto,Samaveda, 
2,22-24), of two in the Brihati (punana/i Soma, S. V. 2, 25, 26) and three in the Tris- 
tubh metre (pm ttt drava pari kosam, 8. V. 2, 27-29), The three GSyatris are sung twice, 
thus six are obtained, and the two Brihatis are twice repeated in such a manner as to 
produce each time three verses (by repeating thrice the last pada of each verse), which 
makes also six. Sdma praijoya. 


in tlie Tri8f,ubb metres. Thus, the Pavaraana (Stoma) of the midday 
libation comprises three metres, and is fifteen-fold.^° They ask, " How 
becomes this Pavamana Stoma celebrated (by a Sastra) ?" The two last 
verses of the Pratipad triplet (S, 57, 1-3, a tvd ratham) [186] ai'e in the 
Gayatri metre (the first being Aniistiibh), and also the triplet which 
forms the sequel (of the Pratipad) is in the Gayatri metre. Thus the 
Gayatri verses (of the Pavamana Stotra) become celebrated. By means of 
these two Pragathas (the Indra-Nihava and Brahmanaspati Pragatha, 
which are in the Brihati metre) the Brihati verses (of the Pavamana Stotra) 
become celebrated. 

The Sama singers perform this chant with these verses in the Brihati 
metre, by means of the Raurava and Yaudhaja Samans (times^*), repeating 
thrice (the last pada of each verse). This is the reason that the two Pra- 
gathas, though they have no Stoma belonging to them, are recited with 
repeating thrice (the last pada of each verse). Thus the Stotra is in ac- 
cordance with the Sastra. 

Tv70 Dhdyyds*^ are in the Tristubh metre, and also the hymn* ' in 
which the Nivid is inserted. By these verses (in the Tristubh metre), 
are the Tristubhs of the Stotra celebrated. In this way, the Pavamana 

^° For the explanation of this and similar terms, SSyana refers always to the BrShma- 
nasof the SSmaveda. Tha explanatory phrase of the panchadas'ah stoma of the Samaveda 
theologians is constantly the following : q^^^j ff'^Of^^: f^^jRf: ^ ^^^m ^ ^,^m I q=^- 

These enigmatical words are utterly unintelligible without oral information, which I was 
happy enough to obtain. They refer to the number of verses obtained by repetition of the 
triplet which forms the text of a Saman. The Saman consists of two verses, only : it is 
first to be made to consist of three, by repetition of some feet of the two principal verses, 
before it can be used as a chant at the Soma sacrifices. After a triplet of verses has been 
thus obtained, it is to be chanted in three turns, each turn containing in three subdivi- 
sions a certain number of repetitions. This number of repetitions is indicated by three 
rows of wooden sticks of the Udumbara tree, called fcws^, each row comprising five (if the 
Stoma is the paiiclmdasa, the fifteen-fold), which the three Sama singers must arrange 
according to a certain order before they can chant the Saman. Each row is called a 
puryaija. The several sticks in each row are placed in the following order : 1st row— 3 
in a straight, 1 across, 1 in a straight, line ; 2nd row— 1 in a straight, 3 across, I in a 
straight, line ; 3rd row— 1 in a straight, 1 across, 3 in a straight, line. As often as the sticks 
of one row are laid, the Sama singer utters the sound him. This apparatus is regarded as 
quite essential for the successful chanting of the Saman. See more on this subject in the 
notes to 8, 42. 

^' These are tbe names of the two peculiar tunes in which the verses, pumnah soma 
and duhdna Mhar (Samaveda S. 2, 25-26) are sung. 

" See 3, 18 : the two first, agnir neta, and tvam Soma kratiihhih are in the Tristubh 

*^ The Nivid hymn is ]ani§tha ugra , see 3, 19 ; it is in the Tristubh metre 


Stoma, comprising three metres, being fifteen-fold, becomes celebrated for 

bim who has such a knowledge. 


(On the Origin of the Dhdyyds, their Nature and Meaning.) 
He recites the Dhayyas. Prajapati had (once) sucked up from these 
worlds everything he desired [187] by means of the Dhayyas (from dhe, 
to suck). Thus the sacrificer who has such a knowledge sucks up from 
these worlds everything he desires. The nature of the Dhayyas is, 
that the gods at a sacrifice, wherever they discovered a breach, covered 
it with a Dhayya ; thence they are so called (from dhd, to put). The 
sacrifice of him, who has such a knowledge, becomes performed without 
any breach in it. 

As to the Dhayyas, we sew up with them (every rent in the) sacrifice, 
just as we sew up (a rent in) a cloth with a pin that it might become 
mended. A breach in the sacrifice of him who has such a knowledge 
becomes thus mended. 

As to the Dhayyas, they are the recitations for the Upasads.'* The 
verse, Agnir netd (3, 20, 4), which is addressed to Agni, is the recitation 
for the first Upasad ; the verse, tvam Soma kratuhhih, which is addressed 
to Soma (1, 91, 2), is the recitation for the second Upasad ; the verse 
pinvanty apo {] y 6i, C}), which is addressed to Visnu, is the recitation 
for the third Upasad. Whatever place one may conquer by means of 
the Soma sacrifice, he who, having such a knowledge, recites the Dhayyas, 
conquers (it only) by the several Upasads. 

About this last Dhayya, some say, the Hotar ought (instead of 
pinvanty apo) to repeat tan vo maho [2, 34, 11), asserting, " we distinctly 
know that this veree is repeated fas the third "Dhayya) among the 
Bharatas." But this advice is not to be cared for. Should the Hotar 
repeat that verse {tan vo maho), he would prevent the rain from coming, 
for Parjanya has power over the rain (but there is no allusion to him in 
that verse). But if he repeat the verse pinvanty apo, where there is a 
pada referring to rain (the third atyam na mihe), and one referring to the 
Marutas [188] (the storms accompanying the rain, in the first pada), 
and the word viniyanti, " they carry off," which refers to Visnu, whose 
characteristic feature is said to be viehahrame, i.e., he strode (thrice 
through the universe), which meaning is (also) implied in the term 
vinayanti, and (where is further in it) the word, vdjie, " being laden 
with booty," referring to Indra (then the rain would come). This vese 
has four padas, and (as we have seen) refers to rain, the Marutas, Visnu, 

' ,, g^^ ^.^ gj. j^ 23.25. "^ 


and Indra, and, though (on account of these allusions just mentioned, 

and its being in the Jagati metre) properly belonging to the evening 

libation, it is repeated at the midday libation. Therefore the cattle 

of the Bharatas which are at their stables at evening (for being milked) 

repair at noon to a shed erected for giving all the cows shelter (against 

heat). That verse (pinvanty apo) is in the Jagati metre ; cattle are of the 

Jagati nature ; the soul of the sacrificer is the midday. Thus the 

priest provides cattle for the sacrificer (when he recites this verse as a 

Dhayya at the midday libation). 


{The MarutvaUya Pragatha. The Nivid hymn of the Marutvattya 
Sastra. Hoio the Hotar can injure the sacrificer by misplacing the Nivid.) 

He repeats the Mariitvatiya Pragatha (pra va indrdya hrihate, 8, 
78, 3). The Marutas are cattle, cattle are the Pargatha (that is to say, 
the Pragatha is used) for obtaining cattle. 

He repeats the hymn janisthd ugrah (10, 73). This hymn serves 
for producing the sacrificer. For, by means of it, the Hotar brings forth 
the sacrificer from the sacrifice as the womb of the gods. By this 
(hymn) victory is obtained ; with it the sacrificer remains victor, without 
it he is defeated. 

[189] This hymn was (seen) by (the Risi) Gauriviti, Gauri- 
viti, the son of Sakti, having come very near the celestial world, saw 
this hymn (i.e., had it revealed); by means of it, he gained heaven. 
Thus the sacrificer gains by this (hymn) the celestial world. 

Having repeated half the number of verses (of this hymn), he 
leaves out the other half, and inserts the Nivid ''' in the midst (of both 

" This is not strictly in accordance with the rules laid down by AsvalSyana, who 
ill his terauta Sutras, 5, 14: 5lfjrg[ 5!lfc^* ^«T^ .* ?fF^T J???^rfi?Tf f^l^^ ^W^HS^^n^sng 

Jn^n»^n i.e., the Nivid Sflkta is, ^ani^tha ugrah. After having repeated one verse 
more than half the number of verses (the whole has eleven verses) of which it consists, 
he ought to insert the Nivid. That ought always to be done at the midday libation, 
where the number of verses of the Nivid Sukta is uneven. The Siikta jani§tha ugra 
consists of eleven verses. The number being uneven, the Marutvatij'a Nivid is put 
in the hymn jam.jt/ia Mgro after the sixth verse, which concludes with \^;!j. The text 

onhis Nivid (see the SSiikhayaua SOtras, 8, 16) is (according to Sapta Hautra) as follows : 

iw?«Tf i^T^f^ I ^T^fl sTfrif^ ^^^^ i ?r^i^gT^3i«l i ^ir^ ^t«T> ^m i ^^^: ^^- 
N ^^ t ^ W^^ ^m^i «rgg i f%gf«?nf^f^i*i: i s?^^ sr§rniqra«mj??^ ! 

i.e., May Indra with the Marutas drink of the Soma. He has the praise of the 
Marutas ; he has (with him) the assemblage of the Marutas. He is the frieud of 


parts). The Nivid is [190] tbe ascent to Leaven ; it is the ladder for 
climbing up to heaven. (Therefore) he ought to recite it (stopping at 
regular intervals) as if he were climbing up (a height) by means of a 
ladder. Thus he can take along with him (up to the celestial world) that 
sacrificer to whom he is friendly. Now, he who desires heaven, avails 
himself of this opportunity of going thither. 

Should the Hotar intend to do any harm (to the sacrificer) thinking, 
" may I slay the Vis through the Ksatra," he need only repeat the 
Nivid in three different places of the hymn (in the commencement, middle, 
and end). For the Nivid is the K^atram (commanding power), and 
the hymn the Vis (prototype of the Vaiilyas) ; thus he slays the Vis 
of any one whom he wishes through his Ksatra. ''^ Thus he slays 
the Vii^ through the Ksatram. 

Should he think, " may 1 slay the Ksatram through the Viji," 
he need only thrice dissect the Nivid through the hymn (by repeating 
the hymn at the commencement, in the middle, and at the end of the 
Nivid). The Nivid is the Ksatram, and the [191] hymn is Viiii. He 
thus slaj^s whosoever Ksatra he wishes by means of the Vi4. 

Should he think, "1 will cut off from the sacrificer the Vi;^ (relation, 
subject, offspring) on both sides," he need only dissect (at the beginning 
and end) the Nivid by the call sorfisavom. Thus he cuts the sacrificer off 
from his VijI on both sides (from father and mother, as well as from his 
children). Thus he should do who has sinister designs towards the 

the Marutas, he is their help. He slew the enemies, he released the waters (kept 
back by the demons of the air) by means of the strength of the Marutas. The gods fol- 
lowing him rejoiced at the (defeat of the) Asuras, the conquest of Vritra, at the 
killing of iSambara, at the battle (for conquering cows). Him (Indra) when he was 
repeating the secret verses, in the highest region, in a remote place, made the sacred 
rites and hymns {bmhmdin) grow (increase in strength) ; these (sacrec' rites) are through 
their power inviolable. He makes presents to the gods, he who is with the Marutas his 
friends. May Indra with the Marutas here hear (our prayer) , and drink of the Soma. May 
the god come to his oblation offered to the gods with (our) thoughts being directed to the 
gods. May he protect this Brahma (spiritual power), may he protect this Ksatram 
(worldly power), may he protect the sacrificer who prepares this (the Soma juice), 
(may he come) with ' his manifold help.s. May he (Indra) hear the sacred hymns (bra^wn- 
ani), may he come with (his) aid I 

" These sentences can be only understood when one bears in mind, that men of 
the higher caste are supposed to have a share in a certain prototype. Ksatra represents 
the commanding power. A Br.ihman, deprived of his Ksatra, losses all influence and 
becomes quite insignificant in worldly things ; if deprived of his Via, he loses his means 
of subsistence. A Ksatriya loses liis power, if deprived of his ksatram, and his 
subjects, if deprived of his Vis. 

' 129 

sacrificer. But otherwise (in the manner first described) he should do to 
him who desires for heaven (if he be friendly to him). 

He concludes with the verse, vayal} suparnd upasedur (10, 73, 11), 
i.e., "the poets with good thoughts have approached Indra, begging like 
birds with beautiful wings ; uncover him who is enshrouded in darkness ; 
fill the eye (with light) ; release us who are bound (by darkness), as it 
were, with a rope {nidhd)." When he repeats the words " uncover him, " 
&c., then he should think that the darkness in which he is enshrouded, 
might go by means of his mind. Thus he rids himself of darkness. By 
repeating the words, " fill the eye, " he should repeatedly rub both his 
eyes. He who has such a knowledge, keeps the use of his eyes up to his 
old age. In the words, " release us," &c., the word 7ildhd means rope. 
The meaning is, release us who are tied with a rope, as it were. 


(Why the Ma/tnUas are Honoured with a separate Saetra.) 

Indra, when he was about to kill Vritra, said to all the gods, '' Stand 
near me, help me." So they did. They rushed upon Vritra to kill him. 
He perceived they were rushing upon him for the purpose of [192 J 
killing him. He thought, " I will frighten them." He breathed at them, 
upon which all the gods were flung away and took to flight ; only the 
Marutas did not leave him (Indra) ; they exhorted him by saying, " Strike, 
Bhagavan ! kill (Vritra) ! show thy prowess ! " This saw a Risi, and 
recorded it in the verse vritrasija tvd svasathdd (8, 85, 7), i.e., "all the 
gods who were associated (with Indra) left him when flung away by the 
breathing of Vritra, If thou keepest friendship with the Marutas, thou 
wilt conquer in all these battles (with Vritra)," 

He (Indra) perceived, " the Marutas are certainly my friends ; these 
(men) love me ! well, I shall give them a share in this (my own) celebra- 
tion (Sastra)." He gave them a share in this celebration. Formerly both 
(Indra as well as the Marutas) had a place in the Niskevalya '' ^astra, 
(But to reward their great services he granted them more, viz., a separate 
Marutvatiya oastra, &c.). The share of the Marutas (in the midday 
libation) is, that the Adhvaryu takes the Marutvatiya Graha, and the Hotar 
repeats the Marutvatiya Pragatha, the Marutvatiya hymn, and the 
Marutvatiya Nivid. After having repeated the Marutvatiya ^astra, he 
recites the Marutvatiya Yajya. Thus he satisfies the deities by giving 
them their shares. (The Marutvatiya Yajycx is) 2/^ tvdhihatye maghavan 
(3, 47, 4), i.e., " drink Indra, the Soma juice, surrounded by thy host, the 

'' The second bastra to be repeated by the Hotar at the midday libation. 


Marutas who assisted thee, Maghavan, in the battles with the huge 
serpent (Ahi), " &c. Wherever Indra remained victor in his various 
engagements, through their assistance, wherever he displayed his prowess, 
there (in the feast given in his honour) he announced them (the Marutas) 
as his associates, and made them share in the Soma juice along with 

[193] 21. 

{Indra wishes for Prajdpatis rank. Wliij Prajdpati is called Kah. 
Indra s share in the Sacrifice.) 

Indra, after having slain Vritra and remained victor in various battles, 
said to Prajfipati, " 1 will have thy rank, that of the supreme deity ; I 
will be great !" Prajapati said, "Who am 1" (ko aham) ? Indra answered, 
" Just, what thou hast told( i.e., kali, who ?)" Thence Prajapati received 
the name kal}, who? Prajapati is (the god) kah, who? Indra is called 
mahendra, i.e., the great Indra, because he had become great (greater 
than all the other gods\ 

He, after having become great, said to the gods, "Give me a dis- 
tinguished reception !"'^ just as one here (in this world) who is" (great) 
wishes for (honourable) distinction, and he who attains to an eminent 
Dosition, is great. The gods said to him, " Tell it yourself what shall 
be yours (as a mark of distinction)." He answered, '' This Mahendra 
Soma jar (Graha\ among the libations that of the midday, among the 
l^astras the Niskevalya, among the metres the Tristubh, and among 
the Samans the Pristha"'"^ They thus gave him these marks of distinc- 
tion. They give tliem also to him who has such a knowledge. [194] 
The gods said to him, "Thou hast chosen for thyself all ; let some of 
these things (just mentioned) be our also." He said, " No, why sliould 
anything belong to you?" They answered, " Let it belong to us, Magha- 
van." He only looked at them (as if conniving). 

2' Of the words ^^jj^ j^ 7fR^ SSyana gives the following explanation : ^. n^fq]iff. 

^^ Pl'istha is a combination of two Sama triplets for singing. Here the principal 
chanlofthe Ni^kevalya fciastra, which is the centre of the whole goma feast, is to be 
understood. At the Agnistoma, this chant is the Rathantaram. The four Stotras at the 
midday libation, which follow the Pavaraana Stotra, are called Pristha Stotras. For they 
are capable of entering into the combination, called Pristha, by putting in the midst of 
them another Sdman. At the Agnistoma, the actual Pristha is, however, not required. 
The four Pristha Stotras of the mid'Jay libation are, the Rathantaram, Vamadevyam 
Naudhasam, and Kaleyam. 



{Story of Prdsahdy the loife of Inclra. On the Origin of the Dhdyyd 
verse of the Ni^kevalya Sastra. Row a King can defeat a hostile army. 
All gods have a share in the Ydjyd in the Virdt metre. On the Importance 
of the Virdt metre at this occasion.) 

The gods said, " There is a beloved wife of Indra, of the Vavata *" 
order, Prasahti by name. Let us inquire of her (what Indra's intention is)." 
So they did. They inquired of her (what Indra's intention was). She said 
to them, "I shall give you the answer to-morrow." For women ask their 
husbands; they do so during the night. On the morning the gods went to 
her (to inquire). She addressed the following (verses) to them : yad vdvdna 
purutamam^'^ (10, 74,6), i.e., what Indra, the slayer of Vritra, the con- 
[195] queror in many battles of old has gained, filling (the world) with 
his name (fame), by what he showed himself as master in conquering 
iprdsahaspati), as a powerful (hero), that is what we beseech him to do 
(now) ; m.ay he do it." Indra is the mighty husband of Prasaha.'" (The 
last pada) " that is what we beseech him," &c., means, he will do what 
we have told him.'' 

Thus she (Prasaha) told them. The gods said, " Let her have a share 
here (in this Niskevalya Sastra) who has not yet obtained one in it (na 
vd vidat)."* So they did. They gave her (a share) in it; thence this 
verse, yad vdvdna, &c., forms part of the (Niskevalya) Sastra." 

The army (send) is Indra's beloved wife, Vavata, Prasaha by name. 
Prajapati is by the name of kali (who ?) his father-in-law. If one wish 

'" The wives of a king are divided into three classes, the first is called mahi^f, the 
second vdmita, tlie third or last parivrikti. SSy. Vdvdta is in the Rigveda SatnhitA, 8, 
84, 14, a name of Indra's two horses. Sayana in his commentary on the passage, proposes 
two etymologies, from the root van to obtain, and vd to go. The latter is the most 

•^ That part of the SamhitA where it occurs, not being printed yet, I put this verse 
here in full :— 

^= is taken by Sayana in both his commentaries on the Aitareya Brahmanam, and the 
Rigveda Samhita in the sense of a present tense f^^f^ \ Bat it is here conjunctive, which 
word alone gives a good sense. Besides, the present tense is never formed in this way. 

^- The author takes prdsahaspati in the sense of husband of a wife, Prasaha, above- 

" I take here akamt in the sense of a future tense. Let, the Vedic conjunctive, 
has often this meaning. .Say. takes it in the sense of 9T7?hT- 

" This is nothing but an attempt at an etymology of the name vdutitu. That it is per- 
fectly childish, every one may^see at a glance. 

^'' This verse, frequently used at various sacrifices, is the so-called Dhdyycf of the 
Niskevalya ttastra at the midday libation. 


that his army might be victorious, then he should go beyond the battle 
line (occupied by his own army), cut a stalk of grass at the top and end, 
and throw it against the other (hostile) array by the words, prdsahe has 
tvdpasyati ? i.e., " Prasaha, who sees thee ? " If one who has such a 
knowledge cuts a stalk of grass at the top and end, and throws (the 
parts cut) against the other (hostile) army, saying prdsahe has tvd pa'syati ? 
it becomes split and dissolved, just as a daughter-in-law becomes abashed 
and faints, when seeing her father-in-law (for the first time). 

[196] Indra said to them (the gods), " You also shall have (a 
share) in this (Sastra)." The gods, said, " Let it be the Yajya verse," 
in the Virat metre of the Niskevalya Sastra." The Virat has thirty- 
three syllables. There are thirty-three gods, viz., eight Vasus, eleven 
Rudras, twelve Adityas, (one) Prajapati, and (one) Vasatkara. He (thus) 
makes the deities participate in 'the syllables ; and according to the order 
of the syllables they drink, and become thus satisfied by (this) divine dish. 

Should the Hotar wish to deprive the sacrificer of his house and 
estate, he ought to use for his Yajya along with the Vasatkara a verse 
which is not in the Virat metre, but in the Gayatri or Tristubh, or any 
other metre (save the Virat); thus he deprives him of his house and estate. 

Should he wish to procure a house and estate for the sacrificer, he 
ought to repeat his Yajya in the Virat metre : piba somam indra mandatu, 
(7, 22, 1), By this verse, he procures for the sacrificer a house and estate. 


{On the Close Relationship between Sdman and Eik. Why the Sdma 
Singers require three riehas. The five-fold division of both. Both are 
contained in the Virat. The five parts of the Niskevalya Sastra.) 

First there existed the Rik and the Saman (separate from one an- 
other) ; sd was the Rik, and the name amai?i.was the Saman. Sd, which was 
Rik, said to the Saman, '* Let us copulate for begetting children." The 
Saman answered, " No ; for my greatness exceeds (yours •." (Thereupon) 
the Rik became two ; both spoke (to the Saman to the same effect); but 
[ 197 j it did not comply with their request. The Rik became three 
(divided into three) ; all three spoke (to the Saman to the same effect). 
Thus the Saman joined the three Riehas. Thence the Sama singers use 
for their chant three Richas,^^ (that is) they perform their work of chanting 

" This is piba somam indra (7, 221). 

*' The Saman, to which the Niskevalya Sastra of the Hotar refers, is the Rathan 
taram. It consists only of two riehas (verses), viz.,abhi tvd St'ira and na tvdva\i (S&maveda 
Samh. 2, 30, 31), but by the repetition of certain parts of these two verses, three are 
produced. See about this process, called punardddtjam, above. 


with three Richas, (This is so also in worldly affairs.) For one man 
has manj^ wives (represented by the Richas), but one wife has not many 
husbands at the same time. From sd and avialt, having joined, sama was 
produced. Thence it is called sdman.^ He who has such a knowledge 
becomes sdman, i.e., equal, equitous. He who exists and attains to the 
highest rank, is a sdman, whilst they use the word asdmanya, i.e., 
inequitous, partial, as a term of reproach. 

Both, the Rik as well as the Saman, were prepared Tfor sacrificial 
use) by dividing either into five [ 198 ] separate parts : (1) dhdva 
(the call soriisdvom at the commencement of the Sastras, and hirhkdra 
(the sound Jmm, commencing every Saman) ; (2) the prastdva (prelude, 
first part of the text of the Saman) and the first rich out of the 
three, required for the Saman of the Niskevalya Sastras "> ; (3) the 
udgitha (principal part of the Saman), and the second rich ; (4) the 
pratihdra (response of the Saman), and the last rzc7z (out of the 
three) ; (5) nidhanam (the finale of the Saman) and the call VQ.u^at 
(at the end of the Yajya verses). ^^ Thence they say, the sacrifice is 

** The same etymology is given in the Chhandogya Upaniaad, 3, 6, 1-6, p. 58 in the 
Calcutta edition of the Bibliotheca Indica): ^^^W Qt sf?r^fl^g?^TH i.e., the earth is sa, 
and fire nma, whence comes Sama. The author of this Upanisad also supposes that the 
Sama rests on the Rik, the latter being compared to the earth, the first to the fire burning 
on her. This etymology is wholly untenable from a philological point of view. The 
crude form is not sama, but sdman ; thence the derivation of the second part of the word 
from ama (a noun ending in a, not an) falls to the ground. The first part sd is regarded 
as the feminine of the demonstrative pronoun, and sa^d to mean Rik, for Rik is a feminine. 
But such monstrpus formations of words are utterly strange to the Sanskrit language 
and sanctioned by no rules of the grammarians. In all probability we have to trace 
the word Sf7?nan to the root so, " to bind," whence the word avasana,i.e., pause, is 
derived. It thus means "what is bound, strung together," referring to the peculiar 
way of chanting the Samans. All sounds and syllables of one of the parts of a Saman 
are so chanted, that they appear to be strung together, and to form only one long sound. 

^'Many S&mans are divided into four or five parts. See the note to 2, 22. If five 
parts are mentioned, then either the hiihkdra, which precedes the prastdva, is counted as 
a separate part, or the pratihdra part divided into two, pratihdra and upadrava, the 
latter generally only comprising a few syllables. 

In order to better illustrate the division of Samans into five parts, I give here 
the Rathantaram, according to these divisions : 

First rich— (1), prastam :-|J3[ || ^if^ c^T ^^ ^(T^ ^I II 

(2) udgitha . '^m^^T ^ ^^T^ t'^RJIFT ST^ra: g^ 1^1^ U 

(3) pratihdra : ^TTt^fTRJTT ^^T I 

(4) upadrava g^^T ^tHt f ! 3^1 8 

(5) nidhanam . ?l^ | 

Second rich— (1) prastdva : ^xm I 


[199] fiv'e-fold (is a pentadl Animals are five-fold (consist of five parts, 
four feet and a mouth). 

(Both, the Rik and the SAman, either of which is divided into five 
parts, are contained in the Virat, which consists of ten syllables).*" 
Thence they say, the sacrifice is put in the Virat, which consists of ten 

(The whole Niskevalya Sastra also consists of five parts, analogous to 
the five parts of the Saman and the Rik at this ^astra.) The stotriya is the 
soul ; the anuriipa is offspring, the dhdyyd is the wife, animals are the 
pragdtha, the siVitam is the house.*' 

He who has such a knowledge, lives in his premises in this world, 
and in the other, with children and cattle. 


{The Stotriya, Anuriipa, Dhdyyd, Sdma-FragAtha and Nivid Siikta of 
J:he Niskevalya Sastra.) 

He repeats the Stotriya. He recites it with a half loud voice. By 
doing so, he makes his own soul (the Stotriya representing the soul). 

(2) udgitha :?fhTTftf^ ^^E^i^ 5T c^T '^t'*' ^RJ^f^f^ ^ TtSI^: 

(3) pratihdra : ^ ^Tl^T ^\mi I 

(4) upadrava : m^'«?!aT ?rtm f f i^T • 

(5) nidhanam 3RT II 

Third rich : (1) prastdva «T3r^^ I 

(2) udgitha : ^^ ^ srf^^ «i^4g> rf^^f^^lfllSTi: II 
(S) pratilidra: qsqg^TfT • 

(4) upadrava • mm^\^um f ? 3^1 I 

(5) nidhanam: ?rfT Agnhtoma Sam Ptayaga, 

From this specimen the reader will easily learn in what way they make of two 
richas three, and how they divide each into five parts. The prast&va is chanted by the 
Prastotar, the udgitha by the Udgatar (the chief of the Sama singers), the pratihSra by 
the pratihartar, the upadrava by the Udgiitar, and the nidhanam by all three. 

^° This statement is not very accurate. In other passages it is said, that it consists 
of thirty-three syllables, sree 3, 22. The metre is divided into three padas, each consisting 
of nine, ten, or eleven syllables. 

*^ Here are the five parts of the Niskevalya 8astra severally enumerated. The 
stotriya are the two verses of which the Rathantara consists, but so repeated by the 
Hotar as to make three of them, just as the 8&ma singers do. The substantive to be 
supplied to stotriya is pragdtha, i.e., that pragatha, which contains the same text as the 
stotram or performance of the Sama singers. The anurilipa pragdtha, follows the form 
of the Stotriya ; it consists of two verses which are made three. It must have the same 
commencing words as the Stotriya. The anuriipa is : ahhi tvd pftrvapitaye (8, 3, 7-8). 
The Dhayya is already mentioned (3, 22). The Sama pragatha is : pibd sutasya (8, 3, 12). 
The sQkta or hymn is mentioned in the following (24) paragraph. 


He repeats the Anurupa. The Anuiupa is offspring. It is to be 
repeated with a very loud voice. [200] By doing so, he makes his 
children more happy than he himself is (for the Stotriya representing his 
own self, was repeated by him with a half loud voice only.) 

He repeats the Dhiiyya. The Dhayya is the wife. It ia to be 
repeated with a very low voice. When he who has such a knowledge 
repeats the Dhayya with a very low voice, then his wife does not 
quarrel with him in his house. 

He repeats the (Samai Pragatha. It is to be repeated with the proper 
modulation of the voice (i.e., with the pronunciation of the four accents). ** 
The accents are the animals, the Pragatha are the animals. (This is 
done) for obtaining cattle. 

He repeats the Sukta *^ (hymn) : inclrasya nu v'irydni [ 201 1 
(1, 32). This is the hymn liked by Indra, belonging to the Nis- 
kevalya Sastra, and (seen) by Hirariyastnpa. By means of this hymn, 
Hiranyastfipa, the son of Angiras, obtained the favour of Indra (and) 
gained the highest world. He who has such a knowledge, obtains the 
favour of Indra (andj gains the highest world. The hymn is the house 
as a firm footing. Thence it is to be repeated with the greatest slowness, 
(For a firm footing as a resting place is required for every one.) If, for 
instance, one happens to have cattle grazing in a distant quarter, he 
wishes to bring them (in the evening) under a shelter. The stables are the 
firm footing (the place where to put up) for cattle. That is the reason 

■" The mantras which form part of the Sastras are nearly throughout monotonously 
(fkasnityfl) repeated. Only in the recital of the Sama pragatha an exception takes place. 
It is to be repeated with all We four accents: aniidatta, cumdattatara, uddttci, and 
svarita, just as is always done when the Rigveda is repeated in the temple, or in private 
houses, without any religious ceremony being performed. 

" In this hymn, the Nivid of the Niskevalya Sastra is to be inserted after its eighth 
verse. The Nivid is as follows : 

^o?lT Bj??! I R^® (tbe conclusion being the same as in the Marutyutiya Nivid, see page 
189) i.e., May the god Indra drink of the Soma juice, he who is the strongest among those 
who are born only once ; he who is the mightiest among those who are rich ; he who is the 
master of the two yellow horses, he the lover of Prisni, he the bearer of the thunderbolt, 
who cleaves the castles, who destroys the castles, who makes flow the water, who carries 
the waters, who carries the spoil from his enemies, who kills, who is far-famed, who appears 
indifferent forms »pani«tikrif, lit., making similes), who is busy, he who has been here a 
willing god (to listen to our prayers). May the god Indra hear, &c. Saptahdutra. 
Instead of 5jf^rqt, the Sdnkhfiyana KQtra«, 7, 17, read ^f^SIRt* which is less correct, and 
appears to be a mistake. 


tliat this hymn, which represents a firm footing, or shelter for cattle, which 
was represented by the Pragatha, is to be repeated very slowly, so as to 
represent a firm footing. 


[The Abstraction of Soma. Origin of the Three Libations. Ecening 
Libation. The Vaisvadeoa and Agnimdruta Sastras.) 


{Stonj of the Metres which were despitehed by the Gods to fetch the Soma 
from heaven. Jagati and Tristuhh iinsuceessful. Origin of Diksd, Tapas, 
and Daksiiid). 

The king Soma lived (once) in the other world (in heaven). The 
Gods and Risis deliberated : how might the king Soma (be induced) 
to come to us ? They said, " Ye metres must bring back to us this king 
Soma." They consented. They transformed themselves into birds. 
That they transformed themselves into birds {suparna\ and flew up, is called 
[202] by the knowers of stories saupart.iam {i.e., this very story is called 
so). The metres went to fetch the king Soma. They consisted (at that 
time) of four syllables only ; for (at that time) there were only such metres 
as consisted of four syllables. The Jagati, with her four syllables, flew 
first up. In flying up, she became tired, after having completed only 
half the way. She lost three syllables, and being reduced to one syllable, 
she took (from heaven) with her (only) the Dik§d and Tapas, * and flew 
back (to the earth). He who has cattle is possessed of Diksa and pos- 
sessed of Tapas. For cattle belong to Jagati. Jagati took them. 

Then the Trist.ubh flew up. After having completed more than 
half the way, she became fatigued, and throwing off one syllable, be- 
came reduced to three syllables, and taking (with her) the Daksina, flew 
back (to the earth). Thence the Daksina gifts (sacrificial rewards) are 
carried away (by the priests) at the midday libation (which is) the place 
of the Tristubh ; for Tristubh alone had taken them' (the Daksina 


{Gdyatri suceessful ; Wounded ivhen Robbing the Soma. What became 
of her nail cut off, &c.) 

The gods said to the Gayatri, " Fetch thou the king Soma." She con- 
sented, but said, "During the whole of my journey (up to the celestial 

^ These gifts are to be bestowed upon the sacrificer at the Dik§aniyd i^ti. See 
1, 1-5. 

* The words Bl^^f^f;^ are to be parsed as follows: ^czvr J % I cff 


world), you must repeat the formula for wishing a safe passage for me." 
The gods consented. She flew up. The gods [203] repeated throughout 
her passage the formula for wishing a safe passage, viz., "pra clia ehd, go, 
and come back, and come back. For the words, pra did chd,^ signify, that 
the whole journey will be made in safety. He who has a friend (who 
sets out on a journey) ought to repeat this formula ; he then makes his 
passage in safety, and returns in safety. 

The Gayatri, when flying up, frightened the guardians of Soma, and 
seized him with her feet and bill, and (along -with him) she also seized the 
syllables which the two other metres (Jagati and Tristubh) had lost. 
Krisianu, (one of) the guardians'* of the Soma, discharged an arrow after 
her, which cut off the nail of her left leg. This became a porcupine. 

(The porcupine, having thus sprung from the nail which was cut off), 
the Vas^a (a kiud of goat) sprang from the marrow (vasa) which dripped 
from the nail (cut off). Thence this goat is a (suitable) offering. The shaft 
of the arrow with the point (discharged by Krii^anu) became a serpent 
which does not bite {dundublia by name). From the vehemence wdth 
which the arrow was discharged, the snake svaja was produced ; from the 
feathers, the shaking branches which hang down (the airy roots of the 
Asivattha) ; from the sinews (with which the feathers were fastened on the 
shaft) the worms called (jandilpada, from the fuhnination (of the steel) the 
serpent andJulhi. Into such objects was the arrow (of Kris^anu) trans- 

[2o4] {Origin of the Three Libations. Then ^^^ ^''^' ^f ^''i'"^^ strength.) 

What Gayatri had seized with her right foot, that became the morning 
libation ; she made it her own place. Thence they think the morning 
libation to be the most auspicious (of all). He who has such a knowledge, 
becomes the first and most prominent (among his people) and attains to 
the leadership. 

What she had seized with her left foot, became the midday libation. 
This (portion) slipped down, and after having slipped down, did not attain 
to the same (strength) as the first libation (held with the right foot). The 
gods got aware of it, and wished (that this portion should not be lost). 
They put (therefore) in it, of the metres, the Tri§tubh, and of the deities. 

* This formula is used for wishing to a friend who is setting out on a journey a safe 
passage and return in safety. 

* Sayaua here quotes an Adhvaryu mantra containing the names of the guardians of the 
Soma, among whom one is Krisiinu : ^iq^lSlf^^ ^VTl^ 5^ g^^rl ^wk ^,^ m ^IJW«miT- 
^^^ ^'^^'^ AT ^ ^y^j See Vajasaneyi Samhita,4, 27,withMahidhara's commentary on 
it (p. 117 in Weber's edition). 



Indra, Therefore it (tlie midday libation) became endowed with the same 
strength as the first libation. He who has such a knowledge, prospers 
through both the libations which are of equal strength, and of the same 

What Gayatri had seized with her bill, became the evening libation. 
When flying down, she sucked in the juice of this (portion of Soma, 
held in her bill), and after its juice had gone, it did not equal(in strength) 
the two first libations. The gods got aware of that and wished (that the 
juice of this portion should be kept). They discovered it (the remedy) in 
cattle. That is the reason that the priests pour sour milk (in the Soma at 
the evening libation), and bring oblations of melted butter and of flesh 
(things coming from the cattle). In this way, the evening libation obtain- 
ed equal strength with the two first libations. 

He who has such a knowledge, prospers through all the libations which 
are of equal strength and of the same quality. 

[205] 28. 

{Hoiv Tristuhh and Gayatri obtained their irmper 
number of syllables.) 

The two other metres said to -the Gayatri, " That which thou hast 
obtained of us, viz., qur syllables, should be restored to us." The Gayatri 
answered, " No." (They said) " As far as the right of possession is con- 
cerned, they (those syllables) are ours." They went to ask the gods. The 
gods said, *' As far as the right of possession is concerned, they are yours." 
Thence it comes, that even here (in affairs of daily life), people say when • 
they quarrel, " as far as the right of possession is concerned, this is 

Hence the Gayatri became possessed of eight syllables (for she did 
not return the four which she had taken from the others), the Tristubh 
had three, and the Jagati only one syllable. 

The Gayatri lifted the morning libation up (to the gods) ; but the 
Tristubh was unable to lift up the midday libation. The Gayatri said 
to her, " I will go up (with the midday libation) ; let me have a share 
in it The Tristubh consented, and said, "Put upon me (who consists 
of three syllables), these eight syllables." The Gayatri consented, and pui 
upon her (eight syllables). That is the reason that at the midday libation 
the two last verses of the triplet at the beginning of the Marutvatiya 
iSastra (the first verse being in the Anustubh metre), and its sequel 

' This remark here is only made to illustrate a phrase which seems to have been 
very common in tho Vedic Samskrit : q^iflf:^ ^'j 


(the anucham triplet) belong to the Gayatri, After having obtained thus 
eleven syJlables, she lifted the midday libation up (to heaven). 

The Jagati which had only one syllable, was unable to lift the third 
libation (up). The Gayatri said [206] to her, " I will also go up (with 
thee) ; let me have a share in this (libation)." The Jagati consented (and 
said), " Put upon me those eleven syllables (of the Gayatri and Tristubh 
joined). She consented and put (those eleven syllables) upon the Jagati. 
That is the reason, that, at the evening libation, the two latter verses of 
the triplet with which the Vainivadeva Sastra commences (pratipad), 
and its sequel (anuehara) belong to the Gayatri. Jagati, after having 
obtained twelve syllables, was able to lift the evening libation up (to 
heaven). Thence it comes that the Gayatri obtained eight, the Tristubh 
eleven, and the Jagati twelve syllables. 

He who has such a knowledge, prospers through all metres which are 
of equal strength and of the same quality. What was one, that became 
three-fold.' Thence they say, only he who has this knowledge, that what 
was one, became three-fold, should receive presents. 


{Why the Adityas and Savitar have a share in the evenincj libation. 
On Vayu's and Dydvdprithivis share in it.) 

The gods said to the Adityas, " Let us lift up this (the evening) 
libation through you." They consented. Thence the evening libation 
commences with the Adityas.^ At the commencement of it there is (the 
[207] libation from) the Aditya graha. Its Yajya mantra is, dditydso 
aditir madayantdm [7, 51, 2), which contains the term mad, "to be 
drunk," which is complete in form (equal to the occasion). For the 
characteristic feature of the evening libation is, " to be drunk." He 
does not repeat the Anuvasatkara, ' nor does he taste the Soma {as is 
usual, after the libation has been poured into the fire) ; for the Anuvasat- 
kara is the completion, and the tasting (of the offering by the priests) 
is also the completion (of the ceremony). The Adityas are the vital 
airs. (When the Hotar, therefore, does not repeat the Anuvasatkara, 

' This remark refers to the fact that the Gayjjtri, -which consisted originally only 
of eight syllables, consists of three times eight, i.e., twenty-four. 

' The very commencement of the evening libation is the pouring of Soma juice from 
the so-called Aditya graha (a wooden jar). Then follows the chanting of the Avbhavavi ; 
then the offering of an animal, and that of Purodas'a to the manes, after which a libation 
is poured from the Savitri graha, and the Vaisvadeva Sastra repeated, (Aav. fer. 8. 5, 17.) 

' See page 133. 


nov taste the Aditya libation, (he thinks), T will certainly put no end ^ 
to the life (of the sacrificer). 

The Adityas said to Savitar, " let us lift up this (the evening) 
libation through thee." He consented. Thence the beginning {pratipad 
of the Vaii^v^adeva i^astra at the evening libation) is made with a triplet 
of verses addressed to Savitar, '° To the Vaii^vadeva Sastra belongs 
the Savitri graha. Before'^ the commencement (of this Sastra) lie 
repeats the YajyA, for the libation (from the Savitri graha), damfimj, 
devah .<^avitd varcnyam (Aj^v. ^r. S. 5, 18). This verse^* contains 
[208] the term mad " to be drunk" which is complete in form. 
The term nmd " to be druuk" is a characteristic of the evening libation. 
He does not repeat the Anuvasatkara, nor does he taste (from the 
Soma juice in the Savitri graha). For the Anuvasatkara is completion, 
the tasting (of the Soma by the priest) is completion. Savitar is the 
life. (He should do neither, thinking) I will certainly put no end to 
the life (of the sacrificer). Savitar drinks largely -from both the 
morning and evening libations. For there is the term piba, " drink," 
at the commencement ^' of the Nivid addressed to Savitar at the 

' The negation is here expressed by net, i.e., ?io it, the same word, which is almost 

exclusively used in the Zend-Avesta, in the form noit., for expressing the simple 

*° The Pratipad, or beginning triplet of of the Vaisvadeva bastra is : 

tat savitur vrintmahe (5, 82, 1-3), 

" The Yajya is to be repeated before the Vaisvadeva feastra is repeated. 

'2 It is also, with some deviations, found in the Atharvaveda Samhita (7, 14,4). 
According to the As'v, Sutras, it runs as follows : 

trf^^HT fT^;j*^c^ «|5Fq >5^f^ II The deviations of the text in the Atharvaveda consist 
in the following : instead of ^^i : ^^*. for ^f^o: ^(f^o; for JTO^«=^^I^2«I5 i^ ^^^ 
imH^t\ ^^: ; instead of m^^ it has ^P^. It is evident that the readings of the Athar- 
vaveda are corrupt ; for it will be impossible to make out the sense of the mantra from its 
text presented in the Atharvaveda : but it may be done from that one given in the 
As'valSyana Sfitras. I translate it as follows : " The divine house-father Savitar, who i.s 
chosen (as tutelary deity by men), has provided people (ayu) with precious gifts to 
make offerings to Daksa (one of the Adityas) and the manes. May he drink the 
Soma! May the (Soma) offerings inebriate him, when on his wanderings, he pleases 
to delight in his (the Soma's) quality i" 

•3 In the words, savita devah somasija pibatu. The hymn, in which the JS'ivid for 
Savitar is inserted, is, aWmd dnah savita (4, 54), The whole Nivid is as follows : 

wig* gf^ I 3^f^*^Tm I f^* ^^ I «^4 3^R I w^^f ^ifk'^^r^^^ i ^f^^T ^ 

55 9Rrf^f ^TH^ W^^ I ^^\ t^o (The conclusion is just as in the other Nivids). 
SaptaHautra, In the Sankhay. .s'r, Sfitras (8, 18), there are, before m\j(to the words : 


[209] evening libation), and at the end'* tlie term mad, " to be drunk." 
Thus he makes Savitar share in both the morning and evening libations. 

At the morning and evening libations, verses addressed to Vayu are 
repeated, many at the morning, one only ' " at the evening, libation. That is 
done because the vital airs (represented by Vayu, the wind) in the upper 
parts (represented by the morning libation) of the human body are more 
numerous than those in the lower parts (represented by the evening 

He repeats a hymn addressed to Heaven and Earth. '^ For Heaven 
and Earth are stand-points. [210] Earth is the stand-point here, and 
Heaven is the stand-point there (in the other world). By thus repeating a 
hymn addressed to Heaven and Earth, the flotar establishes the sacrificer 
in both places (in earth and heaven). 


{Story of the Ribhiis. On their Share in the Evening Libation.) 

He repeats the Ribhu hymn {tak^an ratliam^ 1, 111)." The (beings 

Isf^cIT ^^ ♦ I translate it as follows : May the god Savitar drink of the Soma juice 
he with his golden hands and his good tongue, with his fine arms and flne fingers, he 
who produces thrice a day the real objects (i.e., the external world is visible in the 
morning, at noon, and in the evening), he who produced the two treasures of wealth, 
the two loving sisters (night and dawn), the best things that are created, the 
milking cow, the ox-drawing cart, the swift septad (of horses for drawing the carriage 
of the sun-god), the female (called) purandhl, i.e , meditation, the victorious warrior, the 
youth in the assemblage (of men), &c. 

^* In the words, scivitd devah ihu sravadiha somasya matsat. 

1° This remark refers to the last words which are appended to the Nivid hymn for 
Savitar, viz., niyudbliir vdyaviha. The whole appendage, which is to be found in the Asv. 
8r. S. 5, 18, and in Sapta Hautra is : i^^m t( ^:[rf^» ^^^ I ifT^qrftrg^ f^:[Rqi'lf^ 
f^^fe ^f?3 Br^Jai^ I f^^^f«?f%f m g#K? '•<^-' Vuyu.come hither with (thy) steeds, 
unloosen them, (come) with eleven for thy own sake, with twenty-two for (making) the 
sacrifice om ! with thirty-three for carrying (the sacrifice). 

^' This is pvadyavd yajiidih (1, 159). The Nivid to be inserted before the lost verse 
of the DySvaprithivi hymn is : 

f^^^ I ?ji^T iRr#t i|f «r!TfJrf ^m^ w^ I ^nf ^^ ^f^n^ar ^\ Biqi 1 ^i si^r ^i 

^ I M W^^ «?5WIJIH^ I M f^rf^f^f^: I aaf sr^nTqT^^TnaT 11 May Heaven 
and Eartli enjoy the Soma which are the father and gaother, the son and generation, the 
cow and the bull, the grain and the wood, the well-provided with seed, and the well-pro- 
vided with milk, the happy and the beneficial, the juicy and milky, the giver of seed, and 
(holder) of seed. May both Heaven and Earth here hear (me) ! May they hero enjoy the 
Soma, &c. 

*' The Nivid inserted before tlie last verse of the Ribhn hymn is : 


called) Ribhus amon^ the gods, had, b}^ means of austerities, obtained 
the right to a share in the Soma beverage. They (the gods) wished to 
make room for them in the recitations at the morning libation ; but 
Agni with the Vasus (to whom this libation belongs), turned them 
out of the morning libation. They (the gods) then wished to make 
room for them in the recitations at the midday libation ; but Indra 
with the Rudras (to whom this libation belongs), turned them out of 
this libation. They then wished, to make room for them in the [211] 
recitations at the evening libation ; but the Visve Devah (to whom it be- 
longs), tried to turn them out of it, saying, " They shall not drink here ; 
they shall not. " Prajapati then said to Savitar, " These are thy pupils ; 
thou alone (among the Wive Devah), therefore, shalt drink with them." 
He consented, and said (to Prajapati), " Drink thou also, standing on both 
sides of the Ribhus. " PrajTipati drank standing oil both sides of them. 
(That is the reason that) these two Dhayyas (required for the Vaitlvadeva 
Sastra) which do not contain the name of any particular deity, and 
belong to Prajdpati, are repeated, one before the other, after the Ribhu 
hymn. (They are) suriipahrtmuh utaye (1, 4, 1) and ayam vena's cJiodayat 
(10, 123, 1).^ ' Prajapati thus drinks on both their sides. Thus it comes 
that a chief [sredht) favours with a draught from his goblet whom he 

The gods, however, abhorred them (the Ribhus), on account of their 
human'" smell. (Therefore) they placed two (other) Dhayyas between 
the Ribhus and themselves. (These are) yehhyo vidtd madhumat (10, 03 
3), and evd pitre visva dcvdya (4, 50, 6)."" 

fft ^5^^I5T I ^Tfaic^ «^57f IH^g: I 9^e^ ^TOT «1%«J *!mm«?53^ I 5K*?^> t^T 
f? »^f«lf ^m^«? W^^ I ^m ^m ^grf %?t43o May the divine Ribhus enjoy the 
Soma, who are busy and clever, who are skilful with their hands, who are very rich, 
who are full of bliss, full of strength, vfho cut the cow which moves everywhere, 
and has all forms (i.e., the earth), who cut the cow (that) she became of all forms, who 
yoked the two yellow horses (of Indra) who went to the gods, who when eating got 
aware of the girls, who entered by their skill upon their share in the sacrifice in the 
year (at the sacrificial session lasting for one year) ; may the divine Ribhus hear (us) 
here and enjoy the Soma, &c. 

*' This whole story is invented for explaining the position assigned to certain verses 
and hymns in the Vaisvadeva feastra. After the hymn addressed to Savitar, dbhud 
devah savitd (4, 54), there follows the verse siivi'ipakritnnm, which is called a Dhayya ; 
then comes the hymn addressed to the Ribhus, tah^an ratliam, and then the verse ayam 
venas, which is also a Dhayya. See Asv, Sr. S. 5, 8. 

1' They are said to have been men, and raised themselves to an equal rank with the 
gods by means of sacrifice and austerities. 

'" These two verses immediately follow : ayavi vevas clwdayut. Asv. hr. S. 
5, 18. 


[212] 31. 

{The Nivid hymn for the Visoe Devdh. On the Dhdijyds of the Vai'n- 
vadeca Sastra. To what deities it belongs. On the concluding verse of 
this Sastra). 

He repeats the Vaisvadeva liymn.'^ The Vaisvadeva Sastra shows 
the relationship of subjects (to their king) Just as people represent the 
interior part [213] (of a kingdom), so do also the hymns (represent the 
interior, the kernel, of the Sastra). The Dhayyas, then, are like what is 
in the desert (beasts, &c.) That is the reason why the Hotar must repeat 
before and after every Dhayya the call somsdvom (for every Dhayya is 

21 This is d no bhaddhkratavo {1,89). The Nivid inserted before tlie last verse of 
this Vis'vedevah hymn is : 

(Sapta Hdutra). The text as given in the Sankhdja. br. y. 8, 21, differs in several pas- 
sages. Instead of ^^j^ © it has q^|§if o which is, no doubt, more correct. Tbo 
words gjq?g 5^^?^ cflSf??!^ f^^^ ^''^ transposed ; they follow after gj^^jif:, after which 
aiqfij^o and ?|isro ^lo arc put. Instead of ?lf^^5?«, tliere is Slf^rfn^WTf^RR?? 3?I ^f% 
The translation of some terms in this Nivid, which is doubtless very old, is extremely 
difficult. Now and then the reading does not appear to be correct. It is, however, 
highly interesting, as perhaps one of the most ancient accounts we have of the 
number of Hindu deities. They are here stated at 3 times 11 ; then at 33, then at 
303, then at 3003. It appears from this statement, that only the number 3 remained 
unchanged, whilst the number 30 was multiplied by 10 or 100. Similarly, the 
number of gods is stated at 3339 in a hymn ascribed to the Risi Vis'vamitra 
Uigveda, 3, 9, 9 This statement appears to rely on the Vaisvadeva Nivid. For, if we 
add 33-4-303+3003 together, we obtain exactly the number 3339. This coincidcnoo 
can hardly be fortuitous, and we have strong reasons to believe that Vis'vamitra 
perfectly knew this Vis've Devah Nivid, That it contains one of the most authoritative 
passages for fixing the number of Hindu deities follows from quotations in other Vedic 
books. So we read in the Brihad Aranyaka Upauishad (page 642-49, edited by Roer, 
Calcutta, 1849) a discussion by Yajuavalkya on the number of gods, where he appeals to 
the Nivid of the Vaiavadeva hymn as the most authoritative passage for settling this 
question. Perhaps the oldest authority we have for fixing the number of the Hindu deities, 
on the first instance, at thirty-three, is J.^igveda, 8, 28, 1. The hymn to which this verso 
belongs is said to have descended from Manu, the progenitor of the human race. Its 
style shows traces of high antiquity, and there can bo hardly any doubt, that it is one of 
the earliest Vedic hymns wc have. The division of tlicse thirty-three deities into three 
sets, each of eleven, equally distributed among^the three worlds, heaven, air, and earth, 
(see 1, 139, 11) appears to be the result of later speculations. According to the Nivid iu 
question, the gods are not distributed among the three worlds, but they are in heaven 
and earth, water, and sky, in the Brahma and Ksatra, iu the Barhia, and on the Vedi, iu 
the sacrifice) and in the air. 


cousidered as a separate recitatiou distinct from tlie body of the Sastra). 
(Some one might object) how can verses, like the Dhayyas, which are life, 
be compared to a desert ? Regarding this, he (the Aitareya Risi) has told 
that the deserts {aranyani) are properly speaking no deserts, on account of 
the deer and birds to be found there. 

The Vaisvadeva Sastra is to be likened to man. Its hymns are like 
his internal parts ; its Dhayyas are like the links (of his body). That is 
the reason that the Hotar calls sorhsdvom before and after every Dhayya 
(to represent motion and flexibility). For the links of the human body 
are loose ; these are, however, fastened and held together by the Brahma. 
The Dhjlyyti"' and Yajya verses are the root of the [214] sacrifice. When 
they use Dhayyas and Yajyos different from those which are prescribed, 
then they uproot the sacrifice. Therefore, they (the Dhayyas and Yajyas) 
should be only of the same nature (they should not use other ones than 
those mentioned). 

The Vaii^vadeva Sastra belongs to five classes of beings. It belongs 
to all five classes of beings, viz. : Gods and Men. Gandharvas (and) 
Apsaras," Serpents and i\ranes. To all these five classes of beings belongs 
the Vaisvadeva Sastra. All beings of these five classes know him (the 
Hotar who repeats the Vaii^vadeva Sastra). To that Hotar who has such 
a knowledge come those individuals of these five classes of beings who 
understand the art of recitation (to assist him). The Hotar who repeats 
the Vaitivadeva Sastra belongs to all deities. When he is about to repeat 
his Sastra, he ought to think of all directions (have them before his mind), 
by which means he provides all these directions with liquid {i-a^a). But 
he ought not to think of that direction in which his enemy lives. By 
doing so, he consequently deprives him of his strength. 

He concludes (the Vaisivadeva Sastra) with the verse aditir dydur 
aditir antarik^am (1, 89, 10), ie., Aditi is heaven, Aditi is the air, Aditi 
is mother, father and son ; Aditi is all gods ; Aditi is the five classes of 
creatures; Aditi is what is born; Aditi is what is to be born." She 
(Aditi) is mother, she is father, she is son. In her are the Vaii^vadevas, 
in her the five classes of creatures. She is what is born, she is what is 
to be born. 

(When reciting this concluding verse which is to be repeated thrice), 
he recites it twice (for the second and third times) so as to stop at 
each (of the four) padas. (He does so) for obtaining cattle, which are 

-' Here the regular Dhayyas (see 3, 18), arc to be understood, not those extraordinary 
additions which wc have In the Vaisvadeva feastra. 

^' Gandharvas and Apsaras are counted as one class only. 


[215] four-footed. Once (the first time) h« repeats the concluding 
verse, stopping at the end of each half of the verse only. (That is done) 
for establishing a firm footing. Man has two feet, but animals have 
four. (By repeating the concluding verse twice in the said manner) 
the Hotar places the two-legged sacrificer among the four-legged animals* 

He ought always to conclude (the Vaisivadeva ^astra) with a 
verse addressed to the five classes of beings (as is the case in aditir 
dyaur) ; and, when concluding, touch the earth. Thus he finally esta- 
blishes the sacrifice in the same place in which he acquires the meana 
of his performance. 

After having repeated the Vaistvadeva Sastra, he recites the- 

Yajya verse addressed to the Vi^ve Devas : visve devdljL sfirtuta imam 

havam me (6, 52, 13). Thus he pleases the deities according, to their 

shares (in the libation). 


(The Offerings of Ghee to Agni and Ft?riM, and the Offering 
of a Gharu to Soma.) 

The first Y^jya verse for the offering of hot butter is addressed" 
to Agni, that for the offering of Cham is addressed to Soma, and another 
for the offering of hot butter is addressed to Visnu.^* 

[216j The Yajya verse for the offering of Charu to Soma is 
tvam soma pitri'ihih (8, 48,, 13) ; it contains the word " pitaras,'' i.e., manes. 
(This Charu is an oblation to the dead Soma). The priests kill the 
Soma, when they extract its juice. This (oblation of Charu) is therefor© 
the cow which they use to kill (when the body of a sacrificer is laid 
on the funeral pile.^^) For this Charu oblation has, for the Somaj, 

^' After the Soma juice has beea offered to the Vis'vedevas, an offering of hot butter- 
(ghee) is given to Agni ; then follows the oblation of Charu or boil«d rice to Somak, and) 
then another oblation of hot butter ta Visnu. The chief oblation, is that of Cha*a to Soasa^ 
which is pnt in the midst of the two offerings of hot butter. The Y§jy& ve?&esi 
addressed at this occasion to Agni and Visnn are not to be found in tiie Samiut4> 
of the Rigveda ; but they are given by Asval. in the srauta Stitras, (&, 19>). Th© follEowing; 
is addressed to Agni : ^cllf ^^T ^^l^ wf^l'^fsj^r ^cl*^?? V^W | ^rIS«r??^f f ^^J 9|^ 
^cT f^^li!^ ^^ ^^'It ^'^■' •^SDi i*it ^tio receives oblations of hot butter, vf'iuo has 
(as it were) a back laden with hot butter, by whoo* hot butter abides, whose very 
house is hot butter. May thy butter drops, sputtering horses, earry thee t Thou, O 
God ! oSerest up the sacrifice to the gods, by drinking the hot butter. 

The Yajya verse addressed to Visnu is : ^^ f^'ai^J f^^H^ai^^qW JR^f^ I ^ ^?r- 
Mm f^ SI Sra^?%* %?, i.^'f take, O Visnu I thy wide strides; make us room for 
living in ease. Drink the hot butter, O thou, who art the wonb of hot butter ; prolong 
(the life of) the master of the sacrifice (the sacrificer). 

'* The term is anustarani (gauh), i.e., ?l cow put down after, i.e., acooinpanying th«K 
dead to the other world. See Aiv. QrihyaSfttra, 4, 8, 


the same significance as tlie cow sacrificed at the funeral pile for 
the manes. This is the reason that the Hotar repeats (at this occasion) 
a Yajya verse, containing the term " pitaras," i.e., manes. Those who 
have extracted the Soma juice, have killed the Soma. (By making this 
oblation) they produce him anew. 

They make him fat ^^ in the form of a siege (by putting him 
between Agni and Visnu) ; for (the order [217] of) the deities Agni, 
Soma, and Visnu, has the form of a siege. 

After having received (from the Adhvaryu) the Charu for Soma for 
being eaten by him, the Hotar should first look at himself and then 
(offer it) to the Sama singers. Some Hotri-priests offer first this Oharu 
(after the oblation to the gods is over) to the Sama singers. But he ought 
not to do that ; for he (the Hotar) who pronounces the (powerful) call 
vausat, eats all the remains of the food (offered to the gods). So it has 
been said by him (the Aitareya Risi). Therefore the Hotar who 
pronounces the (powerful) formula vausat should, when acting upon 
that injunction (to offer first the Charu remains to the Sama singers), 
certainly first look upon himself. Afterwards the Hotar offers it to the 
S^ma singers." 


{Prajdpati's Illegal Intercourse with his Daughter^ and the Conse- 
quences of it. The Origin of Bhutavdn.) 

Prajapati thougnt of cohabiting with his own daughter, whom some 
call "Heaven," others "Dawn," (Usas). He transformed himself into a 
buck or a kind of deer (risya), whilst his daughter assumed the shape of 

*' The term is dpyhyanti. This is generally done by sprinkling water over him 
before the juice is squeezed, for the purpose of making the Soma (mystically) grow. 
When he is already squeezed and even sacrificed, water itself cannot be sprinkled 
over him. But this is mystically done, by addressing the verses just mentioned to the 
deities Agni, Soma, and Visnu, so as to put Soma in the midst of them, just as a town 
invested on all sides. When they perform the ceremony of dpydyanam, the Soma plant 
is on all sides to be sprinkled with water. This is done here symbolically by offering 
first ghee, and giving ghee again after the Charu for Soma is sacrificed. So he is 
nurrounded everywhere by ghee, and the two gods, Agni and Visnu. 

The remark about the dpydyanavt is made in the Brahmanam for the sole purpose of 
Rocouuting for the fact, that the first Y&jya is addressed to Agni, the second to Soma, and 
the third to Vispu ; that this was a sacrificial rule, see'Asv. Sr. 8, 5, 19. 

»' The mantras which the Hotar has to repeat at this occasion, are given in full by 
Asval&yana Sr. 8. 5, 19, After having repeated them, he besmears his eyes with melted 
butter, and gives the Charu, over which bufctor in dripped, to the Sama singers, who are 
called here and in Asval&yana Ohandoya* 


a female deer (rohit). *' He approached her. [218] The gods saw it 
(crying), " Prajapati commits an act never done (before)." (In order to 
avert the evil consequences of this incestuous act) the gods inquired for 
some one who might destroy the evil consequences (of it). Among 
themselves they did not find any one who might do that (atone for 
Prajapati's crime). They then put the most fearful bodies (for the gods 
have many bodies) of theirs in one. This aggregate of the most fearful 
bodies of the gods became a god, Bhutavdn,"^ byname. For he who 
knows this name only, is born.'° The gods said to him, "Prajapati has 
committed an act which he ought not to have committed. Pierce this • * 
(the incarnation of his evil, deed)." So he did. He then said, *T will 
choose a boon from you." — They said, "Choose." He then chose as hia 
boon sovereignty over cattle.'* That is the reason that his name is 
'pasumdn), i.e., having cattle. He who knows on this earth only this 
name ipasuman), becomes rich in cattle. 

He (Bhiitavan) attacked him (the incarnation of Prajapati's evil 
deed) and pierced him (with an arrow). After having pierced him, 
he sprang up (and became a constellation). They call him mriga, i.e., 
deer (stars in the Orion), and him who killed that being'* (which 
[219] sprang from Prajapati's misdeeds), mriga vyddlia, i.e., hunter 
of the deer (name of .star). The female deer Rohit (into which Prajapati's 
daughter had been transformed) became (the constellation) Rohini. 

*• Saya^a gives another explanation. He takes rohitam, not as the nam© of a female 
deer, but as an adjective, meaning red. But then we had to expect rohitam. The crude 
form is rohit, not rohita. He explains the supposed rohita as ritumati. 

" Say. takes him as Rudra, which is, no doubt, correct. 

■" This is only an explanation of the term bhittavdn. 

•' This refers to the pdpman, i.e., the incarnate evil deeds, a kind of devil. The erfl 
deed of Prajapati had assumed a certain form, and this phantom, which is nothing but a 
personification of remorse, was to be destroyed. 

" This appears to confirm Sayana's opinion that Rudra or Siva is here alluded to. 
For ho is called pa^upati, master of cattle. 

" say. refers the demonstrative pronouns tarn imam, by which alone the incar- 
nation of PrJElpati's evil deed is here indicated, to Prajapati himself, who had assumed 
the shape of a buck. But the idea that Prajapati was killed (even in the shape 
of a buck) is utterly inconsistent with the Vedic notions about him : for in the older 
parts of the Vedas he appears as the Supreme Being, to whom all are subject. The 
noun to be supplied was pdpman. But the author of the Brahmanam abhorred the idea of 
a pdpman or incarnation of sin of Prajapati, the Lord of the Universe, the Creator. Thence 
he was only hinted at by this demonstrative pronoun. The mentioning of the word 
papman in connection with Prajapati, was, no doubt, regarded by the author, as very in- 
auspicious. Even the incestuous act committed by^Prajapati, he does not call papa, sin, 
or do§a, fault,- but only akritam, " what ought not to be done," whioh is the very mildesli 
term by which a crime can be mentioned. 


The arrow (by which the phantom of PrajApati's sin was pierced) which 
had three parts (shaft, steel, and point) became such an arrow (in the 
sky). The sperm which had been poured forth from Prajapati, flew down 
on the earth and became a lake. The gods said, " May this sperm of 
Praj&pati not be spoilt (viddu^at)" This became the madu^am. This 
name madu^a is the same as mdniisa, i.€., man. For the word mdnu^a^ 
i.e., man, means " one who should not be spoiled " (madui^an). This 
{mddu^a) is a (commonly) unknown word. For the gods like to express 
themselves in such terms unknwn (to men). 


{How Different Creatures Originated from Prajdpatis Spervu On the 
Verse addressed to Rudra. Propitiation of Rudra.) 

The gods surrounded this sperm with Agni (in order to make it flow); 
the Mar utas agitated it ] but Agni did not make it (the pool formed of 
Praj^pati's sperm) move. They (then) surrounded it with Agni Vaik- 
tdnara ; the Marutas agitated it ; Agni Vais^vanara (then) made it move. 
That spark which first blazed up from Prajapati's sperm became that 
Aditya [the ^220] sun); the second which blazed up became Bhrigu. 
Varuna adopted him as his son. Thence Bhrigu is called Varurjii, t.e,, 
descendant of Varuna. The third which blazed up (ddideoatd) ' * became 
the Adityas (a class of gods). Those parts (of Prajapati's seed after it 
was heated) which were coals (afigdra) becane the Afigiras. Those coals 
whose fire was not extinguished, and which blazed up again, became 
Bvihaspati, Those parts which remained as coal dust (parik^dndni) 
became black animals, and the earth burnt red (by the fire), became red 
animals. The ashes which remained became a being full of links, which 
went in all directions (and sent forth) a stag, buffalo, antelope, camel, ass, 
and wild beasts. 

This god (the Bhfitavan), addressed them (these animals), " This is 
mine ; mine is what was left on the place." They made him resign his 
share by the verse which is addressed to Rudra : d te pita marutdm (2, 33, 
1), i.e., " may it please thee, father of the Marutas, not to cut us off from 
beholding the sun {i.e., from living) ; may'st thou, powerful hero 
(Rudra) ! spare our cattle and children, that we, master of the Rudras !" 
might be propagated by our progeny." 

The Hotar ought to repeat (in the third pada of the verse) tvam no 
viro and not ahhi no viro (as is the reading of another SakhS). For, if 
he do not repeat the words ahhi nal}, i.e., towards us, then this god 

•* This strange intensive form of the root div, to shine, is here chosen only lor ex- 
plaining the origin of the name, " dditydi." 


(Rudra) does not entertain any designs against (ahhi) our children and 
cattle (i.e.) he does not kill them. In the fourth half-verse he ought to 
use the word rudriya, instead of rudra, for diminishing the terror (and 
danger) arising from (the pronunciation of) the real name Rudra." 

[221] (But should this verse appear to be too dangerous) the Hotar 
may omit it and repeat (instead of it) only sarh nah karati (1,43, 6), i.e., 
"may he be propitiated (and) let our horses, rams and ewes, our males 
and females, and cows go on well." (By repeating this verse) he 
commences with the word sam, i.e., propitiated, which serves for general 
propitiation, Narah (in the verse mentioned) means males, and ndiryal} 

(That the latter verse and not the first one should be repeated, may 
be shown from another reason.) The deity is not mentioned with its name, 
though it is addressed to Rudra, and contains the propitiatory term sam. 
(This verse helps) to obtain the full term o£ life (100 years). He who 
has such a knowledge, obtains the full term of his life. This verse 
{sa-rh nah karati) is in the Gayatri metre. Gayatri is Brahma. By 
repeating that verse, the Hotar worships him (Rudra) by means of Brahma 
(and averts consequently all evil consequences which arise from using a 
verse referring to Rudra). 


{The Vaisvdnara and Mdruta Nivid Hymns, and the Stotriya and 
Anurupa of the Agnimdruta Sastra.) 

The Hotar commences the Agni-maruta Sastra with a hymn 
addressed to Agni-Vaisivanara.'" [222] Vaisivanara is the seed which 

*' la the Rigveda SamhitS, which is extant at present, the mantra has in the third 
pada the word abhi no, and not tvam no, and in the fourth pada rudra, and not rudriya. 
The readings of the verse as they are in our copies of the Sainhita, seem to have been 
current already at the time of the author of the Aitareya Brahmanam. But he objects to 
using the verse so, as it was handed down, for sacrificial purposes, on account of the 
danger which might arise from the use of such terms as abhi, i.e. (turned) towards, and 
rudra, the proper name of the fearful god of destruction. He proposes two things, either 
to change these dangerous terms, or to leave out the verse altogether, and use another 
one instead of it. 

»* This is vaisvdnardya prithu (3, 3). The Nivid for the Vaisvdnara hymn is : — 

d^g I 5^f^ ^^^ vA «T^ I irffllf^qRi |5 «i^f^f ^f\^ J??^ I H»rf ^^ t^^- 

" May Agni Vaia'vfinara enjoy the Soma, he who is the fuel for all gods (for he as the 
vital spirit keeps them up), he who is the imperishable divine light, who lighted to the 
quarters of men, who (was) shiniDg in former skies (days), who is never decaying in tha 


was poured forth. Thence the Hotar commences the Agni-mftruta Sastra 
with a hymn addressed to Vaii^vanara. The first verse is to be repeated 
without stopping. He who repeats the Agni-maruta Sastra, extinguishes 
the fearful flames of the fires. By (suppressing) his breath (when 
repeating the first verse) he crosses the fires. Lest he might (possibly) 
forego some sound (of the mantra) when repeating it, it is desirable that 
he should appoint some one to correct such a mistake (which might arise). 
By thus making him (the other man) the bridge, he crosses (the fires, 
even if he should commit some mistake in repeating). Because of no 
mistake in repeating being allowed in this, there ought to be some ona 
appointed to correct the mistakes, when the Hotar repeats it. 

The Marutas are the sperm which was poured forth. By shaking 
it they made it flow. Thence he repeats a hymn, addressed to the 

[223] In the midst (of the Sastra, after having repeated the two 
hymns mentioned) he repeats the Stotriya'® and Anurupa Prag^thas, yajnd 
yajnd vo agnaye (1, 168, 1-2), and devo vo dravinodd (7, 16, 11-12). The 
reason that he repeats the " womb " (the Stotriya) in the midst (of the 
Sastra), is because women have their wombs in the middle (of their 
bodies). By repeating it, after having already recited two hymns (the 
Vaisivanara and Agni-maruta), he puts the organ of generation between 
the two legs in their upper part for producing offspring. He who has such 
a knowledge will be blessed with offspring and cattle. 

course of the auroras (during all days to come), who illumines the sky, the earth, and 
the wide airy region. May he, through his light, give (us) shelter r May Agni 
Vais'vanara here hear (us), &c." 

»' This la the Slikta : pratvak^asah pratavasah (1, 87). The Nivid of the hymn for 
the Marutas at the evening libation, is : 

5f ?T^Tlrf ^Tj:i^ Ji?e^ I ^^\ ^^t t^|;%n% o 

" May the divine Marutas enjoy the Soma, who chant well and have ftne songs, who 
chant their songs, who have large stores (of wealth), who have good gifts, and whose 
chariots are irresistible, who are glittering, the sons of Priani, whose armour shines with 
the brilliancy of gold, who are powerful, who receive the offerings (to carry them up), 
who make the clouds drop the rain. May the divine Marutas hear (my invocation). May 
they enjoy the Soma, &c." 

" The Stotriya is here mentioned by the term of yoni, womb. It is called so on 
account of its containing the very words of the Sftman in whose praise the whole Sastra 
is recited, and forming thus the centre of the whole recitation. The name of th© S4nran 
in question i» yaind yajniyo (S&maveda Samhitft, 2, 63, 64.) 



{The Jdtavedds 't\ivid Hymn). 

He repeats the hymn addressed to Jatavedas." All beings, after 
having been created by Prajapati [224], walked, having their faces turned 
aside, and did not turn (their backs). He iPrajapati) then encircled 
them with fire, whereupon they turned to Agni. After they had turned 
to Agni, Prajapati said, " The creatures which are born (jdta), 1 obtained 
{avidam) through this one (Agoi). " From these words came forth 
the Jatavedas hymn. That is the reason that Agni is called 

The creatures being encircled by fire, were hemmed in walking. 
They stood in flames and blazing. Prajapati sprinkled them with water. 
That is the reason that the Hotar, after having recited the Jatavedas 
hymn, repeats a hymn addressed to the waters : dpo histha mayohhuvaj} 
(10, 9;. Thence it is to be recited by him as if he were extinguishing 
fire {i.e., slowly). 

Prajipati, after having sprinkled the creatures with water, thought 
that they (the creatures) were his own. He provided them with an 
invisible lustre, through Ahir hudhnya. This Ahir budhnya (lit., the 
serpent of the depth) is the Agni Garhapatya (the household fire). By 
repeating therefore a verse addressed to Ahir bundhnya, *^ the Hotar 

'' This is ; pra tavyastm, 1, 143. The Nivid for JatavedSs is : 

^^^^^ I 5![r>?r":3![r: i ^^^f^ ^arwf «R7if|' i ^rRrafat^T ff w^f^f emw «?«c^ j 

" May Agui JdtavedSs enjoy the Soma ! he ^who has a beautiful appearance, whose 
splendour is apparent to all, he, the house-father, who does not flicker (when burning, 
i.e., whose fire is great and strong), he who is visible amidst the darkhess, he who 
receives the offerings of melted butter, who is to be praised, who performs the sacrifices 
without being disturbed by many hindrances, who is unconquerable and conquers his 
enemies in the battle. O Agni jatavedSs ! extend (thy) splendour and strength round 
us, with force and pluck (tusah and apt^isah are adverbs) ; protect him who lights (thee), 
and praises (thee) from distress ! May Agni JS,taved4s here hear (us) : may he enjoy 
the Soma. 

*° The etymology of the word as here given is fanciful. The proper meaning of the 
word is, "having possession of all that is born," i.e., pervading it. With the idea ot 
the fire being an all-pervading power, the Risis are quite familiar. By Jdtavedds the 
" animal fl^e" is particularly to be understood. 

'' This is uta MO ahir budhnyah srinotu (6, 60, 14), which forms part of the Agni- 
niftrata bastra. See A<v. Sr. 8. 5, 30. 


puts the invisible lustre in the [225] offspring (of the sacrificer). Thence 
they say, " One who brings oblations is more shining than one who doea 
not bring them." *' 


{The Offerings to the Wives of the Gods and to Yama and the Kdvyas^ 
a Class of Manes.) 

After having addressed (in the Ahir budhnya verse) Agni, the house- 
father, he recites the verses addressed to the wives of the gods. *' For 
the wife (of the sacrificer) sits behind the Garhapatya fire. 

They say : he should first address Rdkd ** with a verse, for the 
honour of drinking first from the Soma belongs (among the divine women) 
to the sister (of the gods). But this precept should not be cared for. 
He should first address the wives of the gods. By doing so, Agni, the 
house-father, provides the wives with seed. By means of the Garhapatya^ 
Agni, the Hotar thus actually provides the wives with seed for 
production, tie who has such a knowledge will be blessed with offspring 
(and) cattle. (That the wives have precedence of a sister is apparent in 
worldly things.) For a sister who has come from the same womb ia 
provided with food, &c., after the wife, who has come from another wonib„ 
has been cared for. 

He repeats the Raka verse.*' She sews that seam (in the womb) 
which is on the penis, so as to form a man. He who has such a knowledge 
obtains male children. 

[226] He repeats the Pdviravi verse.* Speech is Sarascati pdviravt. 
By repeating this verse, he provides the sacrificer with speech. 

They ask. Should he first repeat the verse addressed to Yama, or 
that one which is devoted to the Manes ?*' He should first repeat the 
verse addressed to Yama : imam yama prastara (10,14,4). For a king 
(Yama being a ruler) has the honour of drinking first. 

Immediately after it, he repeats the verse for the Kdoyas '-■ 
matali havydir yam,o (10, 14, 3). The Kavyas are beings inferior to the 
gods, and superior to the manes. Thence he repeats the verses for the 
manes, udiratdm avara utpardsah (10, 15, 1-3), after that one addressed 
to the Kavyas. By the words (of the first verse), " May the Soma-loving 

** This, no doubt, refers to the so-called Agni-hotris, to whom daily oblatioaa to 
the fire, in the'inorning and evening, are eojoined. 

*• These are two in number, devdndm patnir usatir uvantu (5, 46, 7, 8), 

** Seethe note to 7, 11. 

*• This is r6kdm aham, 2, 32, 4. 

*' Pdvirdvi Kanyd, 6, 49, 7. 

*' Thiiia udfratdm avara utpardsah {\0,U,\). 


manes who are of low as well as those who are of a middling and supe- 
rior character, rise," he pleases them all, the lowest as well the middling 
and highest ones, without foregoing any one. In the second verse, the 
term harhisado, " sitting on the sacred grass," implies, that they have 
a beloved house. By repeating it, he makes th^m ** prosper through 
their beloved house. He who has such a knowledge prospers through 
his beloved house. The verse (out of three) which contains the term 
"adoration," "this adoration be to the manes," he repeats at the end 
(though it be second in order). That is the reason, that at the end (of 
funeral ceremonies), the manes are adored (by the words) "adoration to 
you, manes !" 

They ask, Should he, when repeating the verses to the manes, use at 
each verse the call soihsdvom, or [227] should he repeat them without 
that call ? He should repeat it. What ceremony is not finished in the 
Pitri yajna (offering to the manes), that is to be completed. The Hotar 
who repeats the call sofhsavom at each verse, completes the incomplete 
sacrifice. Thence the call sorhsdvom ought to be repeated. 


On Indra's Share in the Evening Libation. On the Verses Addressed 
to Ft?riM and Varuna, to Visriu alone, and to Prajdpati. The Concluding 
Verse and the Ydjyd of the Agnimdruta ^astra.) 

The Hotar repeats the anu-pdntya verses addressed to Indra and his 
drinking of the Soma juice after (the other deities have been satisfied), 
svddu? kildyam madhuman (6, 47, 1-4). By their means, Indra drank 
from the Soma after the third libation (anupihat). Thence the verses 
are called anu-pdniyat, " lehrnng to drinking after." The deities are 
drunk, as it were, at this (third libation) when the Hotar repeats those 
verses. Thence has the Adhvaryu, when they are repeated, to respond 
to the Hotar (when calling sorhsdvom) with a word derived from the root 
mad, "to be drunk."*" 

He repeats a verse referring to Visuu and Varuna, yayor ojasd.^^ 

** The MSS have i^JRI, instead of i^rlf^ (ace. pi.), as Say. reads in hia Commentary. 

** This refers to the two phrases, maddmo deva, " we are drunk, O God ! " and moddmo 
daivom, ♦« wo rejoice, O divine 1 Om I " which are the responses of the Adhvaryu to the 
Hotar's call sonisdvom in the midst of the four Anu-pSniya. verses abovementioned. See 
Asv. 6r. 8. 5, 20. The usual response of the Adhvaryu to the Hotar's dhdva, somsdvom, is 
sofhsdnio daivom, see As'v. Sr. S. 5, 9. * 

'" It is not found In the Samhita of the Rigveda, but in the Asv. fe'r. 8. 5. 20, and in 
the Atharvaveda, S. 7, 25, 1. Both texts differ a little. AavalSyana reads : 

«iiiK)«i«T ?^f^ciT ^m\{^ ^qi^€?^cmi s^f^a^n qc^# «iJRft5T ?Ttif*i f^*^ wp^' 

VHi l^^y »■ c., ** The two, through whose power the atmosphere was framed, the 


Visnu protects the defects in the [228] sacrifices (from producing any 
evil consequences) and Varuna protects the fruits arising from its success- 
ful performance. (This verse is repeated) to propitiate both of them. 

He repeats a verse addressed to Visnu : visyjior nu kam viryd\n (1, 
154, 1). Visnu is in the sacrifice the same as deliberation in (worldly 
things). Just (as an agriculturist) is going to make good the mistakes 
in ploughing, (and a king) in making good a ba(;i judgment by 
devising a good one, so the Hotar is going to make well recited what 
was badly recited, and well chanted what was badly chanted, by repeating 
this verse addressed to Visnu. 

He repeats a verse addressed to Prajapati, tantum tanvan rajaso (10, 
53j 6). Tantu, i.e., thread, means offspring. By repeating this verse, 
the Hotar spreads {santanoti) for him (the sacrificer) offspring. By the 
words of this verse, jyotismatah patho raksa dhiyd kritarh, i.e., " protect 
the paths which are provided with lights, and made by absorption in 
meditation" wherein the term " the paths provided with lights" means 
the roads of the gods (to heaven), the Hotar paves these roads (for the 
sacrificer to go on them on his way to heaven). 

By the words anulhanam vayata, i.e., "weave ye the work of the 
chanters and repeaters^ ^ so as to rid [229] it from all defects, become 
a Manu, produce a divine race," the Hotar propagates him through 
human offspring. (That is done) for production. He who has such a 
knowledge will be blessed with offspring and cattle. 

two who are the strongest in power and most vigorous, who rule unconquerable through 
their strength ; may these two, Visnu and Varuna, come on being called first." There 
is 3. grammatical difficulty in this translation : agan, which can be only explained as a 
third person plural of the aorist in the conjunctive, is here joined to nouns in the dual. 
The Atharvaveda shows the same form. Here is an evident incorrectness, which perhaps 
was the reason for its being excluded from the Samhita. 

" The word translated by " chanters and repeaters" is jogu. Siy. explains it in his 
oommentary on this passage of the Ait. Br. in the following manner : 

la his commentary on the Rigveda Samhita (10, 53, 6, page 8 of my manuscript copy of the 
commentary on the 8th Astaka), he explains it simply by ^^I^HjIJi^ I But I think the first 
definition is too comprehensive, the latter too restricted, For, strictly speaking, the term 
stotar is only applicable to the chanters of the Samans. But the recital of the Rik 
mantras by the Hotars, and the formulas of the Yajurveda by the Adhvaryu and his 
assistants is about as important for the success of the sacrifice. All that is in excess 
(ulhanam), above what is required, is a hindrance to the sacrifice. Thence all mistakes, 
by whatever priest they might have been committed, are to be propitiated. The word jogu, 
being a derivative of the root gu, " to sound," cannot mean " a sacrificial performer " in 
general, as Say, supposes in his commentary on the Ait. Br., but such performers only as 
require prineipally the aid of thwr voice. 


He concludes witli the verse eva na indro maghavd virapsi (4, IT, 20). 
This earth is Indra maghava virapH, i.e., Indra, the strong, of manifold 
crafts. She is (also) satyd, the true, char^ariidhrit, i.e., holding men 
anarvd, safe. She is (also) the rdjd. In the words, sravo mahindm yaj 
jai'itre, mahindm means the earth, sravo the sacrifice, and jaritd the sacri- 
ficer. By repeating them, he asks for a blessing for the sacrificer. When 
he thus concludes, he ought to touch the earth on which he employs th© 
sacrificial agency. On this earth he finally establishes the sacrifice. 

After having repeated the Agni-Maruta Sastra, he recites the Yajya : 
agyie marudbhih (5, 60, 8). Thus he satisfies (all) the deities, giving to each 
his due. 


(On the Origin, Meaning, and Universal Nature of the Agnistoma as the 
model for other Sacrifices. On the Ghatustoma and Jyoti^toma.) 

{On the Origin of the name "Agnistoma," and its Meaning.) 
The Devas went to war with the Asuras, in order to defeat them. 
Agni was not willing to follow them. The Devas then said to him, " Go 
thou also, for thou art one of us." He said, " I shall not go, unless a 
ceremony of praise is performed for me. Do ye that now." So they did. 
They all rose up (from their places), turned towards Agni, and performed 
the ceremony of praising him. After having been praised, he followed 
them. He having assumed the shape of three rows, attacked in threo 
battle lines the Asuras, in order to defeat them. The three rows were 
made only of the metres {Gdyatri, Tristuhh, Jagati). The three battle 
lines are only the three libations. He defeated them beyond expectation.. 
Thence the Devas put down the Asuras. The enemy, the incarnate sin- 
ipdpman), the adversary of him who has such a knowledge, perishes hy ~ 

The Agnistoma is just as the Gayatri. The latter has twenty-four 
syllables (if all its three padas are counted) and the Agnistoma has 
twenty-four Stotras and Sastras.^ 

* That is to say, twelve Stotras or performances of the singers, and twelve 
fe'astras or recitations of the Hotri-priests. To each Stotra a Sastra corresponds. The 
twelve Sastras are as follo77s :— (A) At the morning libation— 1) the Ajya and 2) 
Pra-uga to be repeated by the Hotar, 3) the Sastra of the MaitrSvaruna, 
4) of the Brahmanachhansi, and 5) of the AchhS,vaka. (B) At the midday libation— 6) 
the Marutvatiya and 7) Niskevalya Sastras to be recited by the Hotar, 8) the Sastras 
of the MaitrS.varuua, 9) of the Brahmanachhansi, and 10) that of the Achhav4ka. (C) 
At the evening libation— 11) the Vaio'vadeva, and 12) AgnimSruta Sastras to bo repeatod 
by the Hotar alone . 


[231] It is just as they say : a horse if well managed (sukitd) puts 
the rider into ease (sudhd). This does also the Gayatri. She does not 
stop on the earth, but takes the sacrificer up to heaven. This does also 
the Agnistoma ; it does not stop on ^arth, but takes the sacrificer up to 
heaven. The Agnistoma is the year. The year has twenty-four half-months, 
and the Agnistoma twenty-four Stotras and ^astras. Just as waters 
flow into the- sea, so go all sacrificial performances into the Agnistoma 
(t. e., are contained in it). 

{(All Sacrificial Rites are Contained in the Agnistoma.) 

When the Dikehaniya Isti is once performed in all its parts (lit., is 
spread), then all other Istis, whatever they may be, are comprised in the 

When he calls Ila,' then all Pakayajnas,* whatever they may be, 
are comprised in the Agnistoma. 

[232] One brings the Agnihotram " in the morning and evening. 
They (the sacrificers when being initiated) perform in the morning and 

» The meaning is, the Diksaniya Isti is the model Isti or ■prakriH, of all the 
other Istis required at the Agnistoma, such as the Pr^yaniya, &c., and is, besides, exactly 
of the same nature as other independent Istis. such as the Darspflrnima Isti. 

* This is always done at every occasion of the Agnistoma sacrifice, as often as the 
priests and the sacrificer eat of the sacrificial food, after having first given an oblation 
to the gods, by the words : ilopaliutd saJia divd hriha dditijena, &c. ( Asv. Sr. S. 1, 7). 

* This is the general name of the oblations offered in the so-called smdrta agni op 
domestic fire of every Brahman, which are always distinguished from the sacrifices 
performed with the VaitSnika fires (Garhapatya, Daksina, and Ahavaniya). They ape 
said to be seven in number. According to oral information founded on NdrSyana Bhatta's 
practical manual for the performance of all domestic rites, they are for the Eigveda 
ftS follows : I) Srdvandkarma (an oblation principally given to Agni in the full moon 
of the month of Sravana), 2) Sarpdbali (an oblation of rice to the serpents), 8) Aawaynjt 
(tm oblation to Rudra, the master of cattle), 4) Agraija na (an oblation to Indrfigni and 
the Visvedevas), 5) Pratyavarohanam (an oblation to Svaita Vaiddrava,a particular deity 
connected with the sun), 6) Pindapitriyafna (an oblation to the manes), 7) Avva^taka 
(another oblation to the manes). See As'val. Gfihya 6«<tras, 2, 1-4. The meaning of the 
word pdka in the word pdkayajHa is doubtful. In all likelihood, pdka here means " cooked, 
dressed food," which is always required at these oblations. Some Hindu Scholars whom 
Max Miiller follows (History of Ancient Sat&skrit Literature, p 203), explain it as "good." 
It is true the word is already used in the sense of " ripe, mature, excellent " in the 
Samhita of the Rigveda (see 7, 104, 8-9). In the sense of "ripening" we find it 1, 81, 14. 
But it is very doubtful to me whether by pdka, a man particularly fit for performing 
sacrifices can be understood. The difference between the SrSuta and Smfirta oblations is, 
that Qt the former no food, cooked in any other than the sacred fires, can be offered to the 
gods, whilst at the latter an oblation is first cooked on the common hearth, and then 
offered in the sacred Smdrta agni. 

• The sacrificer who is being initiated (who is made a Diksita) has to observe fast 
tov several days (three at the Agnistoma) before hd is allowed to take ^ny substautiftl 


evGning the religious vow (of drinking milk only), and do tbat with 
the formula svdlid. With the same formula one offers the Agnihotram. 
Thus the Agnihotram is comprised in the Agnistoma. 

At the Prayaniya Isti ^ the Hotar repeats fifteen [233] verses for 
the wooden sticks thrown into the fire (sdmidhenis). The same number 
is required at the New and Full Moon offerings. Thus the New and Full 
Moon offerings are comprised in the Prayaniya Is^i. 

They buy the king Soma (the ceremony of Somdkraya^ is meant). The 
king Soma belongs to the herbs. They cure (a sick person) by means 
of medicaments taken from the vegetable kingdom. All vegetable 
medicaments following the king Soma when being bought, they are thus 
comprised in the Agnistoma. 

At the Atithya Is^i ' they produce fire by friction, and at the 
Ch&turmasya Istis (they do the same). The ChAturmasya I§tis thus 
following the Atithya Isti, are comprised in the Agnistoma. 

At the Pravargya ceremony they use fresh milk, the same is the case 
at the Ddk^dyarta yajSa. ^ Thus [234] the Daksayana sacrifice is 
comprised in the Agnistoma. 

food. He drinks in the morning and evening only milk, whicli is taken from the cow 
after snnrise and after sunset. He is allowed but a very small quantity, as much as 
remains from the milk of one nipple only after the calf has sucked. This fast is called a 
vrata, and as long as he is observing it he is vrataprada, i.e., fulfilling a vow. See 
Hiranyake^i Sfltras, 7, 4. "When doing this he repeats the mantra, ye devd mano/dta 
(Taitt. S. 1, 2, 8, 1), which concludes with tebhyo namas tehhyo svdhd, i.e., worship be 
to them, Svfihi be to them. The Agnihotram being offered in the morning and evening 
always with the formula svdhd, the author of the BrShmanam believes that by these 
incidents the Agnihotram might be said to be contained in the Agnistoma. 

' There are fifteen S&midheni verses required at the PrSyaniya Isti, whilst at the 
Dlksaniyfi, seventeen are requisite. Fifteen is the general number at most Istis. This 
number Is therefore to be regarded as the prahriti, i. e., standard, model, whilst any. 
other number is a viftWti, i.e„ modification. 

' Orl the buying of the Soma, see 1, 12-13. 

" On the producing of fire by friction at the Atithya Isti, see 1. 16-17. The same 
is done at the ChSturmisya Istis., See Katiya-Sr. S. 5, 2, 1. 

' The Ddk?dyana yuiha belongs to that peculiar class of Istis which are called 
i^tyayandni, i.e., oblations to be brought regularly during a certain period. They are, 
as to their nature, only modifications of the Darsapfiruamasa Isti. It can be performed 
either on every Full and New Moon during the life-time of the sacrifieer, or during a 
period of fifteen years, or the whole course of oblations can be completed in one year. 
The rule is, that the number of oblations given must amount to at least 720. This 
number is obtained either by performing it every day twice during a whole year, or by 
making at every Full Moon day two oblations, and two others on every Now Moon day 
during a space of fifteen years. The deities are, Agni-Soma at the New Moon, and Indra- 
Agni and Mitra-Varuna at the Full Moon oblations. The offerings consist of Purodas'a, 
fiour milk {dadhi), and fresh milk {payas). On every day on which this sacrifice is 
performed, it must be performed twice. See KStiy*. fe'r. S. 4, 4, 1-30 and A'sv. 6r. S. 2, 14. 


The animal Bacrlfice takes place the day previous to the Soma feast. 
All animal sacrifices^*' which follow it are thus comprised in the 

Ilddadha ^ ^ by name is a sacrificial rite. They perform it with thick 
milk (dadhi), and they also take thick milk at the time of making the 
Dadhigharma^'' rite (in the Agnistoma). Thus the Iladadha is, on 
account of its following the Dadhigharma rite, comprised in the 


{The Other Parts of Jyoiistoma, sueh as Ukthya, Atirdtra, Comprised in the 

Now the first part (of the Agnistoma) has been explained. After that 
has been performed, the fifteen Stotras and ^astras of the Ukthya ceremony 
[2353 fllow. If they (the fifteen Stotras and fifteen ^astras) are taken 
together, they represent the year as divided into months (each consisting 
of thirty days). Agni Vais^vanara is the year ; Agaistoma is Agni. 
The Ukthya by following (also) the order of the year is thus comprised 
in the Agnistoma. 

After the Ukthya has entered the Agnistoma, the Vajapeya ^' follows 
it ; for it exceeds (the number of the Stotras of) the Ukthya (by two only). 

The twelve turns of the Soma cups ^ * at night (at the Atiratra Soma 

'" On the animal sacrifice, see 2, 1-14. The animal sacrifices are called here, pasu- 
bandha. Some such as the Niriidha Pasiihandha can precede the Agnistoma. 

^^ Ilddadha is another modification of the Daraapflrnam&sa Istis. Its principal part 
is sour milk. See A!s'v, 2, 14. 

'* On the D^hi-gharma, the draught of sour milk, see Asv. 5, 13, and Hiranyakesi 8r. 
Sfttr. 9, 2. It is prepared and drunk by the priests after an oblation of it has been thrown 
into the fire, at the midday libation of the Soma feast just before the recital of the 
Marutvatiya Sastra. The ceremony is chiefly performed by the Pratiprasthathar, 
who, after having taken sour milk with a spoon of Udumbara wood, makes it hot under 
the recital of the mantra, vakcha tvd manascha srinitdm, &c., in which Speech and Mind, 
the two vital airs {prdna and apdna), eye and ear. Wisdom and Strength, Power and 
Qaickness in action, are invoked to cook it. After having repeated this mantra and 
made hot the offering, he says to the Hotar, " The offering is cooked, repeat the Yajyfl. 
for the Dadhi-ghapma." The latter repeats, " The offering is cooked ; I think it cooked 
in the udder (of the cow) and cooked in the fire. Vausat ! Agni, eat the Dadhi-gharma, 
Vausat !" Then the Hotar repeats another mantra, mayi tyad indriyam hriliaa (Asv. 
Sr. 5, 18), whereupon the priests eat it. 

^* This is a particular Soma sacrifice, generally taken as part of Jyotistoma, which 
is said to be sapta-samsthd, i.e., consisting of seven parts. 

'* This refers to the arrangement for the great Soma bantjuets held at night when 
celebrating the Atiratra. In the evening, after a Soma libation has been given to tho fire 
from the Solasi Graha, the Soma cups are passed in a certain order. There are four such 
orders called ganas. At the first, the cup of the Hotar takes the lead, at the second that 


feast) are on the whole joined to the fifteen verses by means of which the 
Stotras are performed. Two '" of those turns belonging always together, 
the number of the Stotra verses to which they (the turns) belong, is 
brought to thirty (by multiplying the number fifteen with these two). 
(But the number thirty is to be obtained in another way also for the 
Atiratra). The Solasi Saman is twenty-one-fold, and the Sandhi (a 
Saman at the end of Atiratra) is tinvrit, i.e., nine-fold, which amounts 
in all to thirty. There are thirty nights in every month all the year 
round. Agni Vais^vanara is the year, and Agni is the Agnistoma. 
The Atiratra is, by thus following (the order of) the' year, comprised 
[236] in the Agnistoma, and the Aptoryama sacrifice follows the. track 
of the Atiratra when entering the Agnistoma. For it becomes also an 
Atiratra. Thus all sacrificial rites which precede the Agnistoma, as 
well as those which come after it, are comprised in it. 

All the Stotra verses of the Agnistoma amount, if counted, to one 
hundred and ninety. For ninety are the ten trivritas (three times 
three — nine). (The number hundred is obtained thus) ninety are ten 
{trivritas), but of the number ten one Stotriya verse is in excess ; the 
rest is the Trivrit (nine), which is taken twenty-one-fold ^" (this makes 
189) and represents by this number that one (the sun) which is put over 
(the others), and burns. This is the Vi§uvan ^'' (equator), which has 
ten Trivrit Stomas before it and ten after it, and, being placed in the 
midst of both, turns above them, and burns (like the sun). The one 
Stotriya verse which is in excess, is put in that (Visuvan which is the 
twenty-first) and placed over it (like a cover). This is the sacrificer. 
This (the twenty-one-fold Trivrit Stoma) is the divine Ksatram (sovereign 
power), which has the power of defying any attack. 

He who has such a knowledge obtains the divine Kstram, which has 
the power for defying any attack, and becomes assimilated to it, assumes 
its shape, and takes the same place with it. 

{Why Four Stomas are Required at the Agnistoma.) 

The Devas after having (once upon a time) been defeated by the 
Asuras, started for the celestial world. 

of the Maitravaruna, at the third that of the Brahmaaachhansi, and at the fourth that oJ 
the Achha vaka. This is thrice repeated, which makes twelve turns in all.— Sdy. 

" Always two turns are presided over by one priest, the first two by the Adhvaryu, 
the following two by the PratiprasthAtar. 

*• The 190 Stotriya verses of the Agnistoma comprise the number 21 niu© timea 
l&kan, one being only in excess. 

" See about it in th* Ait. Br. 4, 18-22. 


[237] Agni toucliiug the sky (from his place on earth), entered the upper 
region (with his flames), and closed the gate of the celestial world ; for 
Agui is its master. The Vasua first approached him and said : " Mayest 
thou allow us to pass over (thy flames) to enter (heaven) ; give us an oppor- 
tunity yakd'tia.y* Agui said, " Being not praised (by you), I shall not 
allow you to pass (through the gate). Praise me now." So they did. 
They praised him with nine verses (the Trivrit Stoma). ^^ After they had 

** The Trivf it Sfcotna consists of the nine verses of the BaMi}]^avamdna Stotra (see 
S&maveda Sainh. 2, 1-9), which are sung in three turns, each accompanied by the Himkdra. 
la this Stoma, the same verses arenot sung repeatedly, as is the ease with all other Stomas. 
Tliere are three kinds (uisttttx) of this Stoma mentioned in the Tdndya Brdhmarfam 2, 1-2, 
called the udyati trivrito vistuti, parivarttini, and kuldyim. The difference of these 
three kinds lies in the order which is assigned to each of the three verses which form one 
turn {parydya), and In the application of the HimkSra (the sound hum pronounced very 
loudly) which always belongs to one turn. The arrangement of all the verses which form 
part of the Stoma (the whole musical piece), in three turns, each with a particular order 
for its several verses, and their repetition, is called in the technical language 
of the SSma singers a uistuti. Each Stoma has several variations. The first 
variation of the Trivrit Stoma is the udyati, i.e., the rising. This kind is very 
simple. The Himk&ra is pronounced in the first parydya at the first verse (tisribhyoMih- 
karoti sa prathamayd) , in the second at the middle verse of the triplet {tisrihhyo Mmkaroii 
sa madhyamayd), and in the third, at the last verse (tisribhyo himkaroti sa uttamayd). The 
parivarttini viatuti consist in singing the several verses of the triplet in all three turns 
in the inverted order, that is to say, the first is always made the last, and the last the first 
{tisribhyo himkaroti sa pardchibhih). The kutdyini vistuti is more complicated than the 
two others. In the first turn, the order of the verses is inverted {tisribhyo himkaroti sa 
pardchibhih), in the second turn the middle verse is made the first, the last becomes the 
middle verse and the first becomes the last (tisribhyo himkaroti yd madhyamd sa prathamd, 
yd uttamd sd madhyamd, yd prathamd sd uttamd); in the third turn, the last becomes the 
first, the first the second, and the second the last. The SSma singers mark the several 
turns, and the order of each verse in it as well as the number of repetitions by small 
sticks cut from the wood of the Udumbara tree, the trunk of which must always be 
placed behind the seat of the UdgAtar. They are called kus&s. Each of the three 
divisions of each set in which they are put is called vi§tdva. Their making is minutely 
described in the Ldtydydna Sutras, 2, 6. 

i.e., the Prastotar ought to get made the kus'Ss (small piece of wood) from a wood which 
Is used at sacrifices. Some are of opinion that at sacrificial sessions {sattras) which last 
long, they ought to be made of Khadira wood only. After having got them made of the 
length of a span (the space between the thumb and forefinger stretched), so that the 
part which is covered with bark resembles the back of the kusa grass, the fibre part of 
the stick being quite even, as big as the link of t|ie thumb, the ends being prominent 
(easily to be recognized), he should besmear them with odoriferous substances, but at the 
Sattras, as some say, with liquid butter, put the cloth used for the VIstutis, which is 
made of linen, or flax, or cotton, round them and place them, above the Udumbara branch 
(always required when singing). 


done, so he allowed [238] them to pass (the gate), that they might enter 
the (celestial) world. 

The Rudras approached him and said to him, " Mayest thou allow 
us to pass on ; give us an opportunity (by moderating thy flames)." He 
answered, " If I be not praised, I shall not allow you to pass. Praise me 
now." They consented. They praised him with fifteen verses ^^ After 
they had done so, he allowed [339] them to pass, that they might enter 
the (celestial) world. 

The Adityas approached and said to him, " Mayest thou allow us to 
pass on ; give us an opportunity." He answered, " If I be not praised, I 
shall not allow you to pass; Praise me now!" They consented. They 
praised him with seventeen verses. After they had done so, he allowed 
them to pass, that they might enter the (celestial) world. 

The Vi4ve Devas approached and said to him, " Mayest thou allow 
us to pass on ; give us an opportunity." He answered : If I be not 
praised, I shall not allow you to pass. Praise me now !" They consented. 
They praised him with twenty-one verses. After they had done so, he 
allowed them to pass, that they might enter the (celestial) world. 

The gods having praised Agni each with another Stoma (combination 
of verses), he allowed them to pass. 

The sacrificer who praisesgni with all (four) Stomas, as well as he 
(the priest) who knows it (the Agnisfcoma) will pass on beyond him (Agni, 
who watches with his flames the entrance to heaven),^" 

To him who has such a knowledge, he (Agni) allows to pass and 
enter the celestial world. 


{On the Names " Agnii^toma, Chatu^toma, Jyoti§toma." 
The Agni^tovia is Endless). 

The Agnistoma is Agni, It is called so, because they (the gods) 

*°This is the so-called Pdnchadaia Stoma. The arrangement is the same as with the 
Trivrit Stoma. The same triplet of verses is here reuired for each of the three turns. 
Each turn is to consist of five verses. In the first turn, the first verse is chanted thrice, 
the second once, the third once (panchahhtjb himkaroti sa tisribhih sa ekaya sa ekayd); in 
the second turn the first verse is chanted once, the second thrice, the third once ; in the 
third turn the first and second verses are chanted each once, but the third thrice. This 
Stoma is required for those Samans of the morning libation which follow the Bahis- 
pdvamdnas. The saptadasa and ekavirhsa stomas follow the same order as the panchada-sa. 
The several verses of the triplet are in three turns chanted so many times as to obtain 
respectively the number 17 and 21. The former is appropriate to the midday libation, the 
latter to the evening libation. 

'* In this sentence, we have two peculiar forms : utt, instead of ati, beyond, and arj4- 
idi, 3rd pers, conjunct, middle voice, in the sense of a future. 



praised him with this Stoma, They called it so to hide the proper 
meaning of the word ; [240] for the gods like to hide the proper meaning 
of words. 

On account of four classes of gods having praised Agni with four 
Stomas, the whole was called Ghatulystoma (containing four Stomas). They 
called it so to hide the proper meaning of the word ; for the gods like to 
hide the proper meaning of words. 

If (the Agnistoma) is called Jyoti§toma, for they praised Agni 
when he had risen up (to the sky) in the shape of a light (jyotis.) They 
called it so to hide the proper meaning of the word : for the gods like to 
hide the proper meaning of words. 

This (Agnistoma) is a sacrificial performance which has no beginning 
and no end. The Agnistoma is like the endless wheel of a carriage. 
The beginning (prdyariiya) and the conclusion {udayaniya) of it are alike 
(Just as the two wheels of a carriage.) 

About this there is a sacrificial stanza sung, ** What is its (of the 
Agnistoma) beginning, that is its end, and what is its end, that is its 
beginning ; just as the Sakala serpent, it moves in a circle, that none can 
distinguish its first part from its last part." For its opening ('the prd~ 
yav-iyd) was (also) its conclusion.'* 

But to this some raise objections, saying, " they make the beginning 
(of the Stotras of the Soma day) with the Trivrit Stoma, and conclude with 
the twcnty-one-fold Stoma (at the evening libation) ; how are they (the 
beginning and conclusion) then alike ? " To this one should answer, ** They 
are alike as far as the twenty-one-fold Stoma is also a T'-ivrit Stoma, for 
both contain triplets of verses, and have their nature. " 


(24 1] {B.OW the Nostras should he Repeated at each of the Three 
Libations. The Sun never rises nor sets. How the Pheno- 
mena of unrise and Sunset are to be Explained.) 
The Agnistoma is that one who burns (the sun). The sun shines 

" This refers to the Charu oblation to be givea to Aditi at the Prayaniya as well as 
at the Udayaniya Isti. See 1, 7. 

" For performing the Trivf it Stoma at the commencement of the morning libation, 
the nine Bahis-pavamna verses are required which consist of three triplets {trichaa). 
For performing the twenty-one-fold Stoma at the evening libation, the Yajnayajniya 
Saman is used, which consists only of two verses, but by repeating some parts of them 
twice, the number of three verses is obtained. The same triplet being canted in thr ee 
turns {paryaya,) the twenty-onc-fold Stoma appears to be like the Trivfit. 


during the day, and the Agnistoma ^ should be completed along with 
the day. It being a sdhna, i.e., going with the day, they should not per- 
form it hurriedly (in order to finish it before the day is over), neither at 
the morning, nor midday, nor evening libations, (Should they do so) 
the sacrificer would suddenly die. 

When they do not perform hurriedly ( nly) the rites of the morn- 
ing and midday libations, but hurry over the rites of the evening libation, 
then this, viz., the villages lying in the eastern direction, become largely 
populated, whilst all that is in the western direction becomes a long 
tract of deserts, and the sacrificer dies suddenly. Thence they ought to 
perform without any hurry the rites of the morning and midday, as well 
as those of the evening libation. (If they do so) the sacrificer will not 
suddenly die. 

In repeating the Sastras, the Hotar ought to be guided by the 
(daily) course (of the sun). In the [242] morning time, at sunrise, it 
burns but slowly. Thence the Hotar should repeat the ^astras at the 
morning libation with a feeble voice. 

When the sun is rising higher up (on the horizon), it burns with 
greater force. Thence the Hotar should repeat the ^astras at the mid- 
day libation with a strong voice . 

When the sun faces men most (after having passed the meridian), it 
burns with the greatest force. Thence the H(?tar should repeat the ^as- 
tras at the third (evening) libation with an extremely strong voice. He 
should (only) then (commence to) repeat it so (with the greatest force of 
his voice), when he should be complete master of his full voice. For the 
Sastra is Speech. Should he continue to repeat (the Sastras of the third 
libation) with the same strength of voice with which he commenced the 
repetition, up to the end, then his recitation will be admirably well ac- 

The sun does never set nor rise. When people think the sun is 
setting (it is not so). For, after having arrived at the end of the day^ it 
makes itself produce two opposite effects, making night to what is. 
below and day to what is on the other side. 

When they believe it rises in the morning (this supposed rising ia 

23Agiiistoma is here taken in the styictest sense, as meaning only a Soma festival, 
lasting for one day, and comleted by means of fche f our Stomas mentioned. Therefope. 
Agnistoma is often called th model (prakriti) of the Aikdhika Soma sacrifices, or sueh 
ones which last for one day only. But in a niose comprehensive sense all the rites, 
which precede it, such as the Diksauiya and other Is^tis, and the animal sacritice, 
are regarded as part of the Aguijtoma. For, without these ritos; nobody i% allowed 
to perform any Soma sacjifice. 


thus to be accounted for). Having reached the end of the night, it makes 
itself produce two opposite effects, making day to what is below and 
night to what is on the other side.^'' In fact, the sun never sets. Nor 
does it set for him who has such a knowledge. Such a one becomes 
united with the sun, assumes its form, and enters its place. 

[248] FIFTH CHPtER. 

(On the Gradual Recovery of the Sacrifice. What Men are Unfit to 
Officiate as Sacrificial Priests. The Offerings to the Devis and 
Devikds. The Ukthya Sacrifice,) 


{Row the Gods reeoveredt he Sacrifice whih had gone from them. 
How they Performed Different Rites. Under what Conditio7is the 
Sacrifice is Effectual.) 

The sacrifice once left the gods and went to nourishing substances. 
The gods said, " The sacrifice has gone from us to nourishing substances, 
let us seek both the sacrifice and the nourishment by means of a Brah- 
mana and the metres." So they did. They initiated a Brabmana by 
means of the metres. They performed all the rites of the Diksanlya 
Isti up to the end, including even the Patni-samydjas.^ On account of 
the gods having at that occasion performed all the rites at the Dik- 
saniya Isti up to the end, including even the Patni-samyajas,^ men 
followed afterwards the same practice. The gods (in their search for 
the sacrifice) came very near it by means of the Prayaniya Isti. They 
performed the ceremonies with great haste and finished the Isti already 
with the Samyuvaka.'- This is the reason that the Prayaniya Isti ends 
with Samyuvaka ; for men followed (afterwards) this practice. 

244 The gods performed the rites of the Atithya Isti, and came 
by means of it very near the sacrifice. They concluded hastily the cere- 
monies with the Ud "* (the eating of the sacrificial food). This is the 

24 This passage is of considerable interest, containing the denial of the existence 
of sunrise and sunset. The author ascribes a daily course to the sun, but supposes it 
to remain always in its high position in the sky, making sunrise and sunset by means 
of its own contrarieties. 

1 See page 24, 

2 The Patni-samysljas generally coaoliide all Istis an sacrifices. 

3 This is a formula containing the words sam yoh which is repeated before the Patni- 
satfiyajas. As v. fer. S. 1, 10. The mantra which is frequently used at other occasionH 
also, runs as follows : 

Bm?g ^^ ^5r> 91^3 f^q^ ^ '^^^i^ 11 

4 See page 41. This rite precedes the Samyuv&ka. 


reason that the Atitbya Isti is finished with tb« I la ; for men followed 
(afterwards) this practice. 

The gods performed the rites of the Upasads ^ and came by means 
of them very near the sacrifice. They performed hastily the ceremonies, 
repeating only three Samidheni verses, and the Yajyas for three deities. 
This is the reason that at the Upasad Isti only three Samidhenis are 
repeated, and Yajya verses to three deities ; for men followed (afterwards) 
this ])ractice. 

The gods performed the rites of the upavasatha * (the eve of the Soma 
festival). On the upavasatha day they reached the sacrifice. After 
having reached the sacrifice {Yajiia), they performed all its rites severally, 
even including the Patni-samyajas. This is the reason that they perform 
at the day previous to the Soma festival all rites to the end, even in- 
cluding the Patni-samyajas. 

This is the reason that the Hotar should repeat the mantras at all 
ceremonies preceding the Upavasatha day (at which the animal sacrifice 
is off ere) with a very slow voice. For the gods came at it (the sacrifice; 
by performing the several rites in such a manner as if they were searching 
(after something, i.e., slowly). 

This is the reason that the Hotar may repeat on the Upavasatha 
day (after having reached the sacrifice) [245] the mantras, in whatever 
tone he might like to recite them. For, at that occasion the sacrifice is 
already reached (and the " searching " tone of repeating not required). 

The gods, after having reached the sacrifice, said to him, " Stand 
still to be our food." He answered, " No. How should I stand still for you 
(to be your food) ? " He then only looked at them. They said to him, 
" Because of thy having become united with a Brahmana and the metres, 
thou shalt stand still." He consented. 

That is the reason that the sacrifice (only) when joined to a Brahma- 
na and metres carries the oblations to the gods. ' 

5 See 41, 23-26. At the Upasad Isti only three Samidheni verses are required, whilst 
their number in other Istis amounts to fifteen, and now and then to seventeen. See 
page 56. 

6 This is the day for the animal sacrifice, called Agnisomiya. See 2, 1-14. 

' The drift of this paragraph is to show, that, for the successful performance of the 
sacrifice, BrShmanas, as well as the verses composed in the different metres and preserv- 
ed by Brahmanas only, are indispensible. The Ksattriyas and other castes were to be 
deluded into the belief th^t they could not perform any sacrifice with the slightest 
chance of success, if they did not appoint r&hmanas and employ the verses of the Rigveda, 
which were chiefly preserved by the Brahmanas only. 



(On Three Mistakes which might be made in the Appointment of Priests. 
How they are to he Remedied.) 

Three things occur at the sacrifice : offals, devoured food, and 
vomited food. O^dl^ [jagdha) occur when one appoints to the oflfice of 
a sacrificial priest one who offers his services, thinking " he (the sacrificer) 
give me something, or he should choose me for the performance of his 
sacrifice." " This (to appoint such a man to the office of a priest) is as 
should perverse as (to eat) the offals of a meal (which are generally not 
touched by others). For the acts of such a one do not benefit the sacrificer. 

[24i6] Devoured {girnam) is that, when a sacrificer appoints some 
one to the office of a priest out of fear, thinking, ** he might kill me (at 
some future occasion), or disturb my sacrifice (if I do not choose him for 
the office of a priest)." This is as perverse as if food is devoured (not 
eaten in the proper way). For the acts of such a one do not benefit the 
sacrificer (as little as the devouring of food with greediness benefits the 

Vomited {vanta) is that, when a sacrificer appoints to the office of a 
priest a man who is ill-spoken of. Just as men take disgust at anything 
that is vomited, so the gods take also disgust at such a man. This (to 
appoint such a man) is as disgusting as something vomited. For the 
acts of such a man do not benefit the sacrificer. 

The sacrificer ought not to cherish the thought of appointing any 
one belonging to these ;three classes (just described). Should he, how- 
ever, involuntarily (by mistake) appoint one of these three, then the 
penance (for this fault) is the chanting of the Vamadevya Saman. For 
this Vamadevyam is the whole universe, the world of the sacrificer (the 
earth), the world of the immortals, and the celestial world. This Saman 
(which is in the GSyatrt metre) falls short of three syllables. * When 
going to perform this chant, he hould divide the word puru^, denot- 
ing his own self, into three syllables, and insert one of them at the end 
of each pada (of the verse abhi §u ijta). Thus he puts himself in these 
worlds, vis., [24«73 the world of the sarificer, thato the immortals, and 

* The sacrificer must always himself choose his priests by addressing them in due 
form. No one should o£Fer his services ; but he must be asked by the man who wishes 
to perform a sacrifice. 

• The V&madevyam consists of the three verses, kay& naschitra, has tvd satyo, and 
ahhi sn nah (See SSmaveda Samh. 2, 32-34). All three are in the GSyatri metre. But the last 
abhi SM has, instead of twenty-four, only twenty-one syllables, wanting in every pada 
one syllable. To make it to consist of twenty-four also, the repeater has at this occasioa 
to add to the first pada pu, to the second ru, to the third ?a. 


the celestial world. (By chanting this S&man) the sacrificer overcomes 
all obstacles arising from mistakes in the performance of the sacrifice 
(and obtains nevertheless what he was sacrificing for). 

He (the Risi of the Aitareyins), moreover, has told that the sacrifi- 
cer should mutter (as japa) the Vamadevyam in the way described (above), 
even if the performing priests were all of unexceptionable character. 


The Offerings to Dhatar and the Devikds : Anumatiy Rakd, 

Sinivdli, Kuhit.) 

The metres (chhanddnsi), having carried the offerings to the gods, 
became (once) tired, and stood still on the latter part of the sacrifice's 
tail, just as a horse or a mule after having carried a load (to a distant 
place) stands still. 

(In order to refresh the fatigued deities of the metres) the priest 
ought, after the Purodasia belonging to the animal slaughtered for Mitra- 
Varuna *° has been offered, portion out the rice for the devikd havirhsi 
(offerings for the inferior deities). 

For Dhatar, he should make a rice ball (the Purodatia) to be put on 
twelve potsherds. Dhatar is the Vasatkara. 

To Anumati (he should offer) a portion of boiled rice charu ; for 
Anumati is Gayatri. 

To Rdhd (he should offer) a portion of boiled rice ; for she is 

The same (he should offer) to Sinivdli and Kuhit ; for SintvdU 
is Jagati, and Kuhit Anustubh. These are all the metres. For all 
other metres (used at the sacrifice) follow the Gayatri, Tristubh, Jagati, 
and [248] Anustubh, as their models. If, therefore, one sacrifices 
for these metres only, it has the same effect as if he had sacrificed for 
all of them. 

The (common) saying, " the horse if well managed (suhita) puts him 
(the rider) into ease," is applicable to the metres; for they put (if well 
treated) the sacrificer into ease {sudhd, comfort or happiness of any 
kind). He who has such a knowledge, obtains such a world (of bliss) as he 
did not expect. 

Regarding these (devikd) oblations, some are of opinion that before 
each oblation to all (the several) goddesses, the priest ought to make 
an oblation of melted butter to Dhatar ; for thus he would make all the 
goddesses (to whom oblations are given along with the Dhatar) cohabit 
with the Dhatar. 

^° This is done at the end of the Agnistoma sacrifice. 


About this tbey say : it is laziness ' ' (at a sacrifice) to repeat the 
same two verses (the Puronuvakya and Yajya.for the Dhatar) on the same 
day (several times). '" (It is sufificient to repeat those two verses once 
only.) For even many wives cohabit with one and the same husband 
only. When the Hotar, therefore, repeats, before addressing the (four) 
goddesses, the Yajya verse for the Dhatar, he thus [249] cohabits with 
all goddesses. So much about the oblations to the minor goddesses 

{The Offerings for Surya and the Devis, Vydus, U^ds, Gdus, Prithivi, 
who are Represented by the Metres. When Oblations should be given 
to both the Devikds and Devis. IStory of VriddhadyumnQ.) 

Now about the offerings to the goddesses (devi). •-' 

The Adhvaryu ought to portion out for Surya (the sun) rice for a 
ball to be put on one potsherd {ekakayala). Surya is Dhatar (creator), 
and this is the Vasatkara. 

To Dydus (Heaven) he ought to offer boiled rice. For Dyaus is 
Anumati, and she is Gayatri. 

To Usds (Dawn) he ought to offer boiled rice. For Us^s is Rak4, 
and she is Tristubh. 

To Gdus (Cow) he ought to offer boiled rice. For G^us is Sinivali, 
and she is Jagati. 

To Prithivi (Earth) he ought to offer boiled rice. For Prithivi is 
Kuhu, and she is Anustubh. 

All other metres which are used at the sacrifice, follow the Gayatri, 
Tristtubh, Jagati and Anustubh as their models (which are most fre- 
quently used).- 

*^ The word jdmi is explained by dlasyam. 

" Both the AnuvSkya and Yajyd for the Dhatar are not in the Samhita, but la the 
A'val. Sr. S. 6, 14. The Anuvakya is : 

^m ^T3 ^S% RT=gT 5ft^igiif%at I 

gq ^^?«r ^^fk W^^ ^if^fft^: il (Atharvaveda S, 7, 17, 2). 
The YSjya is : 

VIT?IT SlSIIsng^^iq t^ gi^ ^# ^^ 5ISIR I 

The oblations to the Dhatar who is the same as Tvastar, and the four goddesses 
mentioned, form part of the Vdayamya or concluding Tsti. The ceremony is called Maitrd- 
varuiji dmiksd, (i.e., the EtmiksS dish for Mitra-Varuna). Mitra-Varuna are first invoked, 
then follow Dhatar and the goddesses. 

13 Instead of the devikd offerings those for the devis might be chosen. The effect is 
the same. The place of the Dhdtar is occupied by Sflrya, who himself is regarded as a 
Dhfitar, i.e., Creator. 


The sacrifice of him who, having such a knowledge, gives oblations 
to these metres, ''* includes (then) oblations to all metres. 

The (common) saying, *' the horse, if well managed, puts him (the 
rider) into ease," is applicable to the metres ; for they put the sacrificer 
(if well treated) [250] into ease {sudhd). He who has such a knowledge, 
obtains such a world (of bliss) as he did not expect. 

Regarding these (oblations to the Devis), some are of opinion that, 
before each oblation to all (the several) goddesses, one ought to offer melted 
butter to Sfirya ; for thus one would make all goddesses cohabit with 

About this they say, it is laziness at a sacrifice to repeat (several 
tiraeg^ the same two verses (the Puronuvakya and Yajya for Sfirya) on the 
same day. (It is sufficient to repeat those verses once only). For even 
many wives cohabit with one (and the same) husband only. When the 
Hotar, therefore, repeats before addressing the (four) goddesses, the Yajya 
verse for Siirya, he thus cohabits with all goddesses. 

These (Slirya with Dy&us, &c.) deities are the same as those others 
(DhStar with Anumati, &c.) One obtains, therefore, through one of these 
(classes of deities), the gratification of any desire which is in the gift of 

The priest ought to portion out a rice-cake ball for both these classes 
(of deities) for him who desires the faculty of producing offspring (to make 
him obtain) the blessings contained in both. But he ought not to do so 
for him who sacrifices for acquiring great wealth only. If he were to 
portion out a rice-cake ball for both these classes (of deities) for him who 
sacrifices for acquiring wealth only, he has it in his power to make the 
gods displeased (jealous) with the wealth of the sacrificer (and deprive 
him of it) ; for such one might think (after having obtained the great 
wealth he is sacrificing for), ' I have enough (and do not inquire anything 
else from the gods).' 

Suchivrik^a Gaupdldyana had once portioned out the rice ball for both 
classes (of deities) at the sacrifice [231] of Vriddhadijumna Pratdrina. As 
lie (afterwards) saw a prince swim (in water), he said, '* This is owing to 
the circumstance that I made the goddesses of the higher and lower 
ranks (devis and devikds) quite pleased at the sacrifice of that king ; there- 
fore the royal prince swims (in the water). (Moreover, he saw not only 

14 The instrumental etdih chhandobhih must here be takon in the sense of a dative. 
For the whole refers to oblations given to the metres, not to those offered through 
them to the gods. 


him) but sixty-four (other) heroes always steel-clad, who were hig sons 
and grandsons. " 


(Origin of the IJkthya. The Sdkamasram Sdmans. The Pramarh" 
hi!}thiya Sdman.) '* 

The Devas took shelter in the Afijnistoma, and the Asuras in the 
Ukthyas. Both being (thus) of £252] equal strength, the gods could not 
turn them out. One of the Risis, Bharadvaja, saw them (and said), 
'* These Asuras have entered the Ukthas (Sastras) ; but none (else) sees 
them." He called out Agni with the mantra : ehy u su hravaiji (6, 16, 

15 The king had performed the sacrifice for obtaining offspring, and became blessed 
with them. 

16 The Vkthya is a slight modification of the Agnistoma sacrifice. The noun to bo 
supplied to it is kratu. It is a Soma sacrifice also, and one of the seven Samsthas or 
component parts of the Jyotistoma. Its name indicates its nature. For Vkthya means 
** what refers to the Uktha," which is an older name for fe'astra, i.e., a recitation of 
one of the Hot? i priests at the time of the Soma libations. Whilst the Agnistoma has 
twelve recitations, the Ukthja has fifteen. The first twelve recitations of the Ukthya 
are the same as those of the Agnistoma ; to these, three are added, which are want- 
ing in the Agnistoma. For, at the evening libation of the latter sacrifice, there are 
only two Sastras, the Vais'vadeva and Agni-Mdruta, both to be repeated by the Hotar. 
The three feastras of the so-called Hotrakas, i.e., minor Hotri-priests, who are (accord- 
ing to AS'val. ibr. S. 5, 10), the Prasastar (another name of the Maitrdvaruna), the Brd- 
hmandclihansi, and AehMvdka, are left out. But just these three fe'astras which are 
briefly described by As'valayana (Sr. S. 6, 1) form a necessary part of the Ukthya, Thus 
this sacrifice is onlj a kind of supplement to the Agnistoma. 

There is some more difference in the S4mans than in the Bik verses required at the 
Ukthya. Of the three triplets which constitute the BahispavamSna Stotra (see page 
]20) at the morning libation of the Agnistoma, only the two last are employed; for 
the first another one is chosen, pavasva vdcho agriyah (S&m. Samah. 2, 125 — 27). The four 
remaining Stotras of the morning libation, the so-called Ajya-stotrdyi, are different. 
They are all together in the S^maveda Satnh, (2, 140-152). At the midday libation, 
there is the Brihat-Sdmn [tvdm iddhi havdmahe, 8am. S, 2, 159-160) used instead of 
the Rathantaram ; the 6'yaitam (ubhi pra vah surddha-sam, Sam. S. 2, 161-62 (instead of 
the Yfimadevyam). At the evening libation, there are three Stotras required, in addition 
to those of the Agnistoma. (See note 18 to this chapter). 

In the Hirapyakee'i Sfitras (9, 18), the following description of the Ukthya is 
given :— 

^^^ fl^^n Jf?^ qf^^ig«hi?:^q f^fs^'^a§^«^ fl^ft?? ^^^TqnTqro^ I ^cft^ro^^ 


16). The itard giraj}, i.e., other voices (mentioned in this verse) are 
those of the Asuras. Agni rose thereupon '^ and said : " What is it, then, 
that the lean, long, pale has to tell me ? " For Bharadvaja was lean, of 
high stature, and pale. He answered, " These Asuras have entered the 
Ukthas (Sastras) ; but nobody is aware of them." 

Agni then turned into a horse, ran against them and overtook 
them. This act of Agni became the Sdhamasuam '^ Saman. Thence it is 
called so from asva, a horse). 

C253] About this they say, the priest ought to lead the Ukthas by 
means of the Sakamas^vam. For if the Ukthas f^astraff) have another head 
save the Sakama^vam, they are not led at all. 

They say, the priest should lead (the Ukthas) with the Framathhiq- 
thiya Siman (Sam. Samh. 2, 228, 229 = 2, 2, 2, 17, 1, 2) ; for, by means of 
this Saman, the Devas had turned the Asuras from the Ukthas. 

(Which of both these opinions is preferable, cannot be settled.) He is 
at liberty" to lead (the Ukthas) by means of the FramaTkh^thiya or the 


{The Sastras of the Three Minor Hotri-yriests at the Evening Libation 
of the Ukihya Sacrifice.) 

The Asuras entered the Uktha (^astra) of the MaitreLvaruna. Indra 
said, " Who will join me, that we both might turn these Asuras out 
from here (the ^astra of the Maitravaruna) ? " " I," said Varuna. Thence 
the Maitravaruna repeats a hymn for Indra-Varuna ^^ at the evening liba- 
tion. Indra and Varuna then turned them out from it (the oastra of the' 

[254} The Asuras having been turned out from this place, entered the- 
Sastra of the Brahman^chhamsi. Indra said, " Who will join me, that 
we both might turn the Asuras out from this place?" Brihaspati 
answered, " 1 (will join you)." Thence the Brahmanachhaihsi repeats at 

17 B&j. reads upottisth^nn, but my MSS. have all upotti^thanu, u being an en- 

18 This Sfiman consists of the three verses, ehy « .ju hravdni yatixi kxKtcJia te and 
na hi te ptirtain (Samaveda Samh. 2, 55-57). This Saman is regarded as the leader of 
the whole Ukthya ceremony, that is to say, as the principal Sfimao. Thence the two- 
other SAmans, which follow it at this ceremony, the Sduiharam '{vdyam u ivdm, Simh» 
2, 58-59), 5 and the iVnrmad/iasam (adM hindra givvana 2, 60-62), are called in the Sama^ 
prayogas the second and third Sdkamaivam. 

*• At the Ukthya ceremonies which were performed in the Dekkhan, more than tea- 
years ago, only the S^kamasvam Saman was used. 

" This meaning is conveyed by the particle aha, which has here about the saai© 
neuae as athavd, as Sdy. justly remarks. 

** TWa i» IndrorVarund yiivam (7, 82). 


tlie evening libation an Aindra-B&rhaspatya hymn"*. Indra and Bphaspati 
turned the Aeuras out from it. 

The Asuras, after having been turned out from it, entered the Bastra 
of the Achhavaka. Indra said, "Who will join me, that we both might 
turn out the Asuraa from here ? " Visnu answered, " I (will join you.)" 
Thence the Achhav&ka repeats at the evening libation an Aindra- 
Vaisnava hymn." Indra and Visnu turned the Asuras out from this 

The deities who are (successively) praised along with Indra, form (each) 
a pair with (him). A pair is a couple, consisting of a male and female. 
From this pair such a couple is produced for production. He who has 
such a knowledge, is blessed with children and cattle. 

The Rituyajas of both the Potar and Nesfear amount to four.** The 
(Yajyg.s to be recited by them along with the other Hotars) are six verses. 
This is a Virat which contains the number ten. Thus they complete the 
sacrifice with a Virat, which contains the number ten (three times ten). 

" This is ud apruto na vayo (10, 68). 

** This is sam vdm karmand (6, 69). 

>* The Potar has to repeat the second and eighth, the Nestar the third and ninth 
Hitoy&ja, see page 135-36. At each of the three Sastras of the tJkthya, each of these 
two priests has also to recite a Ydjyfi,. This makes six. If they are added to the 
four Rituyftjas, then the number ten is obtained, which represent^ the Virfit. 


{On the SolaH and Atirdtra Sacrifices.) 


{On the "Nature of the Solasi, and the Origin of its Name. On the Anu^tuhh 
Nature of the SolaH ^astra.) 

The gods prepared for Indra, by means (of the Soma ceremony) of the 
first day' , the thunderbolt ; by means (of the Soma ceremony) of the second 
day, they cooled it (after having forged it, to increase its sharpness) ; by 
means (of the Soma ceremony) of the third day, they presented it (to him) ; 
by means (of the Soma ceremony) of the fourth day, he struct with it 
(his enemies). 

Thence the Hotar repeats on the fourtb day the Solasf Sastra. 
The Sola^l is the thunderbolt. [256] By reciting the Solaj^i on the fourth 
day, he strikes a blow at the enemy' (and) adversary (of the sacrificer), 
in order to put down any one who is to be put down by him (the 

The So]a^i is the thunderbolt ; the Sastras (Ukthas) are cattle. He 
repeats it as a cover over the ^astras (of the evening libation). By 
doing so he surrounds cattle with a weapon (in the form of) the Sola^i 
(and tames them). Therefore cattle return to men if threatened round 
about with the weapon (in the form) of the Sojaj^i. 

^ The first, second day, &c. refer to the so-called Sal-aha or six days' sacrifice, 
about which see the 8rd chapter of this Panchikft. 

' The Solas! sacrifice is almost identical with the TJkthya. The SSmans and 
Sastras at all three libations are the same. The only distinctive features are the use of 
the SolaSt graha, the chanting of the Gaurivitam or Nanadam SSman, andthe recital of the 
Solasi s'astra, after the UkthSni (the S&mans of the evening libation) have been 
chanted, and their respective Sastras recited. The Solasi Sastra is of a peculiar 
composition. It is here minutely described, and also in the Asv. Sr. S. 6, 2. The 
number sixteen prevails in the arrangement of this Sastra, which is itself the six- 
teenth on the day on which it is repeated. Thence the name. " The substantive to be 
supplied is, kratii. The whole term means, the sacrificial performance which contains 
the number sixteen." The Anustubh metre consisting of twice sixteen syllables, the 
whole Sastra has the Anustubh character. It commences with six verses in the 
Anustubh metre, called by Asv. though improperly, Stotriya and Anurfipa (for the 
Stotriya verse of the S'astra is always chanted by the S&ma singers, but this is not the 
case with the verse in question). These are : amvi soma indra te (1, 84, 1-6). 


Thence a horse, or a man, or a cow, or an elephant, after having been 
(ouce) tamed, return by themselves (to their owner), if they are only 
commanded (by the owner) with the voice (to return). 

He who sees the weapon (in the form of) the Sola^i (Sastra), is sub- 
dued by means of this weapon only. For voice is a weapon, and the 
Solasli is voice (being recited by means of the voice). 

About this they ask, Whence comes the name " Sola^l " (sixteen) ? 
(The answer is) There are sixteen Stotras, and sixteen Sastras. The Hotar 
stops after (having repeated the first) sixteen syllables (of the Anustubh 
verse required for the Soja^i Sastra), and pronounces the word om after 
(having repeated the latter) sixteen syllables (of the Anustubh). He puts 
in it (the hymn required at the Solas! Sastra) a Nivid of sixteen padaa 
(small sentences). This is the reason that it is called Sojat^i. But two 
syllables are in excess (for in the second-half there are eighteen, instead 
of sixteen) in the Anustubh, [257] which forms a component part of the 
So]asi Sastra. For Speech (represented by the Anustubh) has (as a 
female deity) two breasts; these are truth and untruth. Truth protects 
him who has such a knowledge, and untruth does no harm to such one. 

{On the Way of Repeating the Solasi Sastra. On the Application of 
the Gaurivlti or Ndnada Saman.) 

He who desires beauty and the acquirement of sacred knowledge ought 
to use the Gaurivitam ^ as (the proper) Saman at the Solas^i (ceremony). 
For the Gaurivitam is beauty and acquirement of sacred knowledge. He 
who having such a knowledge uses the Gaurivitam as (the proper Saman 
at the Solaf^i ceremony) becomes beautiful and acquires sacred know- 

They say, the Ndnadam ^ ought to be used as (the proper) Saman at 
the Sojasii (ceremony). Indra lifted his thunderbolt to strike Vritra ; he 
struck him with it, and, hitting him with it, killed him. He, after having 
been struck down, made a fearful noise {vyanadat). Thence the Nanada 
Saman took its origin, and therefore it is called so (from nad to scream). 
This Saman is free from enemies ; for it kills enemies. He who having 
such a knowledge uses the Nanada Saman at the Solatii (ceremony) 
gets rid of his enemies, (and) kills them. 

If they use the Nanadam (Saman), the several padas of verses in 
two metres at the Sola^i Sastra are not to be taken out of their natural 

3 This is Indra ;u§asva pra vahd (S&in. Samh. 2, 802- 304). These verses are not 
to be found in the Rigveda SamhitA, but in as'v. 6r. 8. 6, 2. 

* This in praty amdi pipisJiaio (3ftm. Samh. 2, 6, 3, 2, 1, 4). 


connection to [258] join one pada of the one metre to one of the other * 
{arnhfita). For the Saraa singers do the same, using verses which are not 
joined in the vihrita way for singing the Nanada Saman. 

If they use the Gaurivitam, several padas of verses in two metres 
used at the Solas^i are to be taken out of their natural connection, to join 
one pada of the one metre to one of the other (vihrita). For the S&ma 
singers do the same with the verses which they use for singing. ^ 

The Way in which the Padaa of Two Different Metres are Mixsd in the 

Solasi Sastra ia Shown.) 

Then (when they use the Gauriviti Saman) the Ho tar changes the 
natural position of the several padas of two different metres, and mixes 
them {vyati§ajati). He mixes thus Gayatrts and Patiktis, d tvd vahantu 
(1, 16, 1-3), and wpa su 'srinuhi{\, 82, 1-3-4). ^ Man has the nature of the 
Gayatri, [259] and cattle that of the Pafikti. CBy thus mixing together 
Gayatri and Pafikti verses) the Hotar mixes man among cattle, and gives 
him a firm footing among them (in order to become possessed of them). 

As regards the Gayatri and Paikti, they both form two Anustubhs 
(for they contain as many padas, viz., eight, as both Gayatri and Pafiktt 
taken together). By this means, the sacrificer becomes neither separated 
from the nature of Speech which exists in form of the Anustubh, nor 
from the nature of a weapon (Speech being regarded as such a one). 

He mixes verses in the Usnih and Brihati metres, yad indra pr'ita' 
ndjye [S, 12, 25-27) and ayam te astu haryata [S, 4:4:, 1-3). Man has the 
nature of Usnih, and cattle that of Bfihati. (By thus mixing together 
Usnih and Brihatt verses) he mixes man among cattle, and gives him a 
firm footing among them. 

• AH the words from ''the several padas" to "other" are only a translation of the 
term avihrita, in order to make it better understood. 

• The reason of this is, that the recitations of the Hotri-priest must correspond 
with the performances of the Sdma singers. 

' Sfiy. shows the way in which the metres are mixed in the two verses : 
(GAyatri) imd dhdnd ghritasnuvo hariihopa vak^ataKindram siikhatame ivathe (I, 16, 2). 
(Pankti) susarhdrisam tvd vayam maghavan vandi^imahi. 

pro niinam purtravandhurah stiito ydhi visdii ami yoj&nvindru to hart. 

The G&yatri has three, the Pankti five feet (padas), each consisting of eight sylla- 
bles. The two padas which the Pankti has in excess over the Gayatri, follow at the end 
without any corresponding Gayatri pada. After the second pada of the Pankti, there is 
the praiiuva made {i.e., the syllable om is pronounced), and, likewise, after the fifth. The two 
verses, just mentioned, are now mixed as follows : imd dhdnd ghyitasnuvali susaihdrisam 
tvd vayam harl ihopa v<ik?ato maghavan vandisfimahom indram sukhatame rathe pra 
nunaih pHrnavaHdhurah stuto ydhi visan anu yvjd**vindra to karom. 


^ As regards the Usaih and Bfihati, they both form two Anustubhs* 
By this means the sacrificer becomes neither separated, &c. 

He mixes a Dvipad (verse of two padas only) and a Tristubli, d 
dhUr^v asmdi (7, 3i, 4), and hrahman vira {1 , 29, 2). Man is dvipddin 
i.e., has two feet, and strength is Tristubh. (By thus mixing a Dvipad 
and Trifefcubh), he mixes man with Strength (provides him with it) and 
makes him a footing in it. That is the reason that man, as having pre- 
pared for him a footing in Strength, is the strongest of all animals. The 
Dvipad V erse consisting of twenty syllables, and the Trisj.abh (of forty- 
four), make two Anustubhs (sixty-four syllables). By this means, the 
sacrificer becomes neither separated, &c. 

He mixes Dvipadas and Jagatis, viz., esa hrahmdrya hitvyam (A^v. 
dr. S. 6, 2) « and pra te make [260] 10, 96, 1-3). (Man is Dvipad, and 
animals have the nature of the Jagati. (By thus mixing Dvipad and Jagati 
verses) he mixes man among cattle, and makes him a footing among them. 
That is the reason that man, having obtained a footing among cattle, eats 
(them) ^ and rules over them, for they are at his disposal. 

As regards the Dvipad verse consisting of sixteen syllables and the 
Jagati (consisting of forty-eight), they both (taken together) contain two 
Anustubhs. By this means, the sacrificer, &c. 

He repeats verses in metres exceeding the number of padas of the 
principal metres, '" viz., trikadruhe^u mahi^o (2, 22, 1-3), and pro^oas- 
ttiai pur o ratham (10, 133, 1-3). The juice which was flowing from the 
metres, took its course to the atichhandas. Thence such metres are called 
atichhandas, {i. e., beyond the metre, what has gone beyond, is in excess). 

This Solasi ^astra being formed out of all metres, he repeats 
verses in the Atichhandas metre. 

Thus the Hotar makes (the spiritual body of) tjie sacrificer consist 
of all metres. 

' Thosa verses are not to be foi ncl in the Rigveda SamhitS. I, therefore, write them 
out from my copies of the Asval. Sutras : — 

q^ 5j^r ^ sef?^ I ^?^> mn «^t t^ ii 
f^^ ^^i ^^\ ^^ i ??? m^^^ ixm'- (i 

' That atti " ho eats," put here witbout any object, refers to " pasavdh,'' animals, fol- 
I lows with certainty from the context. Say. supplies k^ira, milk, &c., for he abhorred the 
idea that animal food should be thus explicitly allowed in a sacred text. 

' Thus I have translated the term aticlihandasaii ,i.e., having excess in the metre. 
The verses mentioned contain seven padas or feet, which exceeds the number of feet of all 
other metres. ^ 


He who has such a knowledge prospers by means of the Solai^i 
consisting of all metres. 


[ 261 ] (The Upasargas taken from the Mahdndmnis. The Proper 
Anu^tuhhs. Consequences of Repeating the Solo-H Sastra in the Vihrita 
and Avihrita loay. The Ydjyd of the Solasi Sastra.) 

He makes the additions " {upasarga}, taking (certain parts) from the verses. 

The first Mahanamni (verse) is this world (the earth), the second the 
air, and the third that world (heaven). In this way, the Sojatii is made 
to consist of all worlds. 

By adding parts from the Mahanamnis (to the Solatii), the Hotar 
makes the sacrificer participate in all worlds. He who has such a 
knowledge, prospers by means of the Solai^i being made to consist of all 
the worlds. 

He repeats (now) Anustubhs of the proper form,*^ viz., pra pra vas 
tri§tuhham (8, 58, 1), archata prdrchata (8, 58, 8-10), and yo vyatihr 
aphdmyat (8, 58, 13-15). 

[ 262 ] That the Hotar repeats Anustubhs of the proper form 
(after having obtained them only in an artificial way) is just as if a man, 
after having gone here and there astray, is led back to the (right) path. 

He who thinks that he is possessed (of fortune) and is, as it were, 
sitting in fortune's lap (gatasrir), should make his Hotar repeat the Solasii 
in the avihrita way, lest he fall into distress for the injury done to the 
metres (by repeating them in the vihrita way). 

But if one wishes to do away with the consequences of guilt (to get 
out of distress and poverty), one should make the Hotar repeat the Sojasii 
in the vihrita way. 

" These additions are called upasargas. They are five in number, and mentioned by 
Asv. 6, 2, They are all taken from different verses of the so-called Mahanamnis, com- 
mencing with f^^T qg^^^^ ni5 which make up the foupth Aranyaka of the 
Aitareya Br&hm. These five upasargas make together one Anufetubh. They are : (I) 

Their application is different according to the avihrita or vihrita way of repeating the 
Solasi Sastra. If the Sastra is to be repeated in the former way, they are simply 
repeated in the form of one verse, after the recital of the Atichhandas versea. But if 
it be repeated in the vihrita way, the several upasargas are distributed among the five 
latter of the six Atichhandasa verses, in order to bring the number of syllables of each 
such verse to sixty-four, to obtain the two Anustubhs for each 

" As jet the Anust ubhs were only artificially obtained by the combination of the 
padas of different other metres. 



Por (in such cases) man is, as it were, intermixed with the conse- 
quences of guilt (with the papman). By thus repeating the Solasii in the 
vihrita way, the Hotar takes from the sacrificer all sin and guilt. He 
who has such a knowledge becomes free from ( the consequences of) guilt. 
With the verse ud yad hradhnasya vistapam (8, 58, 7) he concludes. 
For the celestial world is the " hradhnasya vistapam." Thus he makes 
the sacrificer go to the celestial world. 

As Yajya verse he repeats apdli pume^dvi harivalL (10, 96, 13). *^ 
By repeating this verse as Yajya (of the So|asii Sastra) he makes the 
Solas^i to" consist of all libations {savanani). The term apdli, thou hast 
■drunk (used in this verse) signifies the.Morning Libation. Thus he makes 
^be Solaili to consist of [ 263 ] the Morning Libation. The words 
'(itko Idam savanam kevalam te.i.e., this libation here is entirely thy own, 
-signifies the Midday Libation. Thus he makes the Sola^i to consist of 
the Midday Libation. The words, mamaddhi soniam, i.e., enjoy the Soma, 
signify the Ev-ening Libation, which has its characteristic the term mat?, 
to -enjoy, to be -drank. Thus he makes the Solaj^i to consist of the 
Evening LibatioEu Tho word vrisan, i.e., bull (contained in the last 
pada), is the characteristic of the Sojas^i. 

By repeating as Yajya (for the Solatii), the verse just mentioned, 
the Solasi is made to consist of all Libations. Thus he makes it to 
(Consist of all Libations. He who has such a knowledge prospers through 
!the Solaii, which consists of all Libations. 

(When t?epeating the Yajya) he prefixes to each (of the four) pada," 
vconsisting of eleven syllables, an upasarga of five syllables (taken) from 
'the Mahanamnls. Thus he makes the Solasii to consist of all metres. 
He who has such a, knowledge prospers by means of the Sojasi, which is 
made to consist of all metres. 

*» The whole of the v«rse is as follows : — 

^R% %m fi3^?c»ft^ «?iT 1^^ ^^ ^x^^m w 

i.e., " Thou last drunk, O master of the two yellow horses (Indra) \ of the Soma drops 
formerly pTepared for thee. This libation here is entirely thy own (thou hast not -to 
share it with any other god). Enjoy, O Indra ! the honey-like Soma. O bull ! increase 
thy strength by (Teceiving) all this {qoiantity of Soma) in (thy) belly. 
^* These four upasar^as are : 

They are thus prefixed: 

These Upasargas are prefixed to the YajyS, in order to obtain two Anustubha (sixty-four 



(Atirdfra, Its origin. The three Parydyas^) 
The Devas*^ took shelter with Day, the Aswas with Night. They were* 
thus of equal strength, and [ 264 ] none yielded to the other. Indra 
said, " Who, besides me, will enter Night to turn the Asuras out of it ?" 
But he did not find any one among the Devas ready to accept (his ofier)^ 
(for) they were afraid of Night, on account of its darkness being (like that 
of) Death. This is the reason that even now one is afraid of going at 
night even to a spot which is quite close. For Night is, as it were, 
Darkness, and is Death, as it were. The metres (alone) followed him. 
This is the reason that Indra and the metres are the leading deities 
of the Night (of the nightly festival of Atiratra). No Nivid is repeated, 
nor a Puroruk, nor a Dhayya ; nor is there any other deity save Indra and 
the metres who are the leading (deities). They turned them out by going 
round iparydyam) with the Farydyas (the different turns of passing the 
Soma cups). This is the reason that they are called parydya (from i to 
go, and pari around). 

By means of the first Paryaya they turned them out of the fiirst part 
of the night ; by means of the middle Paryaya out of midnight, and by 
means of the third Paryaya out of the latter part of the night. The 
metres said to Indra, " Even we (alone) are following (thee, to turn the 
Asuras) out of the Dark one {sarvard, night)." He (the sage Aitareya) 
therefore called them (the metres) apisarvamni, for they had Indra, who 
was afraid of the darkness of night (as) of death, safely carried beyond it 
That is the reason that they are called apisarvadtj-i^ 

{The Sastras of Atiratra at the Three Farydyas. SandJii Sioira.) 
The^Hotar commences (the recitations at Atiratra) with an Anustubb 

Terse containing the term andhas, i.e., darkness, viz., pdntdm d vo andhasa^ 

(8,81,1.) [ 265 ] For night belongs to Anustubh ; it has the nature 

of night. 

As appropriate Yajya verse (at the end of each turn of the three- 

Paryayas) '^ Tristubhs containing the terms — andhas, darkness, pd to, drink, 

'' The same story with some trifling deviations in the wordiug only is recorded in. 
the Gopatha Brahmanam of the Atharvaveda, 10, 1. 

16 There are four turns of the Soma cups passing the round in each Paryiya, or parir 
of the night. At the end of each, a Yajya is repeated, and the juice then sacrificed. There- 
is at each turn (there are on the whole twelve) a Sastra repeated, to which a Tajya be- 
longs. The latter contains always the terms indicated. See, for instance, the four Y4jyas. 
used at the first Paryaya (Aav. br. S. 6,4)iad/n>aryauo bJtarato- indrUja, 2, 14, 1. (repeated 
by tke Hotar). lu the second pada, there are the words, madtjanv andixah, " the inebriating 


and mad, to be drnnk are used. What is appropriate at the sacrifice, 
that is successful. 

The S^ma singers repeat when chanting at the first Pary&ya twice 
the first padas only of the verses (which they chant). By doing so they 
take from them (the Asuras) all their horses and cows. 

At the middle Paryaya, they repeat twice the middle padas. By 
doing so, they take from them (the Asuras) their carts and carriages. 

At the last Paryaya, they repeat twice when chanting the last padas 
(of the verses which they chant). By doing so, they take from them (the 
Asuras) all things they wear on their own body, such as dresses, gold and 

He who has such a knowledge deprives his enemy of his property, 
(and) turns him out of all these worlds (depriving him of every firm 

[ 266 ] They ask, How are the Pavamana Stotras " provided for the 
night, whereas such Stotras refer only to the day, but not to the night ? 
In what way are they both made to consist of the same parts (to have the 
same number of Stotras and Sastras) ? 

The answer is, (They are provided for) by the following verses, 
which form part of the Stotras as well of the Sastras (at the Atiratra) : 
indrdya madvane sutam (8, 81, 19. Samaveda Samh. 2, 72), idam i'sao 
sutam andhalj. (S, 2, 1, Sam. S. 2, 84), idam hyanvojasd sutam (3, 51, 10. 
Sam, S. 2, 87). In this way, the night becomes also provided with 
Pavamdnas (for the verses mentioned contain the term suta^ i.e., squeezed, 
referring to the squeezing of the Soma juice, which term is proper to the 
Pavamana Stotra) ; in this way, both (day and night) are provided with 
Pavamanas, and made to consist of the same (number of) parts. 

They ask. As there are fifteen Stotras for the day only, but not for 

darkness" (symbolical name of the Soma juice). The Yajya of the Maitr&varuna is, asya 
made puruvarpdrhsi 6, 44, 14). It contains the term made, " to get drunk," and pa, •' to 
drink," in the last pada. The YSjya of the Brahmanachhamsi is dpsu dhutasya hurivah 
piba (10, 104, 2). This verse contains both the terms pf?, " to drink " (in piba of the first 
pada), and mad, " to be drunk " (in the last pada). The YajyS of the Achhavaka is, indra 
piba tubhijam (6, 40, 1). It contains both the terms, pd, and mad. The Y&jya of the Hotar 
in the second Paryaya is, apdyyasydndhaso maddya (2, 19, 1) ; it contains all three terms, 
*' darkness, to drink, and to be drunk." 

17 This question refers to the Stotras to be chanted for the purification of the Soma 
juice, which are, at the morning libation, the Bahis-pavam&na, at midday, the Pavamana, 
and in the evening, the Arbhava-pavaraana. At night, there being no squeezing of the Soma 
juice, there are, properly speaking, no Pavamana Stotras required. But to make the per- 
formance of day and night alike, the Pavamana Stotras for day and night are to be indi- 
cated in one way or other in the Stotras chanted at night. This is here shown. 


the night, how are there fifteen Stotras for both (for day as well as for 
night) ? In what way are they made to consist of the same (number of) 
parts ? 

The answer is, The Apisarvaras '^ form twelve Stotras. ^Besides) 
they chant, according to the Rathantara tune, the Sandhi " Stotra which 
contains [ 267 ] (three sets of) verses addressed lo three deities. In this 
way, night comprises (also) fifteen Stotras. Thus both (day and night) 
comprise each fifteen Stotras. Thus both are made to consist of the same 
(number of) parts. 

The number of verses for making the Stotras is limited, but the 
number of recitations which follow the Stotras) is unlimited. The past 
is, as it were, limited, defined ; the future is, as it were, unlimited (not 
defined). In order to secure the future (wealth, &c.,) the Ho tar repeats 
more verses (than the Sama singers chant). What goes beyond the Stotra 
is offspring, what goes beyond one's self (represented by the Stotra), 
is cattle. By repeating, when making his recitation, more verses (than 
the Sama singers chant) the Hotar acquires all that he (the sacrificer) 
has beyond his own self on this earth (i.e., all his cattle, children, fortune, 

18 See 4, 5. They are the metres used for feastras and Stotras during the night of 

19 This Stotra which is chanted after the latter part of the night is over, when the 
dawn is commencing (thence it is called say'ndhi, i.e., the joining of night and day), consists 
of six verses in the Brihati metre, with the exception of the two last which are kakubha 
(a variety of the Brihati). They are put together in the SSmav. Samh. 2, 99-104. The 
two first of them, ena vo dgnim (2, 99-100) are addressed to Agni, the third and fourth, 
pratyM adarsij dyatyti (101-102) to U^ds, and the fifth and sixth, imd u vdm divistaya (103-104) 
to the As'vins. The Stoma required for singing it, is the trivrit parivarttim (see page 237). 
Two verses are made three by means of the repetition of the latter padas. This Saman is 
chanted just like the verses of the Rathantaram, which are in the same metre. It follows 
throughout the musical arrangement of the Rathantaram. The musical accents, the cres- 
cendos, and decrescendos, the stobhas, i. e., musical flourishes, and the finales {nidhana) 
are the same. Both are for the purpose of chanting equally divided into five parts, vis,, 
Prast&va, Udgitha, PratihSra, Upadrava, and Nidhana (see page 198). For instance, the 
Prastftva or prelude commences in both in the low tone, and rises only at the last syl- 
lable (at mo in the nonumo of the Rathantaram, and at the so in the namaso of the first 
Sandhi Stotra) ; at the end of the Prastava of both there is the Stobha, i.e., flourish va. 
At the end of the Upadrava both have the Stobhas vd hd uvd. The finale is in both through- 
out as, in the rising tone. — (Sama prayoga and Oral information.) 


{The Asvina Sastra. The Beginning Day of the Gavdm Ayanam. 
The Use of the Eathantara and Brihat Sdmans and their kindreds. 
The Mahdvrata Day of the Sattra.) ' 

1 The Asvin Sastra is one of the longest recitations by the Hotar. It is only a 
modification of the Prataranuvaka, Its principal parts are the same as those of the 
Prataranuvaka, the Agneyakratu, U^asya kratu and Asvina kratu (see page 111), i.e., 
three series of hymns and verses in seven kinds of metre, addressed to Agni, Usas, and 
the Asvins, which deities rule at the end of the night, and at the verj' commencement of 
the day. In addition to these three kratus of the Pr&taranuvaka, in the As'vina Sastra, 
there are verses addressed to other deities, chiefly the sun, repeated. Before commenc- 
ing to repeat it, the Hotar {not the Adhvaryu) must sacrifice thrice a little melted butter, 
and eat the rest of it. These three oblations are given to Agni, Us^s, and the two 
Asvins. Each is accompanied with a Yajus-like mantra. That one addressed to Agni is : 
«lfjTC34t HT'lWm ^'^^T ^m^vH aJlr^l?^ ^^ mfl^g a?^ sE^T^T I ■' Agm is driving 
with the GSyatri metre (this metre being his carriage), might I reach him ; I hold him ; 
may this (melted butter) help me to him ; Svahfi to him." The mantras repeated for 
the Ajya offerings to Usas and the Asvins differ very little. 

3^r «if3^j0 55^^51 ^^«T gim^t ?[m?^H5^ 5i^§ mTj^ m^ mi^ i irf^qT^^^ 

Sim^a ^'^,^1 cIT^Wf giSI'^H^ cITVZjt Hm^ giW?t ^157. (AsV. Sr. S. 6, 5.) After 
having eaten the rest of the melted butter, he touches water tmly, but does not rinse 
his mouth in the usual way (by dchurnana). He then sits down behind his Dhisnya 
(fire-place) in a peculiar posture, representing an eagle who is just about flying up. 
He draws up his two legs, puts both his knees close to each other, and touches the 
earth with his toes. I saw a priest, who had once repeated the As'vin Sastra (there are 
scarcely more than half a dozen Brahmans living all over India who actually have 
repeated it), make the posture with great facility, but I found it difficult to imitate it 

The whole Asvina Sastra comprises a thousand Brihati verses> The actual num- 
ber of verses is, however, larger. All verses in whatever metre they are, are reduced 
to Brihatis by counting their aggregate number of syllables and dividing them by 36 
(of so many syllables consists the Brihati). The full account is cast up in th© 
Eausitaki Brahmanam, 18, 3. 

The first verse of the Sastra is mentioned in the text. It is to be repeated thrice 
and to be joined, without stopping, to the first verse of the Gayatri part of the Agneya, 
kratu (((^Z|T^^ 'TTTsigT^^'n?^ Asv. s'r. 8. 6, 5). After the opening verse wbich 
stands by itself altogether, just as the opening verse in the prataranuvaka, the three 
hrdtus or liturgies of the Prataranuvfika (agneya, usasya, and asvani) are repeated. 
These form the body of the Asvin s'astra. Each kratu is preceded by the Stotriya 
Pragatha, i.e., that couple of verses of the Sandhi Stotra (see page 266) which refers ta 
that deity, to which the respective kratu is devoted. So the agneya kratti, i.e., the series 
of hymns and verses, addressed to Agni, in seven different kinds of metre, is preceded 
by the first couple of verses of the Sandhi Stotra, which are, end vo agnim namasd (Sam. 
Samh. 2, 99-100) ; the u.^asya kratu is preceded by praty u adarsy dyati (Sam. Samh. 2, 101, 
102), the deity being Usfis, and the a s vina-kratu hy ima u vam divi^taya (Sftm. Samh, 2,^ 
103-104) being addressed to the two Asvins. Each couple of these verses is to be made a 


[ 269 1 7. 

{The Marriage of Prajdpati's Daughter, Surya. The A'svina Sastra 
uas the Bridal Gift. In What Way the Hotar has to Repeat it. Its Begin- 
ning Verse.) 

Prajapati gave his daughter, SCirya Savitri, ' in [270] marriage to the 
king Soma. All the gods came as paranymphs. Prajapati formed, accord- 
ing to the model of a vahatu, i.e., things (such as turmeric, powder, &c., 
to be carried before the paranymphs), this thousand (of verses), which is 
called the Ativina (Sastra). What falls short of (arvdk) one thousand 
verses, is no more the Atlvin's. This is the reason that the Hotar ought 
to repeat only a thousand verses, or he might repeat more. He ought to 
eat ghee before he commences repeating. Just as in this world a cart or 
a carriage goes well if smeared (with oil), thus his repeating proceeds well 
if he be smeared (with ghee, by eating it.) Having taken the posture 
of an eagle when starting up, the Hotar should recite (when commencing) 
the call somsdvom {i.e., he should commence repeating the Asivina Sastra). 

The gods could not agree as to whom this (thousand verses) should 
belong, each saying, " Let it be mine." Not being able to agree (to whom 
it should belong), they said, " Let us run a race for it. He of us who 
will be the winner shall have it." They made the sun which is above 
Agni, the house-father (above the Garhapatya fire '), the goal. That is 
the reason that the Ai^vina iSastra commences with a verse addressed to 
Agni, viz., agnir hotd grihapatiJ} (6, 15, 13). 

triplet, by repeating the last pada several times, just as the Sdina singers do. 

(A3V. 6, 5). 

The Hotar must repeat less than a thousand verses before sunrise : ^^^rW77^r^^ : 
After sunrise, he repeats the verses addressed to Sfirya, -which all are mentioned in the 
Aitareya Br^hmanam, as well as all other remaining verses of the Aavina Sastra. The 
whole order of the several parts of this Sastra is more clearay stated in the Kusitaki 
BrShm. (18, 2), than in the Aitareya, The verses addressed to Indra follow after the 
SQrya verses (4, 10). At the end of the Sastra, there are two PuronuvSkyfis and two 
Yajyas, for there are two Aavius. 

The Asvina Sastra is, as one may see from its constituent parts, a PrStaranuvaka, 
or early morning prayer, including the worship of the rising sun, and a fe'astra accom- 
panying a Soma libation. It follows the Sandhi Stotra at the end of the Atirdtra, and is 
regarded as the Sastra belonging to this Stotra. To the fact of its containing far 
more verses than the Sandhi Stotra, the term atisamsati, i.e., " he repeats more verses" 
(used in 4, 6) refers. 

2 This is the model marriage. It is described in the well-known marriage hymn 
aatyenottabhitd (10, 85). 

' That is to say, they started when running the race from th« Girhapatya fire, and 
ran up as far as the sun, which was the goal {kasthd). 


According to the opinion of some (theologians), the Hotar should (in- 
stead of this verse) commence (the recitation of the Asvina ^astra) with 
agnim manye pitaram {10, 7 , i^) ; for they say, he reaches the goal by 
means of the first verse through, the words (contained in its fourth pada) : 
divi sukram yajatam suryasya, i.e., the splendour of the sun in heaven 
which deserves worship. But this opinion is not to [271] be attended to. 
(If one should observe a Hotar commencing the Arfvina ^astra with the 
verse agnim manaye) one should say to him, ** If (a Sastra) has been com- 
menced with repeatedly mentioniag agni'* fire, the Hotar will Cultimately 
fall into the fire (be burnt by it)." Thus it always happens. Thence the 
Hotar ought to commence with the verse : agnir hold grihapatih. This 
verse contains in the terms grihapati, house-fat]ier, and janima^ generations, 
the propitiation (of the word agni, fire, with which it commences, and is 
therefore not dangerous) for attaining to the full age. 

He who has such a knowledge attains to his full age (of one hundred 

{The Race Run by the Gods for Obtaining the Asviiia Sastra as a Vrize.) 

Among (all) these deities who were running the race, Agni 
was with his mouth (the flames) in advance (of all others) after they had 
started. The Asivins (closely) followed him, and said to him, " Let us both 
be winners of this race." Agni consented, under the condition that he 
should also have a share in it (the Aj^vina Sastra). They consented, and 
made room also for him in this (A^vina Sastra). This is the reason that 
there is in the Aivina Sastra a series of verses addressed to Agni. 

The Ai^vins (closely) followed Usas. They said to her, "Go aside, 
that we both may be winners of the race." She consented, under the 
condition that they should give her also a share in it (the Asvina Sastra). 
They consented, and made room also for [ 272 ] her in it. This is the 
reason that in the Asivina Sastra a series of verses is addressed to Usas. 

The Anlvins (closely) followed Indra. They said to him, "Maghavan, 
we both wish to be winners of this race." They did not dare to say to 
him, "Go aside." He consented, under the condition that he should 
also obtain a share in it (the As^vina Sastra). They consented, and 
made room also for him. This is the reason that in the Aiivina Sastra 
there is a series of verses addressed to Indra. 

Thus the Arfvins were winners of the race, and obtained (the prize). 
This is the reason that it (the prize) is called Asivinam {i. e., the Ativina 

' The verse in question contains four times the word agni. This is regarded as 
inauspicious. The deity should not be always mentioned with its very name, but with 
its epithets. 


^astra). Ho who has such a knowledge obtains what he may wish 

They ask, Why is this (Sastra) called Ai^vinam, notwithstanding 
there being in it verses addressed to Agni, Usas, and Indra ? ^The an- 
swer is) the Ativins were the winners of this race, they obtained it (the 
prize). This is the reason that it is called the A^vina Sastra. He who 
has such a knowledge obtains what he may wish for. 


{What Animals were Yoked to the Carriages of the Gods when they were 
Running the Race for the Asvina Sastra. The Verses Addressed to Silrya 
in this Sastra.) 

Agni ran the race, with a carriage drawn by mules. When driving 
them he burnt their wombs ; thence they do not conceive. 

Usas ran the race with cows of a reddish colour, thence it comes 
that after the arrival of Usas (Dawn), there is a reddish colour shining as 
it were (spread over the eastern direction) which is the characteristic of 

[ 273 ] Indra ran the race with a carriage drawn by horses. Thence 
a very noisy spectacle (represented by the noise made by horses which 
draw a carriage) is the characteristic of the royal caste, which is Indra's. 

The AsSvins were the winners of the race with a carriage drawn by 
donkeys ; they obtained (the prize). Thence (on account of the excessive 
efforts to arrive at the goal) the donkey lost its (original) velocity, became 
devoid of milk, and the slowest among all animals used for drawing 
carriages. The Anivins, however, did not deprive the sperm of the ass of 
its (primitive) vigour. This is the reason that the male ass (vdji) has 
two kinds of sperm (to produce mules from a mare, and asses from a 
female ass). 

Regarding this (the different parts which make up the Asvina 
Sastra), they say, ** The Ho tar ought to repeat, just as he does for Agni, 
Usas, and the A^vins also, verses in all seven metres for Surya. There 
are seven worlds of the gods. (By doing so) he prospers in all (seven) 

This opinion ought not to be attended to. He ought to repeat (for 
Sllrya) verses in three metres only. For there are three worlds which are 
three-fold. (If the Hotar repeats for Sflrya verses in three metres only, 
this is done) for obtaining possession of these worlds. 

Regarding this (the order in which the verses addressed to Sfirya 
are to be repeated), they say, " The Hotar ought to commence (his recitation 



of the Stirya verses) with ud u tyam jdtavedasam {1, 50, in the Gayatrt 
metre)." But this opinion is not to be attended to. (To commence with 
this verse) is just as to miss the goal when running. He ought to commence 
with suryo no divas yatu (10, 158, 1, in the Gayatri metre). (If he do so) 
he is just as one who reaches the goal when running. He repeats : ud u 
tyam as the second hymn. 

[274] The Tristubh hymn is, chitram devdndm ud dgad (1, 115). 
For that one (the sun) rises as the chitram devdndm, i.e., as the mani- 
festation of the gods. Thence he repeats it. 

The hymn is, namo mitrasya varumsya (10, 37). In this (hymn) 
there is a pada (the fourth of the first verse, surydya samsata) which 
contains a blessing (dsth). By means of it, tbe Hotar imparts a blessiDg 
to himself, as well as to the sacrificer. 


{The Verses which Follow those Addressed to Surya in the Asvina Sastra 
Must Bear some Relation to SiHrya and the Brihati Metre. The Pragdthas 
to Indra. The Text of the Rathantara Sdvian. The Pragdtha to Mitrd- 
varuna. The Two Verses to Heaven and Earth. The Dvipadd for 

Regarding this (the recitations for Surya), they say, Siirya is not to 
be passed over in the recitation ; nor is the Brihati metre (of the Ai^vina 
iSastra) to be passed over. Should the Hotar pass over Surya, he would 
fall beyond (the sphere of) Brahma splendour (and consequently lose it). 
Should lie pass over the Brihati, he would fall beyond the (sphere of - the) 
vital airs (and consequently die). 

He repeats the Pragatha, addressed to Indra, viz., indra kratum na 
(7, 32, 26), i.e., "Carry, Indra! our (sacrificial) performance through, 
just as a father does to his sons (by assisting themj. Teach us, thou 
who art invoked by many, that we may, in this turn (of the night) reach 
alive the (sphere of) light."^ The word " light " ijyotis) in this verse, is 
[275] that one (the sun). In this way, he does not pass over the sun. 

By repeating a Barhata Pragatha he does not pass over the Brihati. 
By repeating the principal text of the Rathantara Saman (which is in the 
Brihati metre, viz., ahhi tvd sitra, 7, 32, 22-23), according to whose tune 

* This verse evidently refers to the Atiratra feast, for which occasion it was in all 
likelihood composed by Vasistha. Siy., in his commentary on this passage in the Ait. Br. 
takes the same view of it. It forms part of the Asvina fcastra which is repeated at the 
endof the night. Kratu means the Atirsitra feast ; for AtirStra is actually called a kratu ; 
yavmn is the last watch of the night. That Atiratra was well-known to the great Jlisis, 
we may learn from the well-known " praise of the frogs " (7, 103), which is by no means 
one ot the latest hymns, as some scholars have supposed. 


the Sflma singers chant th& Sandhi Stotra for the A^vina Saatra, he does 
not overpraise the Brihati. This is done in order to have provided (for the' 
Sandhi Stotra) its principal text (lit., its wotrib). In the words of the 
Rathantara Saman, isdndm asya jagatali soardrisamy i.e., the ruler of this 
world who sees the sky, there is an allusion made to SGrya by " svardfisam," 
i.e., who sees the sky. By repeating it, he does not pass the sun. Nor 
does he by its (the Rathantaram) being a Barhata Pragatha pass over 
the Bfihati. 

He repeats a Maitravaruna Pragatha, viz., hahavah sAraclidk-^ase 
(7, 66, 10). For Mitra is the day, and Varuna the night. He who 
performs the Atiratra, commences (his sacrifice) with both day and night. 
By repeating a Maitravaruna Pragatha, the Hotar places the sacrificer in 
day and night. By the words siXraehaksase he does not overpraise Siirya. 
The verse being a Brihati Pragatha, he does not pass over the Bj-ihati. 

He repeats two verses addressed to Heaven and Earth, viz., malii 
dyduh prithivi (1, 22, 13), and te hi dydad prithivi visvas amhhuva (1, 160, 1). 
Heaven and Earth are two places for a firm footing ; Earth being the firm 
footing here, and Heaven there (in the other world). By thus repeating 
two verses [27B] addressed to Heaven and Earth, he puts the sacrificer in 
two places on a firm footing. By the words, devo devi dharma/^d silryaljk 
suehiT} (in the last pada of 1, 160, 1), i.e., " the divine brilliant Sfirya 
passes regularly between the two goddesses (i.e.. Heaven and Earth)," he 
does not pass over Silrya. One of these verses being in the Gayatri, the 
other in the Jagati, metre, which make two Brihatis,* he does not pass 
over the Brihati. 

He repeats the Dvipada verse : visvasya devi mriahayasya (not to be- 
found in the Samhita, but in the Brahmanam), i.e., may she who is the 
ruler of all that is born and moves (mrichaya) not be angry (with us), nor 
visit us (with destruction). They (the theologians) have called the Asvina- 
Sastra a funeral pile of wood (chitaidhd). For, when the Hotar is about 
to conclude (this Sastra), Nirriti (the goddess of destruction) is lurking, 
with her cords, thinking to cast them round (the Hotar). (To' prevent 
this) Brihaspati saw this Dvipada verse. By its words, " may she not be 
angry (with us), nor visit us (with destruction)," he wrested from Nirriti'& 
hands her cords and put them down. Thus the Hotar wrests also from 
the hands of Nirriti her cords, and puts them down when repeating this 
Dvipada verse, by which means he comes off in safety. (He does so) for 

' The Brihati contains thirty-six syllables, the Gflyatrt twenty-four, and the Ja^atiT 
forty-eight. Two Brihatis make seventy -two, and one Gayatri and Jagati make togethec- 
seventy-two syllables. 


attaining to his full age. He who has such a knowledge attains to his 
full age. By the words, mrichayasya janmandf}, i.e., " what is born and 
moves," he does not pass over the sun in his recitation, for that one 
(the sun) moves (marchayati) as it were. 

As regards the Dvipada verse, it is the metre corresponding to man 
(on account of his two padas, i.e., [277] feet). Thus it comprises all 
metres (for the two-legged man is using them all). In this way, the 
Hotar does not (by repeating the Dvipada j pass over the Brihati. 

{The Co7icluding Verses of the A'svin ^astra. The Two Ydjyds of 
it. In What Metre They Ought To Be.) 

The Hotar concludes with a verse addressed to Brahmanaspati. 
For Brahma is Brihaspati. By repeating such a verse he puts the 
sacrificer in the Brahma. He who wishes for children and cattle 
should conclude with, evd pitre visvdderdya (4, 50, 6). For, on account 
of its containing the words, " Bj-ihaspati, might we be blessed with 
children and strong men, might we become owners of riches," that man 
becomes blessed with children, cattle and riches, and strong men, at 
whose sacrifice there is a Hotar, knowing that he must conclude with 
this verse (in order to obtain this object wished for). 

He who wishes for beauty and acquirement of sacred knowledge 
ought to conclude with, hrihaspate atiyad ( 2, 23, 15 ). Here the 
word ati, i. e., beyond, means that he acquires more of sacred 
knowledge than other men do. The term, dyumat ( in the second 
pada ), means " acquirement of sacred knowledge," and vihhdti means, 
that the sacred knowledge shines everywhere, as it were. The term 
didayat (in the third pada) means, that the sacred knowledge has been 
shining forth ( in the Brahmans ). The term, chitra (in the fourth pada), 
means that the sacred knowledge is, as it were, apparent {chitram). 

He, at whose sacrifice there is a Hotar knowing that he must 
conclude with this verse, becomes endowed with sacred knowledge and 
famous for sanctity. Thence a Hotar who has such a knowledge ought 
to conclude with this Brahmanaspati verse. [278] By repeating it, he does 
not pass over the sun. The Trishtubh, "^ when repeated thrice, comprises 
all metres. In this way, he does not pass over the Brihati (by repeating 
this Tristubh). 

He ought to pronounce the formula, Vau^at, along with a verse 

* The verse brihaspate ati is in the Tristubh metre. Ou account of its being the 
last verse of the iS'hastra, it is to b« repeated thrice. 


in the G&yatri, and one in the Tristubh metre. G&yatrl is the Brahma, 
and Trigtubh is strength. By doing so, he joins strength to the 

He, at whose sacrifice there is a Hotar knowing that he (in order 
to obtain the objects mentioned) must pronounce the formula, Vau^at, ' 
with a verse in the Gayatri, and one in the Tristubh metre, becomes 
endowed with sacred knowledge and strength, and famous for sanctity. 
(The Tristubh verse is) asvind vdyund yuvam (3, 58, 7) ; (the Gayatri 
is) uhhd pihatam (1, 46, 15). 

(There is another way of pronpuncing the formula Vau,^at) 

He ought to pronounce the formula Vau^at along with a verse 
in the Gayatri, and one in the Virat metre. For Gayatri is Brahma, 
and Virat is food. By doing so, he joins food to the Brahma. 

He, at whose sacrifice there is a Hotar knowing that he must 

pronounce the formula Vau^at along with a verse in the Gayatri, and 

one in the Virat metre, becomes endowed with sacred knowledge, and 

famous for sanctity and eats Brahma food ( i.e., pure food ). Therefore, 

one who has such a knowledge ought to pronounce the formula Vau§at 

along with a verse in the Gayatri, and one in the Tristubh metre. 

They are, pra vdm andhdmsi ( 7, 68, 2, Virat ) and uhM pibatam 

(1, 46, 15, Gayatri). 

[2791 12. 

( The Ghaturvirhsa ® Day of the Sacrificial Session, called Oavdm 

On this day^** (which follows the Atiratra ceremony) they celebrate 

' That is to say, he should then make the YajySs ; for only at that occasion the 
formula vaii^a^ is pronounced. 

' This is the name of a day, and a Stoma, required at the Sattra or sacrificial ses- 
sion, called the gavdm ayanam (see more about it, 4, 17). It lasts for a whole year of 
860 days, and consists of the following parts : 1) The Atir&tra at the beginning. 2) The 
Chaturvimsa or beginning day; it is called in theAitareya Br. d^'amhhaniya, in the 
TSndya Br. (4,2,) prdyaytiya. 3) The periods of six days' performance (Salaha) con- 
tinued during five months, so that always the four first SalaTias are Abhiplavas, and 
the fifth a Pri§thya (see on these terms 4, 15-17). 4) In the sixth month, there are 
three Abhiplava Salahas, and one Pristhya Salaha. 5) The Abhijit day. 6) The three 
Svarasaman, days. 7) The Visuvan or central day which stands quite apart. 8) The three 
Svaras4man days again. 9) The VisVajit day. 10) A Pfifthya Salaha, and three Abhi- 
plavas during four months continuously. 12) In the last month (the twelfth of the 
Sattra) there are three Abhiplavas, one Gostoma, one Ayustoma, and one Dasar^tra 
(the ten days of the Dvadas&ha). 13) The Mah&vrata day, which properly concludes 
the performance ; it corresponds to the Chaturvimsa at the beginning. 14) The con- 
cluding Atiritra. See As v. St. 8. 11, 7. 

^° Ahah, has, according to S&y., the technical meaning of the Soma ceremony, vrhich 
is performed on every particular day of a sacrificial eession. 


the Cliaturviiii^a (Stoma). It is the beginning day (of the year during 
which the sacrificial session is to last). For by this day they begin 
the year, and also the Stomas and metres, and ( the worship of ) the 
deities. If they do not commence (the Sattra^ on this day, the metres 
have no (proper) beginning and the (worship of the) deities is not 
commenced. Thence this day is called drambhai^iya, i. e., the beginning 
day. On account of the Chaturvimf^a (twenty-four-fold) Stoma being 
used on it, it is (also) called Chaturvimsia. There are twenty-four half 
months. (By beginning the Sattra with the Chaturvim^a Stoma, i.e., 
the chant, consisting [ 280 1 of twenty-four verses) they commence the 
year as divided into half-months. 

The Ukthya (performance of the Jyotistoma) takes place (on that 
day;. For the ukthas (recitations) are cattle. (This is done) for 
obtaining cattle. 

This (Ukthya sacrifice) has fifteen Stotras and fifteen Sastras. ** 
(These make, if taken together, one month of thirty days.) By (perform- 
ing^ this (sacrifice) they commence the year as divided into months. 
This (Ukthya sacrifice) has 360 Stotriya verses^' as many as the year 
has days. By (performing) this (sacrifice) they commence the year as 
divided into days. 

They say, " the performance of this (first) day ought to be an 
Agniatoma. Agnistoma is the year. For no other sacrifice, save the 
Agnis^oma, has kept (has been able to keep) this day (the performance 
of this day), nor developed its several parts' {i.e., has given the power 
of performing all its several rites). 

Should they perform ( on the beginning day ) the Agnistoma, 
then the three Pavamana Stotras ' ' of the morning, midday, and evening 
libations are to be put in the Astachatvarim^a Stoma {i.e., each of the 
Stotriya triplets is made to consist of forty-eight verses by means of 
repetition), and the other (nine) Stotras in the Chaturvimsia Stoma. This 
makes (on the whole) 360 Stotriyas, as many as there are days (in the 
year). (By performing the Agnistoma in this way) they commence the 
year as divided into days. 

[281] The Ukthya sacrifice should, however, be performed (on the 
beginning day of the Sattra, not the Agnistoma). (For) the sacrifice is 
wealth in cattle, the Sattra is (also) wealth in cattle (and cattle is represent- 

" See page 234. 

^' Each of the fifteen Stotra triplets is made to consist of twenty-four verses by 
repetition, according to the theory of the Cluxturvimsa Stoma. 24 times 15 makes 360. 
'• These are, the Bahis-pavaman^, bh© Paramana, and Arbhavapftvam&nft, 


ted by the Uktliya). If all Stotras are put in the Chaturvim^a Stoma (as 
is the case when the Ukthya is performed), then this day becomes actually 
throughout a Chaturviibiia (twenty- four-fold). Thence the Ukthya sacri- 
fice ought to be performed (on the beginning day of the Sattra). 


{On the Importance of the Two Sdmans, Rathantaram and Bfihat. 
They are Not to he Used at the Same Time. The Succession of the Sacrificial 
Days in the Second-Half of the Year is Inverted.) 

The two (principal) Samaus at the Sattra are the Brihat and Rathan- 
taram. These are the two boats of the sacrifice, landing it on the other 
shore (in the celestial world). By means of them, the sacrificers cross the 
year (just as one crosses a river). Bfihat and Rathantara are the two feet 
(of the sacrifice) ; the performance of the day is the head. By means of 
the two feet, men gain their fortune (consisting of gold, jewels, &c.) which 
is to be put (as ornament) on their heads. 

Brihat and Rathantaram are two wings ; the performance of the day 
is the head. By means of these two wings, they direct their heads to 
fortune, and dive into it. 

Both these Samans are not to be let off together. Those performers 
of the sacrificial session who would do so, would be floating from one shore 
to the other (without being able to land anywhere), just as a boat, whose 
cords are cut oS, is floating from shore to shore. Should they let off the 
Rathantaram, then, by means of the Brihat, both are kept. Should he let 
off [282 j the Brihat, then, by means of the Rathantaram both are kept.'* 
(The same is the case with the other Sama Pfisthas.) Vairupam" is 

" This refers to the so-called S&ma 'pristhas, i.e., combination of two different 
B4mans, in such away, that one forms the womb {yoni), the other the embryo (garWm). 
This relationship of both SSmans is represented by repeating that set of verses which 
form the womb in the first and third turns (pary^yas) of the Stomas (see 237-38), and that 
one which is the embryo, in the second turn. In this way, the embryo is symbolically 
placed in the womb which surrounds it on both sides. The two S&mans which generally 
form the womb, are the Brihat and Rathantaram. Both are not to be used at the same 
time ; but only one of them. Both being the two ships which land the sacrificer on the 
other shore (bring him safely through the year in this world), they cannot be sent ofl at 
the same time; for the sacrificer would thus deprive himself of his conveyance. One of 
them is tied to this, the other to the other shore. If he has landed on the other shore, he 
requires another boat to go back. For, before the end of the year, he cannot establish 
himself on the other shore, nor, as long as he is alive,, on the shore of the celestial 
world. By going from one shore to the other, and returning to that whence he started, 
he obtains a fair knowledge of the way, and provides himself with all that is required for 
being received and admitted on the other shore after the year is over, or the life has 

1' The Vahrdpa Sfima is, yodydva indra te satam (SSm, Samh. 2, 212-13). 


the same as Brihat, Vairdja** is the same as Brihat, S^kvaram" is the 
same as Rathantaram, and Raivatam" is the same as Brihat. 

Those who, having such a knowledge, begin the Sattra (sacrificial 
session) on this day, hold their (sacrificial) year in performing austerities, 
enjoying the Soma draught, and preparing the Soma jwice, after having 
reached the year as divided into half-months, months, and days. 

[283] When they (those who hold the Sattra) begin the performance 
of the other part** (of the sacrifice), they lay down their heavy burden, for 
the heavy burden (if they are not released) breaks them down. There- 
fore, he who, after having reached this (the central day of the yearly sacri- 
ficial session) by means of performing the ceremonies one after the other, 
begins (the second part of the sacrificial session) by inverting the order of 
the ceremonies, arrives safely at the end of the year. 


(On a Modification of the Ni^hevalya ^astra on the Ghaturvirhsa 
and Mdhavrata Days of the Sattra. 

This Chaturviihsia day is (the same as) the Mahavrata'® (the Nis- 
kevalya Sastra being the same as in the Mahavrata sacrifice). By means 
of the Brihad-deva hymn,"* the Hotar pours forth the seed.- Thus he 
makes the seed (which is poured forth) by means of the Mahavrata day 
produce offspring. For seed if effused every year is productive (every 
year). This is the reason that (in both parts of the Sattra) the 
[284] Brihad-deva hymn forms equally part of the Niskevalya Sastra. 

He who having such a knowledge performs, after having reached 
the central day by performing the ceremonies one after the other, the 

^' The Vairaja is, pibd somam indra mandatu (Sfim. Sacfih, 2, 277-79). 

" Tlie S4kvara Sama is, pro §vasmdi puroratham (S&m. Samh. 2, 9, 1, 14, 1-3). 

*' The Raivata Sfitua is, revatir nah sadhamada (Sam. Samh. 2,434-36). 

" This sense is implied in the words, ato iirdhvam, '* heyond this," i. e., beyond the 
ceremonies commencing on the drambhantya day of the Sattra. The first six months of the 
sacrificial session lasting all the year, are the first, the second six months the other turn ; 
in the midst of both is the Vi?uvan day (see 4, 18. ), i, e., the equator. After that day the 
same ceremonies begin anew, bat in an inverted order ; that is to say, what was performed 
immediately before the Viauvan day, that is performed the day after it, &c. 

'° This sacrifice is described in the Araityaka of the Rigveda. It refers to generation 
and includes, therefore, some very obscene rites. Its principal Sastra is the Mahaduk- 
tfoam, t. c. , the great Sastra, also called the Brihati Sastra. The Mah&vrata forms part 
of a Sattra. It is celebrated on the day previous to the concluding AtirS,tra, and has the 
same position and importance as the Chaturvimsa day after the beginning Atir&tra. The 
Brihad-deva hymn is required at the Niskevalya Sastra of both. But, instead of the 
Chaturvimsa Stoma, the Paiichavimsa (twenty-five-fold) Stoma is used at the MahSvrata 
sacrifice. (See Aitar. Aranyaka 1, 2.) 

" This is, tad id dsa bhuvane§u, 10, 120. 


ceremonies of the second part in an inverted order, using the Brihad-deva 
hymn also, reaches safely the end of the year. 

He who knows this shore and that shore of (the stream of) the year, 
arrives safely on the other shore. The Atiratra at the beginning (of the 
Sattra) is this shore (of the year), and the Atiratra at the end (of the 
Sattra) is the other shore. 

He who has such a knowledge, arrives safely at the end of the year. 
He who knows how to appropriate the year (according to half-months, 
months, and days), and how to disentangle himself from it (after having 
passed through it) arrives safely at the end of the year- The Atiratra at 
the beginning is the appropriation, and that at the end is the disentangle- 

He who has such a knowledge, safely reaches the end of the year. 
He who knows the prdria (air inhaled) of the year and its aydna (air ex- 
haled) safely reaches the end of the year. The Atiratra at the beginning 
is its pr^rza, and the Atiratra at the end its udkna {a'ptna). He who has 
such a know'ledge, safely reaches the end of the year. 


{The Salaha and Visuvan Day of the Sattras with the Performance 
of the Days Preceding a^id Following the Visuvan.) 


{The Tryaha and Salaha, i. e., periods of three and six days at the 
Sattra. The Abhiplava.) 

They (those who hold the sacrificial session) perform [2801 
(now) the Jyotis-Go and Ayu^-Stomas. This world is the Jyotis 
(light), the airy region the Go (Stoma), that world dyus (life). The same 
Stomas (as in the first three days out of the six) are observed in the latter 
three days. (In the first) three days (the order of the stomas is), Jyotis- 
Go and Ayus Stomas. (In the latter) three days (the order is) Go-Ayus- 
Jotis-Stomas. (According to the position of the Jyotis Stoma in both 
parts) the Jyotis is this world and that world ; they are the two Jyotis 
(lights^ on both sides facing (one another) in the world. 

They perform the Salaha (six days' Soma sacrifice), so that in both 
its parts (each consisting of three days) there is the Jyotis Stoma (in the 
first at the beginning, in the latter at the end). By doing so, they gain a 
firm footing in both worlds, in this one and that one, and walk in both. 

Abhiplava Salaha^ is the revolving wheel of the gods. Two Agnis- 

^ The Sattra is divided into periods of six days, of which period every month has five. 
Such a period is called a ;§alaha, i.e., six days' sacrificial work. The five times repetition 
within a month is abhiplava. 



tomas form tlie circumference (of this wheel) ; the four Ukthyas in the 
midst are then the nave. By means of this revolving (wheel of the gods) 
one can go to any place one may choose. Thus he who has such a 
knowledge, safely reaches the end of the year. He who has a (proper) 
knowledge of the^first Salaha safely reaches the end of the year, and so 
does he who has a (proper) knowledge of the second, third, fourth, and 
fifth Salahas, i.e., all the five Salahas of the month. 


(On the Meaning of the Celebration of Five Balahas during the Course 

of a Month. 
They celebrate the first Salaha. There are six seasons. This 
makes six days. Thus they secure [286] the year (for themselves) as divi- 
ded into seasons, and gain a firm footing in the several seasons of the year. 
They celebrate the second Salaha. This makes (in addition to the 
previous six days) twelve days. There are twelve months. Thus they 
secure the year as divided into months, and gain a firm footing in the 
several months of the year. 

They celebrate the third Sajaha. This makes (in addition to the 
previous twelve days) eighteen days. This makes twice nine. There are 
nine vital airs, and nine celestial worlds. T hus they obtain the nine 
vital airs, and reach the nine celestial worlds, and gaining a firm footing 
in the vital airs, and the celestial worlds, they walk there. 

They celebrate the fourth Salaha. This makes twenty-four dayg. 
There are twenty-four half-months. Thus they secure the year as divided 
into half-months, and, gaining a firm footing in its several half-months, 
they walk in them. 

They celebrate the fifth Salaha. This makes thirty days. The 
Virat metre has thirty syllables. The Virat is food. Thus they procure 
virdt (food) in every month. 

Those who wished for food, were (once) holding a sacrificial session. 
By obtaining in every month the Virat^(the number thirty), they become 
possessed of food for both worlds, this one and that one. 

{Story of the Sacrificial Session held by the Cows. Different kinds of the 
great Sattras, such as the Gavdm Ayanam, Aditydndm Ayanam, and 
Afigirasdm Ayanam). 

They hold the Gavdm Ayanam, i.e., the sacrificial session, called 
"cow's walk." The cows are the [287] Adityas (gods of the months). By 
holding the session called the "cow's walk," they also hold the walk of 
the Adityas, 


The cows being desirous of obtaining hoofs and horns, held (once) 
a sacrificial session. In the tenth month (of their sacrifice) they obtained 
hoofs and horns. They said, " We have obtained fulfilment of that wish 
for which we underwent the initiation into the sacrificial rites. Let us 
rise (the sacrifice being finished)." When they arose they had horns. 
They, however, thought, " let us finish the year," and recommenced the 
session. On account of their distrust, their horns went off, and they 
consequently became hornless (titpara). They (continuing their sacrificial 
session) produced vigour {ilrj). Thence after (having been sacrificing for 
twelve months and) having secured all the seasons, they rose (again) at 
the end. For they had produced the vigour (to reproduce horns, hoofs, &c., 
when decaying). Thus the cows made themselves beloved by all (the 
whole world), and are beautified (decorated) by all.^ 

He who has such a knowledge, makes himself beloved by every one, 
and is decorated by every one. 

The Adityas and A6giras were jealous of one another as to who 
should (first) enter the celestial world, each party saying, *' we shall first 
enter." The Adityas entered first the celestial world, then the Afigiras, 
after (they had been waiting for) sixty years. 

(The performance of the sacrificial session called Adityanam ayanam 
agrees in several respects with the Gavam ayanam). There is an Atiratr'B 
at the beginning, and on the Chaturvimsa day the Ukthya is [288] per- 
formed ; all the (five) Abhiplava Sajahas ' are comprised in it ; the order of 
the days is different, (that is to, say, the performance of the first, second 
days, &c., of the Abhiplava are different from those of the Gavam ayanam). 
This is the Adityanam ayanam. 

The Atiratra at the beginning, the Ukthya on the Chaturvimsa day, 
all (five) Abhiplava performed with the Pristhas, the performance of the 
ceremonies of the several days (of the Abhiplava) being different {irom the 
Gavam ayanam, &c.) : this is the Afigirasam ayanam. 

The Abhiplava Sajaha is like the royal road, the smooth way 
to heaven. The Pristhya Sajaha is the great pathway which is to be 

*It is an Indian custom preserved up to this day to decorate cows, chiefly on the 
birth-day of Krisna (Gokul astami). 

' In the Gavam ayanam there are only four Abhiplava Salahas ; but in the AditjfinSm 
ayanam there are all five Abhiplava Salahas required within a month. The last (fifth) 
Salaha of the GavS,m ayanam is a Pristhya, that is, one containing the Pristhas- The 
difference between an Ahhiplava Salaha, and a Pristhija Salaha, is, that during the 
latter, the Sama Pristhas is required, that is to say, that on every day at the midday 
libation the Stomas are made with a combination of two different Salmans in the way 
described above (page 282), whilst this is wanting in the Abhiplava, 


trodden everywhere to heaven. When they avail themselves of both roads, 
they will not suffer any injury, and obtain the fulfilment of all desires 
which are attainable by both, the Abhiplava Salaha and the Pristhya 


[The Ekavimsa or Visuvan Day.) 

They perform the ceremonies of the Ekavims'a day, which is the 
equator, dividing the year (into two equal parts). By means of the 
performance of this day. the gods had raised the sun up to the heavens. 
This Ekavimsa day on which the Divakirtya mantra [289] (was 
produced), is preceded by ten days, ^ and followed by ten such days, and 
is in the midst (of both periods). On both sides, it is thus put in a 
Virat (the number ten). Being thus put in a Virat (in the number ten) on 
both sides, this (Ekavims^a, i.e., the sun) becomes not disturbed in his 
course through these worlds. 

The gods being afraid of the sun falling from the sky, supported him 
by placing beneath three celestial worlds to serve as a prop. The (three) 
Stomas ^ (used at the three Svarasaman days which precede the Visuvan 
day) are the three celestial worlds. They were afraid, lest he (the sun) 
should fall beyond them. They then placed over him three worlds (also), 
in order to give him a prop from above. The (three) Stomas (used at the 
three Svarasaman days which follow the Visuvan day) are the three 
worlds. Thus there are before (the Visuvan day) three seventeen-fold 
Stomas (one on each of the preceding Svarasaman days), and after it (also), 
three seventeen-fold Stomas. In the midst of them there is the Ekavims^a 
day (representing the sun) held on both sides by the Svarasaman days. 
On account of his being held by the three Svarasamans (representing the 
three worlds below and the three above the sun) the sun is not disturbed 
in his course through these worlds. 

The gods being afraid of the sun falling down from the sky, support- 
ed him by placing beneath the highest worlds. The Stomas are the 
highest worlds. 

The gods being afraid of his falling beyond them being turned 

"■ la the Gavam ayanam, both the Abhiplava Salaha and the Pristhya Salaha are 
required. Thence the sacrificers who perform the Gavam ayanam, avail themselves of 
both the roads leading to heaven. 

' The ten days which precede the Ekavims'a are, the three Svarasdmdnah, Abhi/it, 
and a &aluha (a period of six days). The same days follow, but so, that Svarasamanab, 
Avhjch were the last three days before tbe Ekavimsa, are the first three days after that 
day, &c. 

* On Stomas, see the note to 2, 42, 


upside down, supported him by [290] placing above him the highest 
worlds (also). The Stomas are the highest worlds. 

Now there are (as already mentioned) three seventeen-fold Stomas 
before, and three after (the Visuvan day). If two of them are taken 
together, three thirty-four-fold Stomas are obtained. Among the Stomas 
the thirty-four-fold is the last. ' 

The sun being placed among these (highest worlds) as their ruler, 
burns with (his rays). Owing to this position, he is superior to every- 
thing in creation that has been and will be, and shines beyond all that 
is in creation. (In the same way, this Visuvan day) is superior (to all 
days which precede or follow). 

It is on account of his being prominent as an ornament, that the man 
who has such a knowledge, becomes superior (to all other men). 


{The Svarasdmans. Ahhijit. Visvajit. Vi^uvan.f 

They perform the ceremonies of the Svarasaman days. These (three) 
worlds are the Svarasaman days. On account of the sacrificers pleasing 
these worlds by means of the Svarasamans, they are called Svarasaman 
(from aspririvan,^ they made pleased). 

By means of the performance of the Svarasaman days, they make him 
(the sun) participate in these worlds. 

[291] The gods were afraid lest these seventeen-fold Stomas 
(employed at the Svarasaman days) might, on account of their being all 
the same, and not protected by being covered (with other Stomas), break 
down. Wishing that they should not slip down, they surrounded them, 
below with all the Stomas, and above with all the Pristhas. That is the 
reason that on the Ahhijit day which precedes (the Svarasaman days) all 
Stomas are employed, and on the Vitlvajit day which follows (the Svarasa- 
man days after the Visuvan day isd3ver) all Pristhas are used. These 
(Stomas and Pristhas) surround the seventeen-fold Stomas (of the 
Svarasaman days), in order to keep them (in their proper place) and to 
prevent them from breaking down. 

' This is not quite correct. There is a forty-eight-fold Stoma, besides. 

• See the Asval. Sr. S. 8, 5-7. 

' This etymology is certainly fanciful ; Svara cannot be traced to the root spn>, 
a modification of prf, to love. The name literally means, " The SSmans of the tones." 
This appears to refer to some peculiarities in their intonations. These SSmans being 
required only for the great Sattras, which have been out of use for at least a thousand 
years, it is difficult now to ascertain the exact nature of the recital of these Samans. 


{The Performance of the Vi^uvan Day.) ^° 

The gods were (again) afraid of the sun falling from the sky. They 
pulled him up and tied him with five ropes. " The ropes are the 
Divakirtya Samans, '^ among which there is the Mahadivakirtya Pfistha ; ^^ 
the others are, the Vikarna, the Brahma, the ]3hasa, ^* and the Agnis- 
toma '^ Sama ; [292] the Brihat and Rathantara Samans are required 
for the two Pavamana Stotras (the Pavamana at the midday, and the 
Arbhava-pavamana at the evening, libations). 

Thus they pulled up the sun, tying him with five cords, ^^ in order to 
keep him and to prevent him from falling. 

(On this day, the Visuvan) he ought to repeat the Prataranuvaka 
after the sun has risen ; for only thus all prayers and recitations belong- 
ing to this particular day become repeated during the day-time (the day 
thus becomes divdMrtyam). 

As the sacrificial animal belonging to the Soma libation (of that day) 
and being dedicated to the sun, they ought to kill such an one as might be 
found to be quite white (without any speck of another colour). For this 
day is (a festival) for the sun. 

He ought to repeat twenty-one Samidheni verses (instead of fifteen 
or seventeen, as is the case at other occasions) ; for this day is actually 
the twenty-first (being provided with the twenty-one-fold Stoma). 

'0 See the Asval. Sr. S, 8, 6. 

*^ The term is raimi, ra,y, which Say. explains by parigrdha. 

" say. explains the words by : f^|^ TzRt^Tf^ i^ «TWTf^ i.e., the five Saraaos 
which are to be repeated only at day. This explanation may appear at first somewhat 
strange, but it is quite correct. For the employment of the different tunes is regulated 
by the different parts of the day. Up to this time, certain tunes {rdga, the word sariMti 
being only the older denomination for the same thing) are allowed to be chanted only 
at day, such as the Sdranga, Qaiirasarangaf &c,, others are confined to the early morning, 
others to the night. 

** This is the triplet vibhrad hrihat pihafu (Sdm. Samh. 2, 802-804). 

" The Vikarnam Sama is, prik?asya uHsno (6, 8, 1). The same verse is used, accord- 
ing to say., for the Brahma, as well as for the Bhasa, Samans. 

^' The Agniatoma Sama is not especiallj mentioned by Say. He simply says in the 
same manner in which the Pandits up to this day explain such things : ^ ^^ifog ' i ff^^ r 
???Tr^rI cT^W^IT'ETnT Now the Saman with which the Agnistoma becomes com- 
pleted, i.e., the last of the twelve Stotras is the so-called Yajfia Yajfiiya Saman ; yajhd 
yajha vo agnaye (Sam. Sam. 2, 53-54). This one is expressly called (in the Sama 
prayogas) the Agnii^toma-sdma, being the characteristic Saman of the Agnistoma. 

*" The Ave tunes or Samans representing the five cords are, the Mahadivakirtyam, 
the Vikarna, Brahma, and Bhasa tunes, being regarded only as one on account of their 
containing the same verse ; the Agnistoma Sama, and the Brihat, and Rathautaram. 


After having repeated fifty-one or fifty-two verses ^' of the Sastra (of 
this day), he puts the Nivid (addressed [293] to Indra) in the 
midst (of the hymn indrasya nu viryani, 1, 32). After this (the 
repetition of the Nivid) he recites as many verses (as he had recited 
before putting the Nivid, i. e., fifty-one or fifty-two). (In this way the 
total number of verses is brought to above a hundred.) The full 
life of man is a hundred years ; he has (also) a hundred powers 
and a hundred senses. (By thus repeating above a hundred verses) the 
Hotar thus puts the sacrificer in (the possession of his full) life, strength, 
and senses. 

{The Raihsavali Verse or the Tdrk^ya Triplet to be Repeated in the 
Duroham way. Explanation of both the Hamsavati and Tdrh^ya.) 

He repeats the Durohanam as if he were ascending (a height). For the 
heaven-world is difficult to ascend (dilrohariam). He who has such a 
knowledge ascends to the celestial world. 

As regards the word dztrohanam, that one who there burns (the sun) 
has a difficult passage up (to his place) as well as any one who goes there 
{i. e., the sacrificer who aspires after heaven). 

By repeating the Durohanam, he thus ascends to him (the sun). 

He ascends with a verse addressed to the hamsa {with, a hamsavati.y 
(The several terms of the [294] ham savati are now explained). This 
(Aditya, the sun) is " the swan sitting in light." He is the " Vasu 
(shining being) sitting in the air." He is the " Hotar sitting on the Vedi." 

1' The number fifty-one or fifty-two depends on the circumstance that of the Nivid 
hymn, indrasya %\u virydni, either eight or nine verses might be recited before the 
insertion of the Nivid. The rule is that at the midday libation the Nivid should be inser- 
ted after the first half of the hymn has been exceeded by about one verse. The song 
in question has fifteen verses. The insertion can, therefore, not take place before the 
eighth, and not after the ninth. 

^' This verse forms the Ddrohana mantra. Its repetition is described by Asval. 
6r. S. 8, 2, in the followin way : 

?n^sra5[r: ^^^ ^^ S^fl^a^tlfU"; l. e., after having called soms^vom, he should repeat the 
verse hafhsah suchj?ad (4, 40, 5) in the Durohana way first by padas, then by half verses, 
then taking three padas together, and, finally, the whole verse without stopping, and 
conclude (this first repetition) with the syllable om. Then he ought to repeat it again, 
commencing with three padas taken together, then by half verses (and ultimately) by 
padas, which makes the seventh repetition (of the same verse). This is the Dflrohanam, 
See Ait. Br. 4, 21. The Maitravaruna has it to repeat always on the sixth day of the 
Abhiplava Salahas. On the Visuvan day it is repeated by the Hotar. The hamsavati 
forms part of a hymn addressed to Dadhikrdvan, which is a name of the sun ; haj'ma, i. e., 
swan, is another metaphorical expression for " sun," 


He is the " guest sitting in the house." He is "sitting among men." 
He "sits in the most excellent place " {varasad), for that place, in which 
sitting, he burns, is the most excellent of seats. He is " sitting in truth " 
iritasad). He is " sitting in the sky " (y^/ow^asacZ), for the sky is among 
the places that one where sitting he burns. He is *' born from the 
waters " {abjd), for in the morning he comes out of the waters, and in the 
evening he enters the waters. He is " born from cows " (gojd). He is 
** born from truth." He is '* born from the mountain " (he appears on a 
mountain, as it were, when rising). He is " truth " {ritam). 

He (the sun) is all these (forms). Among the metres (sacred verses) 
this {harhsavati verse) is, as it were, his most expressive and clearest form. 
Thence the Hotar should, wherever he makes the Durohanam, make it 
with the Harhsavati verse. 

He who desires heaven, should, however, make it with the Tarksya 
verse (10, 178, 1). For Tarksya showed the way to the Gayatri when 
she, in the form of an eagle, abstracted the Soma (from heaven). When 
he thus uses the Tarksya (for [295] making the Durohanam), he does 
just the same as if he were to appoint one who knows the fields as his 
guide (when travelling anywhere). The Tarksya ^^ is that one who 
blows {i. e., the wind), thus carrying one up to the celestial world. 

The Tarksya hymn is as follows :) — (1) " Let us call hither to (our) 
" safety the Tarksya, that horse instigated by the gods, (the horse) which 
" is enduring, makes pass the carriages (without any impediment), which 
" keeps unbroken the spokes of the carriage wheel, which is fierce in battle 
"and swift." 

He (the Tarksya) is the horse (vdji) instigated by the gods. He is 
enduring, makes pass the carriage (without any impediment) ; for he 
crosses the way through these worlds in an instant. He keeps the spokes 
of the carriage wheel unbroken, conquers in battle (pritandja being 
explained by pritandjit). By the words, " to (our) safety," the Hotar 
asks for safety. By the words, " let us call hither the Tarksya," he thus 
calls him. 

(2) " Offering repeatedly gifts (to the Tarksya) as if they were for 
" Indra, let us for (our) safety embark in the ship (represented by the 
" Durohanam) as it were. (May) the earth (be) wide (to allow us free 
" passage). May we not be hurt when going (our way) through you two 
" (heaven and earth) who are great and deep (like an ocean)." 

" It is often identified with the Garuda, i. e., the celestial eagle. According to Naigh. 
1, 14, it means " horse." Whether it is a personification of the sun, as is assumed in the 
Bamskrit Dictionary of Boehtlingk and Roth, iii, page 810, is very doubtful to me 


By the words, " for safety," he asks for safety. By the words, "let 
"as embark in the ship," he thus mounts him (the Tarksya), in order 
to reach the heavenly world, to enjoy it and to join (the celestial 
[296] inhabitants). By the words, " (may) the earth (be) wide, may we not 
be hurt," &c., the Hotar prays for a (safe) passage and (a safe) return.'" 

(3) " He (the Tarksya) passes in an instant by dint of his strength 
" through the regions of all five tribes (i. e., the whole earth), just as the sun 
" extends the waters (in an instant) by its light. The speed of him (the 
" Tarksya) who grants a thousand, who grants a hundred, gifts, is as irre- 
** sistible as that of a fresh arrow," 

By the word, sitrya, he praises the sun openly. By the words, ** the 
speed of him," &c., he asks for a blessing for himself and the sacrificers. 

{On the Way of Repeating the D'drohariam.) 

After having called somsdvom, he makes the Durohanam (represent- 
ing the ascent to heaven). The celestial world is the Durohaiiam (for it 
is to ascend). Speech is the call somsdvom ; (Brahma is Speech). By thus 
calling somsdvom, he ascends through the Brahma, which is this call, to 
the celestial world. The first time he makes his ascent by stopping after 
every pada (of the Durohana mantra). Thus he reaches this world (the 
earth). Then he stops after every half verse. Thus he reaches the airy 
region. Then he stops after having taken together three padas. Thus 
he reaches that world. Then he repeats the whole verse without stopping. 
Thus he gains a footing in him (the sun) wlio there burns. 

(After having thus ascended; he descends by stopping after three 
padas, just as one (in this world) holds the branch of the tree (in his hand 
when [297] descending from it). By doing so, he gains a firm footing in 
that world. By then stopping after each half verse, he gains a firm foot- 
ing in the airy region, (and by stopping) after each pada (he gains 
a firm- footing) in this world (again). After having thus reached the 
celestial world, the sacrificers obtain thus a footing (again) in this world. ^^ 
For those who aspire only after (a footing) in one (world), that is, 

'" 3IT^ T?ra ^^% are explained by Say. as ^rmf^^^l^ and S^I^f^ TJTf W 5rif$r5q^. 

" One has to bear in mind that the sacrificer does not -wish to reside permanently 
in heaven before the expiration of his fall life-term, viz., one hundred years. But by 
means of certain sacrifices he can secure for himself, even when still alive, lodgings 
in heaven, to be taken up by him after death. He must already, when alive, mystically 
ascend to heaven, to gain a footing there, and to be registered as a future inhabitant of 
the celestial world. After having accomplished his end, he descends again to the earth. 
His ascent and descent are dramatically represented by the peculiar way in which the 
Dflrohana mantra is repeated. 


alter heaven, tlie Hotar ought to repeat (the Durohanam) without making 

the descent (ia the way described, by stopping first after three padas, 

&c.) They (thus) conquer only the celestial world, but they cannot stay 

long, as it were, in this world. 

Hymns in the Tristubh and Jagati metre are mixed to represent a 

pair. For cattle are a pair ; metres are cattle. (This is done) for obtaining 



{To What the Visuvan Day is like. Whether or not the ^astras of the 

Visuvan Day are to he Repeated on other Days during the Sattra also. On 

the Merit of Performing the Visuvan Day. On this Day an Ox is to he 

Immolated for Visvaharma.) 

The Visuvan day is like a man. Its first half is like the right half 
(of a man) and its latter half like the left half. This is the reason that it 
(the performance [2981 of the six months' ceremonies following the 
Visuvan day) is called the " latter " (half). 

The Visuvan day is (just as) the head of a man whose both sides are 
equal. ^^ Man is, as it were, composed of fragments (bidaJa). That is the 
reason that even here a suture is found in the midst of the head. 

They say. He ought to repeat (the recitation for) this day only on the 
Visuvan day. ^^ Among the ^astras this one is Visuvan. This Sastra 
(called) Visuvan is the equator {visuvan). (By doing so) the sacrificers 
become visuvat {i.e., standing like the head above both sides of the body) 
and attain to leadership. 

But this opinion is not to be attended to. He ought to repeat it 
(also) during the year (the Sattra is lasting). For this Sastra is seed. 
By doing so, the sacrificers keep their seed (are not deprived of it) during 
the year. 

For the seeds produced before the lapse of a year which have required 
(for their growth) five or six months, go ofi (have no productive power). 
The sacrificers will not enjoy them (the fruits which were expected to 
come from them). But they enjoy (the fruits of) those seeds which are 
produced after ten months or a year. 

" The term in the original is prahahuk, which appears to mean, literally, measured 
by the length of arms (which both are equal). Say. explains it in the following way : 

'» That is to say, the performance of the Visuvan day must bo distinguished from 
that of all other clays of the Sattra. The Mahadivakirtyam Saman, the DGrohanam, &c., 
ought to be peculiar to it. Alias here clearly means " the performance of the ceremonies," 
or more especially the " Sastras required for the Soma day." 

" This is implied in the term (iTI^^?^) wpo, meaning, " in »ddition." 



r299l Therefore, the Hotar ou^ht to repeat the (^astra for the) 
Visuvan day during the year (also). For this day's iSastra is the year. 
Those who observe this day's performance (during the year) obtain the 
(enjoyment of the) year. 

The sacrificer destroys, by means of the Visuvan day's performance, 
during the year, all consequences of guilt (pd'pman). 

By means of (the performance of the Sattra ceremonies in) the months 
(during which the' Sattra is lasting), he removes the consequences of guilt 
from his limbs (the months being the limbs of the year). By means of 
the Visuvan day's performance during the year he removes the conse- 
quences of guilt from the head (the Visuvan being the head). He who 
has such a knowledge removes, by means of the Visuvan day's perform- 
ance, the consequences of guilt. 

They ought (on the Mahavrata day) to kill for the libations an ox for 
Vif^vakarman (Tvastar), in addition (to the regular animal, a goat, required 
for that occasion) ; it should be of two colours, on both sides. 

Indra, after having slain Vritra, became Vis^vakarman. Prajapati, 
after having produced the creatures, became (also) Vis^vakarman. The 
year is Visvakarman. ^^ Thus (by sacrificing such a bullock) they reach 
Indra, their own Self, Prajapati, the year, Vi^vakarman {i.e., they remain 
united with them, they will not die), and thus they obtain a footing in 
Indra, in their own Self (their prototype), in Prajapati, in the year, in 
Vit^vakarman. He who has such a knowledge, obtains a firm footing. 


{The Dvddasdha Sacrifice. Its Origin, and General Rules for its Perform- 
ance. The Initiatory Rites,) 


{Origin of the Dvddasdha. Its Gdyatri Form.) 

Prajapati felt a desire to create and to multiply himself. He under- 
went (in order to accomplish this end) austerities. After having done so, 
he perceived the Dvadasaha sacrifice (ceremonies to be) in his limbs and 
vital airs. He took it out of his limbs and vital airs, and made it twelve- 
fold. He seized it and sacrificed with it. Thence he (Prajapati) was 
produced {i.e., that form of his which enters creatures, his material body). 
Thus he was reproduced through himself in offspring and cattle. He who 

" Visvakarman means *' who does all work." Generally, the ^^rchitect of the gods is 
meant by the term. 


has such a knowledge, is reproduced through himself in offspring and 


Having the desire to obtain, through the Gayatri, throughout the 

Dvadas^aha everywhere, the enjoyment of all things, (he meditated) how 

(this might be achieved.) 

(It was done in the following way.) The Gayatri was at the 
beginning of the Dvadasaha in (the form of) splendour, in the midst of 
it, in (that of the) metre, at*its end in (that of) syllables. Having pene- 
trated with the Gayatri the Dvadaj^aha everywhere, he obtained the 
enjoyment of everything. 

He who knows the Gayatri as having wings, eyes, light, and lustre, 
goes by means of her, being possessed of these things, to the celestial 

The Dvadaflaha (sacrifice) is the Gayatri with wings, eyes, 
light, and lustre. The two wings (of the Dvadasaha) are the two 
Atiratras which are at the .beginning and end of it (lit,, round 
about). The two Agnistomas (within the two Atiratras) are the two 
[30 J] eyes. The eight Ukthya days (between the Atiratra and 
Agaistoma at the beginning, and the Agnistoma and Atiratra at the 
end) are the soul. 

He who has such a knowledge, goes to heaven by means of the 
wings, the eyes, the light, and lustre of the Gayatri. 

(On the Different Parts, and the Duration of the Dvddasdha Sacrifice. 
On the Brihati Nature of this Sacrifice. The Nature of the Brihati.) 

The Dvadai^aha consists of three Tryahas (a sacrificial performance 
lasting for three days) together with the " tenth day " and the two 
Atiratras. After having undergone the Diksa ceremony (the initiation) 
during twelve days, one becomes fit for performing (this) sacrifice. 
During twelve nights he undergoes the Upasads^ (fasting). By means of 
them, he shakes ofP (all guilt) from his body. 

He who has such a knowledge, becomes purified and clean, and 
enters the deities, after having during (these) twelve days been born anew 
and shaken off (all guilt) from his body. 

The Dvadas^aha consists (on the whole) of thirty-six days. The 
Brihati has thirty-six syllables. The Dvadas^aha is the sphere for the 
Bfihati (in which she is moving). By means of the Brihati, the gods 

^ He keeps the fasting connected with the Upasad ceremony. At this occasion he 
must live on milk alone. The Upasads are, at the Dvadasaha, performed during four days, 
on each day thrice, that makes twelve. See about them 1, 25. 


obtained (all) these worlds ; for by ten syllables they reached this world 
(the earth), by (other) ten they reached the air, by (other) ten the sky, by 
four they reached the four directions, and by two they gained a firm 
footing in this world, 

[3021 He who has stich a knowledge, secures a firm footing (for 

About this they (the theologians) ask, How is it, that this (particular 
metre of thirty-six syllables) is called Brihati, i.e , the great one, there 
being other metres which are stronger, and exceed the (Brihati) ia 
number of syllables ? (The answer is) It is called so on account of the 
gods having reached by means of it (all) these worlds, by ten syllables, 
this world (the earth), &c. He who has such a knowledge, obtains any- 
thing he might desire. 


[Prajdpati Instituted the Dvddasdha. The Nature of this Sacrifice. By 

Whom it should be Performed.) 

The Dvadas^aha is Prajapati's sacrifice. At the beginning, Prajapati 
sacrificed with it. He said to the Seasons and Months, " Make me sacri- 
fice with the Dvadasaha {i.e., initiate me for this sacrifice)." 

After having performed on him the Diksa ceremony, and pre- 
vented him from leaving (when walking in the sacrificial compound) they 
said to him, "Now give us (first something), then we shall make the 
sacrifice," He granted them food, and juice (milk, &c.)- Just this juice 
is put in the Seasons and Months. 

When he granted them that, then they made him sacrifice. This 
is the reason that only the man who can afford to give something is fit for 
performing this sacrifice. 

When receiving his gifts, they (the Seasons and Months"^ made him 
(Prajapati) sacrifice. Thence must he w^ho receives gifts, sacrifice for 
another. Thus both parties succeed those who, having .such a knowledge, 
bring sacrifices for others, as well as those who have'them performed for 

[3031 The Seasons and Months felt themselves burdened, as it were 
(with guilt), for having accepted at the Dvadaslaha (which they performed 
for Prajapati) a reward. They said to Prajapati, "Make us (also) 
sacrifice with the Dvadat^aha." He consented and said to them, "Become 
ye initiated (take the Diksa) !" The deities residing in the first (the so- 
called bright) half of the months first underwent the Diksa ceremony, 
and thus removed the consequences of guilt. Thence they are in the 


dayliglit as it were ; for those who have their guilt (really) removed, are 
in the daylight, as it were (may appear everywhere). 

The deities residing in the second half (of the months) afterwards 
underwent the Diksa. But they (could) not wholly remove the evil 
consequences of guilt. Thence they are darkness, as it were ; for those 
who have their guilt not removed are darkness, as it were (comparalDle 
to it). 

Thence he who has this knowledge ought to have performed his 
Diksa first and in the first half (of the month). He who has such a 
knowledge, thus removes (all) guilt from himself. 

It was Prajapati who, as the year, resided in the year, the seasons, 
and months. The seasons and months thus resided (also) in Prajapati as 
the year. Thus they mutually reside in one another. He who has the 
Dvadat^aha performed for himself resides in the priest (who performs it 
for him). Thence they (the priests) say, " No sinner is fit for having 
the Dvadat^aha sacrifice performed, nor should such an one reside in me." 
The Dvadasaha is the sacrifice for the first-born. He who first had 
the Dvadai^aha performed (became) the first-born among the gods. It 
is the sacrifice for a leader (a srestlia). He who first performed it (be- 
came) the leader among the gods. The first-born, [304] the leader (of his 
family or tribe) ought to perform it (alone) ; then happiness lasts (all the 
year) in this (the place where it is performed). 

(They say) " No sinner ought to have the Dvadas^aha sacrifice 
performed ; no such one should reside in me (the priest)." 

The gods (once upon a time) did not acknowledge that Tndra had 
the right of primogeniture and leadership. He said to Brihaspati, 
"Bring for me the Dvadasaha sacrifice." He complied with his wish. 
Thereupon the gods acknowledged Indra's right of primogeniture and 

He who has such a knowledge, is acknowledged as the first-biorn 
and leader. All his relations agree as (to his right) to the leadership. 

The first three (Soma) days (of the Dvadasaha) are ascending {i.e., 
the metres required are from the morning to the evening libation 
increasing in number) ; the middle three (Soma) days are crossed, {i. e., 
there is no regular order of increase nor decrease in the number of 
syllables of the metres) ; the last three (Soma) days are descending {i.e., 
the number of syllables of the metres from the morning to the evening 
libations is decreasing).* 

' Here are the nine principal days of the DvSdasaha sacrifice mentioned. They 
constitute the Navaratra, i.e., sacrifice Ustiag for niae nights (and days). It consists of 


On account of tlie (metres of the) first three days (tryaha) being 
ascending, the fire blazes up, for the upward region belongs to the 
fire. On account of the (metres of the) middle three days being 
crossed, the wind blows across ; the wind moves across (the other 
£305] regions), and the waters flow ialso) across ; for the region which 
is across (the others) belongs to the wind. On account of (the metres of) 
the three last days being descending, that one (the sun) burns downwards 
(sending his rays down), the rain falls down, (and) the constellations (in 
heaven) send (their light) down. For the region which goes down belongs 
to the sun. 

The three worlds belong together, so do these three Tryahas. 
These (three) worlds jointly shine to the fortune of him who has such a 


(When the Dihsd for the Dvddasdha is to he Performed. The Animal for 
Prajdpati. Jamadagni Sdmidheni verses required. The Puroddsa for 
Vdyu. On Some Peculiar Rite when the Dvddasdha is Performed as a 

The Diksa went away from the gods. They made it enter the 
two months of spring, and joined it to it ; but they did not get it out (of 
these months for using it). They then made it subsequently enter the 
two hot mouths, the two rainy months, the two months of autumn, and the 
two winter months, and joined it to them. They did not get it out of 
the two winter months. They then joined it to the two months of 
the dewy season (Sii^ira) ; they (finally) got it out of these (two months 
for using it). 

He who has such a knowledge, reaches any one he wishes to reach, 
but his enemy will not reach him. 

Thence the sacrificer who wishes that the Diksa for a sacrificial 
session^ should come (by itself) to him, should have the Diksa rites 
performed on himself [306] during the two months of the dewy season. 
Thus he takes his Diksa when the Diks^ herself is present, and receives 
her in person, 

(The reason that he should take his Diksa during the two months 

three Tryahas, i.e., three days' performance of the Soma sacrifice. The order of metres 
on the first three days is, at the morning libation, Gayatri (twenty-four syllables) ; 
at the midday libation, Tristubh (forty-four syllables) ; at the evening libation, Jagati 
(forty-eight syllables). On the middle three days the order of metres is, Jagati, Gayatri, 
and Tristubh, and on the last three days, Tristubh, Jagati, and Gayatri. 

* The Dvddasaha is regarded as a Sattra or session. The initiation for the per- 
formance of a Sattra is a Sattra diksa. 


of the dewj season is) because both tame and wild aDimals are, m 
these two months (for want of green fodder)^ very thin and show only 
bones, and present in this state the most vivid image of the Diksa (the 
aim of which ceremony is to make the sacrificer lean by fasting). 

Before he takes his Diksa, he sacrifices an animal for Prajapati. 
For (the immolation of) this (animal) he ought to repeat seventeen Sami- 
dheni* verses. For Prajapati is seventeen-fold. (This is done) for 
reachiug Prajapati. Apri verses which come from Jamadagni are 
(required) for (the immolation of) this animal. About this they say, Since 
at (all ) other animal sacrifices only such Apri verses are chosen as are^ 
traceable to the Risi ancestors (5f the sacrificer), why .are at this (Prajapati 
sacrifice) only Jamadagni verses to be used by all ? (The reason is) The 
Jamadagni verses have a universal character, and make successful in 
everything. This (Prajapati) animal is of a universal character, and 
makes successf al in everything. The reason that they use (at tliat occasion) 
Jamadagni verses, is to secure all forms, and to be successful in every- 

The PurodaiJa belonging to this animal is Vayu's. About this they 
ask, Why does the Purodasila, which forms part of the animal vsacrifice, 
belong to Vayu, whilst the animal itself belongs to another deity (Prajapati)? 
(To this objection) one ought to reply, Prajapati is the sacrifice ; (that 
Purodasa is given to Vayu), in order to have the sacrifice performed 
without any iViista^i:e. Though this [307] Purodasa belongs to Vayu, it 
is not withheld from Prajapati. For Vayu is Prajapati. This has been 
said by a Risi in the words, pavamam)} prajapatiht (9, 5, 9), i.e., Prajapati 
who blows. 

If the Dvadai^aha be' (performed as) a Sattra, then the sacrificers^ 
should put all their several fires together, and sacrifice in them. All 
should take the Diksa, and all should prepare the Soma juice. 

He concludes (this sacrifice) in spring. For spring is sap. By 
doing so, he ends (his sacrifice) with (the obtaining of) food (resulting 
from the sap of spring). 

{The Rivalry of the Metres. The Separation of Heaven and Earth. They 
Contract a Marriage. The Sdma Forms in whiah they are Wedded to one 
another. On the Blaeh Spot in the Moon. On Pofa and Usa.) 

Each of the metres (Gayatri, Tristubh, and Jagati) tried to occupy 

. ^, -^ 

* See 1, 1. 
'At a Sattra or sacrificial session all the sixteen priests in their turn become 
s&crlflcers. They perform the ceremonies for one another. 


tlie place of another metre. Gayatri aspired after tlie place of Tristubli 
aud Jagati, Tristubli after tliat of Gdyatri aud Jagati, and Jagati 
after that of Gayatri and Tristubh. 

Thereupon Prajapatl saw this Dvadas^aha with metres being removed 
from their proper places {vyulhachhandasa). He took it and sacrificed 
with it. In this way, he made the metres obtain (fulfilment of) all tlieir 
desires. He who has such a knowledge, obtains (fulfilment of) all desires. 

The Hotar removes the metres from their proper places, in order that 
the sacrifice should not lose its essence. 

This circumstance that the Hotar changes the proper place of the 
metres has its analogy in the fact [308] that (great) people when travelling 
(to a distant place) yoke to their carriages, at every stage, fresh horses or 
oxen which are not fatigued. Just in the same way, the sacrificers travel 
to the celestial world by employing at every stage fresh metres (repre- 
senting the horses or oxen) which are not fatigued. (This results) from 
changing the places of the metres. 

These two worlds (heaven aud earth) were (once) joined. (Subse- 
quently) they separated. (After their separation) there fell neither rain, 
nor was there sunshine. The five classes of beings (gods, men, &c.) then 
did not keep peace with one another. (Thereupon) the gods brought 
about a reconciliation of both these worlds. Both contracted with one 
another a marriage, according to the rites observed by the gods. 

In the form of the R;ithantarxSimau, this earth is wedded to heaven ; 
and in the form of the Brihat Saman, heaven is wedded to the earth. 
(And again) in the form of the Naudhasa Saman, the earth is wedded to 
heaven ; and in the form of the Syaita Saman, heaven is wedded to the 

In the form of smoke, this earth is wedded to heaven ; in the form of 
rain, heaven is wedded to the earth. 

Tlie earth put a place fit for offering sacrifices to the gods into 
heaven. Heaven (then) put cattle on tlie earth. 

The place fit for offering sacrifices to the gods which the earth put 
in heaven is that black spot in the moon. 

This is the reason that they perform their sacrifice in those half 
months in which the moon is waxing and full (for only then that black 
spot is visible) ; for they only wish to obtain that (black spot). 

Heaven (put) on the earth herbs for pasturage. About them Tura, the 

son of Kavasa, said : O Janamejaya, what is (to be understood by the words) 

[309] 2^05a (fodder) and ilsa (herbs of pasturage) ? This is the reason 

that those who care for what proceeds from the cow ''^n^li as milkj &o,) 



put the question (when sending a cow to a pasturage), are tliere usus, 

i.e., herbs of pasturage ? For usa is fodder. 

That workl turned towards this world, surrounding it. Thence 

heaven and earth were produced. Neither came heaven from the air, nor 

the earth from the air. 


{On the Sdma Pristhas.) ® 

At the beginning, there were Brihat and Rathantaram ; through them 
there were Speech and Mind. Rathantaram is Speech, Brihat is Mind. 
Brihat being first created, thought Rathantaram to be inferior ; the 
Rathantaram put an embryo in its bodj' and brought forth Vairupam. 
These two, Rathantaram and Vairupam joined, thought Brihat to be in- 
ferior to them ; Brihat put an embryo in its own body, whence the 
Vairajam was produced. These two, Brihat and Vairajam joined, tiiought 
Rathantaram and Vairupam to be inferior to them. Rathantaram then 
put an embryo in its body, whence the Sakvaram was produced. These 
three, Rathantaram, Vairupam, and Sakvaram thought Brihat and Vaira- 
jam to be inferior to them. Brihat then put an embryo in its body, 
■whence the Raivatara was produced. These three Samans on each side 
(Rathantaram, Vairupam, Sakvaram, and Brihat, Vairajam, Raivatam) 
became the six Pristhas. ' 

At this (time, when the Sama Pristhas originated) the three metres 
(Gayatri, Tristubh, and Jagati) [310] were unable to get hold of these 
six Pristhas. Gayatri put an embryo in herself and produced Anustubh. 
Tristubh put an embryo in hereself and produced Pafikti. Jagati put 
an embryo in herself and produced the Atichhandas (metres). The three 
metres having thus become six, were thus able to hold the six Pristhas. 

The sacrifice of him becomes (well) performed and (also) becomes 
well performed for the whole assemblage (of sacrificer), who at this occa- 
sion takes his Diksa when knowing this production of the metres and 


{The Tivo First Days of the Dvddusdha Sacrifice) 


(Tlie Sastras of the Morning and Midday Libations on the First Day.) 

Agiii is tlie leading deity of the first day. The Stoma (required) is 

• See page 214. 

' The pur|)ort of this paragraph is to show why ou certain days of the Dvadas4ha 
the Ratbantara .SftDian, and on others the Brihat Saman, is required for forming a Pri.^tha 
with another Samaii. See on these different Samans 4, 13. 


Trivrit (the nine-folJ\ the Saman RatLantaram, the metre Gayatri. Hp 
who knows what deity, what Stoma, what Samau, what metre (are re- 
quired on the first day), becomes successful by it. The words a and^ pra 
are the characteristics of the first day. (Further) characteristics of this 
day are : yukta joined, ratha carriage, dsu swift, pa to drink, the 
mentioning of the deities in the first padas (of the verses repeated) by 
their very names, the allusion to this world (earth), Samans akin to Ra- 
thantaram, metres akin to Gayatri, the future of hri to make. 

The Ajya hymn of the first day is, upa prayanto adhcaram (1, 74^; 
for it contains the term pra, which is a characteristic of the first day. 

[311] The Pra-uga Sastram is, idyavdydhi darsafeme (1, 2-3); for it 
contains the term d, a characteristic of the first day. 

The Pratipad (beginning) of the Marutvatiya Sastra is, d tvd rathani 
yathotaye (8, 57, 1-3) ; its Anuchara (sequel), idayfi vaso siitam andhah 
■^, 2, 1-3) ; they contain the terras ratha and piha (drink), which are 
characteristics of the first day. 

The Indra-Nihava Pragatha is, indra nediya cd ihi (Valakh. 5, 5-G) ; 
here the deity is mentioned in the first pada, which is a characteristic of 
the first day. 

The Brahmanaspatya Pragatha is, praitu BrahmamspatiJ} (1, 40, 3-4) ; 
it contains the term pra, which is a characteristic of the first day. 

The Dhayyas are, agnir mtd, tvam Soma hratuhhih, pinvauty apah 
''Ait. Br. 3, IS) ; here are the deities mentioned in the first padas, which 
is a characteristic of the first day. 

The ^larutvatiya Pragatha is, prava indrdya hrihatc (8, 78, 3-4) ; it 
contains the term pra, wliich is a characteristic of the first day. 

The (Nivid) hymn is, d ydtc iadro vase (4, 21) ; it contains (he term r?, 
which is a characteristic of the first day. 

iXishevalya Sastra) 

The Rathantaia Pristham is, ahhi tvd sura )wmimo (7. 32, 22-23) and 
ahhi tvci piirvapitaye (8, 3,7-8); (this is done) at a Rathautara day, of 
which characteristic the first day is. 

The Dhayya is, yad vdudna (Ait. Br. 3, 22) ; it contains the term a, 
which is a characteristic of the first day. 

The Sama Pragatha is, piha sutasya (8. 3, 1-2) ; it contains the 
term piba, " drink,"' which ii=; a characteristic of the first day. 

The Tarksyam is, tyam n m rdjinayn (Ait. Br. 4, 20>. The Hotar 
repeats it before the (Nivid) hymn [312] (of the Nibkevalya Sastra). 
The Tarksyam is safe journey. (It is repeated) for securing safely. 


Ilo who lias suck a knowledge makes his joiiniey in safety and reaches 
tlie end of the year in safety. 


{The Rest of. th-e Niskevalya ^astra, and the ^astras of the Evening 


The (Nivid) hymn (of the Niskevalya Sastra) is, d na indro durdd 
(4, 20) ; it contains the term a, Avhich is a characteristic of the first day. 

Both Nivid hymns, that of the Marutvatiya as well as that of the 
Niskevalya Sastras are (so called) Saihpdtas. * Vamadeva, after having 
seen (once) these (three) worlds, got possession of them {samopatat) by 
means of the Sampdtas. On account of his getting possession of (sampati) 
by means of the Saihpatas, they are called by this name (sampatas). 

The reason that the Hotar, on the first day, repeats two Sampata 
hymns, is, to reach the celestial world, to get possession of it, and join ■ 
(its inhabitants). 

The Pratipad (beginning verse) of the Vaisvadeva Sastra on the 
first day, which is a Rathantara day ^ [313] is, tat savitur vririimahe, 
(5, 82, 1-3) ; its Anuchara (sequel) is, adya no deva savitar (5, 82, 4-b*). 
It is used at a Rathantara day, which is characteristic of the first day. 

The (Nivid) hymn for Savitar is, yiiiljate mana uta (5, 81) ; it con- 
tains the term yuj to join, which is a characteristic of the first day. 

The (Nivid) hymn for Heaven and Earth is, pra dydvd yajfidil} (1, 
159 ) ; it contains the pra, which is a characteristic of the first day. 

The (Nivid) hymn for the Ribhus is, iheha vo manasd (3, CO). If it 
would contain pra, and d, the (proper) characteristics of the first day, then 
all would be pra, i. c, going forth, and consequently tlip sacrificers would 
depart (prdisyan) from this world. This is the reason that the Hotar 
repeats on the first day (as Nivid hymn for Heaven and Earth) iheha 
mano though it does not contain the term characteristic of the first day). 

» See Ait. Brahm. 6, 18. ~ 

» The so-called Rathantara clays of the Dvadaslha are the first, third and fifth. Sdy. 
h(-ro remarks that the Pratipad of the Vaisvadeva Sastras is joined to the Rathantara 
saman. This is, however, an erroneous statement, as I can prove from the Sama prayoga 
of the Dvadasaha (the last sacrifice of this kind has been, in this part of India, 
performed about fifty years ago) which is in my possession. The triplet addressed to 
Savitar is always (at all Soma sacrifices) tho opening of the Vais'vadeva Sastra on the 
evening libation ; but on the first day of the Dvadasaha, there is besides the Arbhava 
Pavaraana Stotra, only the Yajua yajuiya Sama used, the same which is required at the 
evening libation of the Agnistoma. Say. wrote that explanation only to explain the 
term rnHxaniara. This means only that this is done on the " Rathantara day." The 
Hathantara is on this day required at the midday libation. 


Iha, i.e.y here, is this world. By doing so, the Hotar makes tlie'sacrificcrs 
enjoy this world. 

The (Nivid) hymn for the Vitivedevah is, devcin huve hrihach cliha^ 
vasah svastaye (10, 66). The deities are mentioned in the first pada, 
which is a characteristic of the first day. 

The reason that the Hotar repeats this hymn (as Nivid Sukta) for the 
Vi^vedevah on the first day, is to make the journey (of the saciificers) safe, 
because those who hold a session lasting for a year, or who perform the 
Dvadaslaha, are going to set out on a long journey. Thus the Hotar makes 
(for them) the journey safe- 

He who has such a knowledge reaches in safety the end of the year, 
as well as those who have a Hotar knowing this and acting accordingly. 

The Partipad of the Agnimaruta Sastra is, vais vdnardya pfif^iu- 
pdjase (3, 3). The deity (Vaii^vanara) [314] is mentioned in the first 
pada, which is a characteristic of the first day. 

The (Nivid) hymn for the Marutas is, pra tvah^sah pra tavasah (1, 
87). It contains the term pra, which is a characteristic of the first 

He repeats the Jatavedas verse, jdtaoedase sunavdma (1, 99, 1) before 
(the Jatavedas) hymn. The Jatavedas verse is safe journey. (It is 
repeated) for securing a safe journey. Thus he secures a safe journey 
(for the sacrificer). He who has such a knowledge reaches in safety 
the end of the year. 

The (Nivid) hymn for Jatavedas is, pra tavyasim navyasim (1, 143). 
It contains the term pra, which is a characteristic of the first day. 

The Agnimaruta ^astra (of the first day of the Dvadasiaha) is the 
same as in the Agnistoma^ The creatures live on what is performed 
equally in the sacrifice (i.e., in several different kinds of sacrifices). 
Thence the Agnimaruta Sastia (of the first day of the Dvadaniaha) is 
identical (with that of the Agnistoma). 


{The Characteristics of the Second Day of the Dvddasdha. The ^astras of 

the Morning and Midday Libations. Story of Sdrydta, the son of Manu) 

Indra is the leading deity of the second day ; the Stoma (required) 
is the fifteen-fold (pailchadasa), the Saman is Brihat, the metre is Tris- 
tubh. He who knows what deity, what Stoma, what Saman, what 
metre (are required for the second day) succeeds by it. On the second 
day, neither d nor pra (the characteristics of the first day) are used, but 
sthd (derivations from this root) " to stand, " is the characteristic. Other 

' See 3, 35-38. 


characteristics of the second day are, itrdhva [315} upwards, prati to- 
wards, antar in, between, vrisan male, vfidhan growing, the deities men- 
tioned (by their names) in the second pada, the allusion to the airy 
region, what has the nature of the Brihat Saman, what has the nature of 
the Tristubh the present tensed 

The Ajya (hymn) of the second day is, agnim dutam vririimahe 
(1, 12) ; this contains the present tense (in vrirjLimahe), which is a charac- 
teristic of the second day. 

The pra-uga Sastra is, vmjo ye te sahasrirj.o (2, 41) ; it contains the 
term vridhan growing, increasing, in the words suta]} soma ritd ridha 
(2, 41, 4), which is a characteristic of the second day. 

The Pratipad (beginning) of the Marutvatiya ^astra is, visvanarasya 
vaspatim{S, 57, 4-6), and its Anuchara (sequel), indra it Somapd (8, 2, 
4-6). They contain the terms vridhan (8, 57, 5) and ajitar (8, 2, 5), which 
are characteristics of the second day. 

The constant (Ind*-Nihava) Pragatha is, indra nediya edihi. 

The Brahmanaspati Pragatha is, uttistha hrahmanaspate ; it contains 
the term lirdhva up, upwards, (in the word uttistha, i.e., rise), which is a 
characteristic of the second day. 

The constant Dhayyas are, agnir netd tvam soma kratuhhiJ}, pinvanty 

The Marutvatiya Pargatha is, hrihad indrdya gdyata (8, 87, 1-2) ; it 
contains the term vridhan increasing, in the word ritarridhd. 

The (Nivid) hymn (of the Marutvatiya Sastra) is, indra somam soma 
pate (3, 32) ; it contains the [316] term vrisan in the word a vri^asva 
" gather strength " (show yourself as a male 3, 32, 2), which is a charac- 
teristic of the second day. 

The Brihat Pristham {i. e., Stotriyam, and Anurupam) is tvdm iddhi 
havdmahe (6, 46, 1-2) and toain hyehi eherave (8, 50, 7-8) ; (this is done) 
on the Barhata day,^ of which kind the second day is (the use of the Brihat 
pri^tha), being a characteristic of the second day. 

The constant Dhayya (of the Niskevalya Sastra) is, yad vdvdna. 

The Sama Pragatha is, ubhayam sriviavaeheha (8, 50, 1-2) ; (the term 
uhhayam, i. e. both) means, what is today and what was yesterday. It 
belongs to the Brihat Sfxman, which is a charateristic of the second day. 

The constant Tarksya is, tyam iX §m vdjinam. 

" The word for " present tense " in the original is kiirvat, which is the participle of 
the present tense of the root kri to make. That it cannot have any other meaning, 
midoubteclly follows from the application of this term to the hymn ogjiim dutoni z^riit 
muhc, in the whole of which there is nowhere any present tense or present participle 
of the root kri, but present tenses of other verbs. 

• The Barh ata days arc the second, fourth, and sixth. 



{Tlie Remainder of the Nishevalya Sastra and the Sastras of the Evening 
Libation on the S€eo7id Day) 

The (Nivid) hymn (of the Niskevalya Sastra) is, ya ta iltir avamd 
(6, 25) ; it contains the term vrisan, in the word vrisnydni {Q, 25, 3), 
which term is a characteristic of the second day. , 

The Pratipad of the Vaii^vadeva Sastra is, visvo devasya netiis (5, 50, 
1), and tat savitur varenyam (3, 62, 10-11), the Anuchara (sequel) is, d 
visvadevavi satpatim (5, 82, 7-9). It belongs to the Brihat day, and is 
thus a characteristic of the second day (which is a Brihat day). 

The (Nivid) hymn for Savitar is, ud u Sya devali savitd (6, 71) ; it 
contains the trem " up upwards " (in ut), which is a characteristic of the 
second day, 

[317] The Nivid hymn for Dyavaprithivi is, te hi dydvdpritMvi (1, 160) ; 
it contains the term antar, which is a characteristic of the second day. 

The (Nivid) hymn for the Ribhus is, tahsan raf/m?M (1, 111), it con- 
tains the term vrisan, in the word vrisanvasd, which is a characteristic 
of the second day. 

The (Nivid) hymn for the Visivedevah is, yajnasya yo rathyam (10, 
92) ; it contains the term vri^d in the words vrisa ketur, which is a 
characteristic of the second day. This hymn is by Saryata. As the Afi- 
giras were engaged in a sacrificial session for going to heaven, they be- 
came always confounded (in their recitations) as often as they were going 
to perform the ceremonies of the second day (of the Sajaha). Saryata, 
the son of Manu, made them repeat the hymn, yajnasya rathyam on the 
second day, whereupon they got aware of the sacrifice (the sacrificial 
personage), and (by means of it) of the celestial world. The reason that the 
Ho tar repeats this hymn on the second day is (to help the sacrificer;, to 
get aware of the sacrifice, and consequently to see the celestial world 
(of which he wishes lo became an inhabitant). 

The Pratipad (beginning) of the Agnimaruta Sastra is, prih^asya 
vrisno (6, 8) ; it contains the term vrisan, which is a characteristic of the 
second day. 

The (Nivid) hymn for the Marutas in the Agnimaruta Sastra is, 
vrisrie sardhdya (1, 64) ; it contains the term vrisaiiy which is a charac- 
teristic of the second day. 

The constant Jatavedas verse is, Jdtavedase sunavdma. 

The (Nivid) hymn for Jatavedas is yajnena vardhata (2, 2) ; it con- 
tains the term vndh, which is a charcteristic of the second day. 

[318] FIFTH BOOK. 


{The Qharacteristies and Sastras of the Third and Fourth 
Days of the Dvddasdha) 

(The Characteristics of the Third-Day. The Sastras of the Morning 
and Midday Libations) 

The leading deities of the third day are the Vi^vedevah ; its (leading) 
Stoma is the so-called Saptadaf^a (seventeen-fold), its Saman the Vairiipam, 
its metre the Jagati. He who knows what deity, what Stoma, what 
Saman, what metre (are required on the third day), becomes successful 
by it. 

What hymn has a refrain, that is a characteristic of the third day. 
Other characteristics are : asva horse, anta end, rej>etition, (punardvritti) 
consonance (in the ending vowels), cohabitation, the term " covered, closed," 
iparyasta), the term three, what has the form of anta (end), the mentioning 
of the deity in the last pada, an allusion to that world, the Vairupam 
Saman, the Jagati metre, the past tense. 

The Ajya ^astra is, yuksvd hi devahutamdn (8, G4). The gods went 
to heaven by means of the third day. The Asuras (and) Raksas prevented 
them (from entering it). They said (to the Asuras), "Become deformed, 
become deformed " iviriipa) ; when the Asuras were becoming deformed, 
the Devas entered (heaven). This produced the Sciman called Vairupam, 
thence it is called so (from virupn deformed). He who has become 
deformed in consequence of his own guilt, destroys it (his deformity) by 
means of this knowledge. 

[319] The Asuras persecuted the Devas again, and came into contact 
with them. The Devas turned horses (asva) and kicked them with their 
feet. Thence the horses are called asva <^from al to reach). He who 
knows this obtains {amute) all he desires. Thence the horse is the swiftest 
of animals, because of its kicking with the hind legs. He who has such 
a knowledge destroys the consequences of guilt. Thia is the reason that 
the Aiya hymn on the third day contains the term asva horse, which is 
a characteristic of the third day. 


Tlie Pra-uga Sastra consists of the following triplets : vdyavaydJti vitaye 
(5, 51, 5-7) vdyo yalii sivid^ (8, 26, 23-25), indras cha vdyav e§dm sutdndm 
(5, 51, 6-8), d mitre varune vayam (5, 72, 1-3), asvindveha gachhatdm (5, 75, 
7-9), dydhy adrihhih (5, 40, 1-3), sajilr devehhir visvehhir (7, 34, 15-17), iita 
nah priyd (6, 61 10-12). They are in the Usnih metre, have a refrain 
{samdnodarkam) , which is a characteristic of the third day. 

Tarn tam id rddhasc (8, 57, 7-9), traya indrasya Soma (8, 2, 7-0) are 
the beginning and the sequel of the Manitvatiya ^astra, which contain 
the terms, nrtd, i.e., consonance (8, 57, 7) and traya, i.e., three, which are 
characteristics of the third daj*. Indra ned%ya{Yn\. 5, 5-6) ie the constant 
(Indra-Nihava) pi'agdthali} PramXnam Brahman arspatir (1, 40, 5-6) is the 
Brahmanaspatya Pragatha which has a consonance (of vowels), is a charac- 
teristic of the third day. Agnir netd (3, 20, 4), tvam Soma kratuhhiJ} (1, 91, 
2), and pinvanty apo (1,64,- 6) are the immoA-able Dhayy^s. Nahih 
Suddso ratliam (7, 32, 10) [320] is the Manitvatiya Pragatha, whicli 
contains the term prayasta, i.e., covered, closed. Tvyaryama maninjo 
devatdtd (5, 29) is the (Nivid) hymn (for the Manitvatiya Shastra) ; it 
contains the term " three." Yad dijdva indra fS, 59, 5-6), yad indra ydvatas 
(7, 32, 18-19) form the Vairi^pam Pristham on the third day, which is 
a Rathantara day, which is a characteristic of the third day. 

m Yad vdvdna (10, 74, 6) is the constant Dhayya. Sy repeating (after 
this Dhayya) : ahhi tvd sitra nonumali (7, 32, 22-23) the Hotar turns back 
the womb (of this day), because this (third) day is, as to its position, a 
Rathantara day which Saman is, therefore, the womb of it. Indra tridhdlu,^ 
»arariam (6, 46, 9-10) is the Saraa Pragatha ; it contains the term "three" 
(in tridhdta). Tyam H ^ii vdjinam (10, 178) is the constant Tarksya. 


(The Nivid Hymn of the Ni.^kevalya ^astva, and tJie Sastras 
of the Eveyiing Libation of the Third Day) 
II Yo jdto eva prathamo manasvdn (2, 12) is the (Nivid) hymn, every 
verse of which ends in the same words {sa jandsa Indral}), which is a 
cliaracteristic of the third day. It contains the words sa jana and Indra. 
If this be recited, then Indra becomes possessd of his Indra (peculiar) 
power. The Sama singers, therefore , say, the Rigvedis (the Hotars) praise 
Indra's peculiar nature (power, indrasya indriyam). This hymn is by the 
Risi Gfitsamada. By means of it, this Risi obtained Indra's favour 

' Sayana explains panarninritam as follows : jif^^ ^^f^^wRi^M'ii, ^: j^Kr^fi^T ^ ^jmHr^^i, 
This clearly expresses what we call consonance ; tlia recurrouco ol' tho same vowel ut 
the end is coinparocl to the uiovoiivonts of a dancer (innrittmvA. 


and conquered the highest world. He who has this knowledge obtains 
Indra's favour and conquers the highest world. 

Tat Savitur vrhimahe vayam (5, 82, 1-3) and adya no deva savitah 
(5, 82, 3-5), are the beginning and the [321] sequel of the Vaisvadeva 
Sastra on the third day, which is a Rathantara day. 

Tad devasya Savitur vdryam mahad vriviima'he (4, 53, 1) is the (Nivid) 
hymn for Savitar. Because the end (which is aimed at) is a great one 
{viahad) ; and the third day is also an end. Ghritena dydvd prithivi 
(6, 70) is the (Nivid) hymn for Dyavaprithivi. It contains the words 
ghritasriyd, ghrita 'pfichd, ghritavridhd, in which there is a repetition 
(because the word ghrita is three times repeated) and the consonance of 
the terminating vowels (because there is three times d at the end), which 
are characteristics of the third day. 

AnasvS jato armlMsur (4, 36) is the (Nivid) hymn for the Ribhus. 
It contains, in the words rathas trichakrah, the term '* three " (tW), which 
is a characteristic of the third day. 

Pardvato ye didhisanta (10, 63) is the (Nivid) hymn for the Vitivedevah, 
Because the word anta (the end) is to be found in the word paravato 
{ato in the strong form anto), and the third day is an end (an object). This 
is the Gayasukta, by which Gaya, the son of Plata, obtained the favour 
of the Vi^vedevah and conquered the highest world. He who has this 
knowledge obtains the favour of the Vis^vedevah and conquers the highest 


Vaisvanardya dhi^amm (3, 2) is the beginning of the Agnimaruta 
^astra. The anta (end) is in di^and (but the t is wanting). The third 
day is also an " end " (to a Tryaha or period of three days). 

Bhdrdvard maruto (2, 34) is the (Nivid) hymn for the Marutas. Here 
by anta is the plural (most of the nominatives of this verse are in the 
plural) to be understood, because the plural is the end (the last among 
the terminations, following the singular and dual). The third day is 
also the end (of the Tryaha). 

[3221 Jdtavedase sunavdma (1, 99, 1) is the constant verse for JStavedas. 
Tvam ague prathamo afigird (1, 31) is the (Nivid) hymn for Jatavedas, 
where each verse begins by the same words {tvam agne\ which is a 
characteristic of the third day. By repeating tvam tvam (in every verse), 
the Hotar alludes to the following three days (from the fourth to the sixth) 
for connecting (both series of three days). Those who, with such a know- 
ledge, repeat (at the end of the last Sastra of the third day a hymn every 
verse of which contains the term tvarti) have both series of three days 
performed without interruption and breach. 



(071 the Nyihikhay 

(Say. These periods of three days form part of the Navardtra — nine 
nights included in the Dvadasiaha. [323] The first Tryahah or period of 
three days is now explained, and the very same is the first part of the 
pristhyam, comprising six days. Now the middle part of the Navaratra 
(the second three days) are to be explained. 

The Stomas and Chhandas are at an end (i.e., all the Stoma combi- 
nations, and the metres are exhausted) on the third day ; that one only 
remains. This " that one " is the syllable vdch, which consists of three 
sounds ; vach is one syllable, ^and (this) syllable consists of three sounds, 
which represent the latter thre days (out of the six), of which Vach 
(Speech) is one, and Gaus (Cow) is one, and Dyaus (Heaven) is one. 
Therefore, Vach alone is the leading deity of the fourth day. 

On just the fourth day, they make Ts/ythikha of this syllable by 
pronouncing it with a tremulous voice, increasing and decreasing (divid- 
ing) the tone. It serves for rising the fourth day (to make it particularly 
important). Because the Nyunkha is (produces) food, for the singers 
seeking a livelihood wander about, in order to make food grow (by 
their singing for rain). 

By making Nyunkha on the fourth day, they produce food ; (because 
it is done) for producing food. Thence the fourth day is jdtavat, i.e., 
productive. Some say, one must make Nyfinkha with a word comprising 
four sounds ; for the animals are fourfooted, in order to obtain cattle. 
Others say, one must make Nyunkha with three sounds. These three 
sounds are the three worlds. In order to conquer these worlds, tliey say, 
•The rules for making the NyflSkha are laid dwon in Asval. Sr. S (7, U), They are 

■^mfr^nTSI^^lTfr^Tm^, 3 #^ ^ff^^fef^ s^p^rm^, i.e., « on the fourth day is the 
second sound (syllable) of each of the two first half verses in the beginning of the 
Pr&taranuvake to be pronounced with Nyflnkha. (This NyQukha is made in the following 
manner). The 6 (in dpo revatir and rdy6) is pronounced thrice with three moras, in the 
high tone (udatta) ; this (d thus pronounced in the high tone with three moras is each 
time followed by an indefinite number of half os (i.e., the vowel o pronounced very abruptly 
with half a mora only) or by five only, the last 6 (with three moras) being, however, 
followed by three half os only ; the first sound is pronounced with some impetus, when 
a syllable is spoken with Nyflukha. 

This description which is quite exact, as I can assure the reader from my having heard 
the Nyiiuka pronounced by a fe'rotriya, is illustrated in AsV by several instances. It 
occurs twice in the first verse of the PrStaranuvaka (after the words ya/na rrfyas, the 
last syllable of both being changed into 6), and once in the Ajva Sukta (ngnim na 10 21), 
after the a of the word ya/iiayo, and in the Niakevalya Sastra. The Nyflukha is always 
followed by a pratigara, pronounced by the Adhvaryu, containing also the Nyrtokha. 


one must make Nyunkha with one sound only. Sangalayaua, the son 
of Mudgala, a Brahman, said " The word * Vach ' comprises one syllable 
only ; therefore* he who makes Nyuukha by one sound only, does it in 
the right way." They say, one must make Nyuukha with two sounds for 
[324] obtaining a «taud-point, for man has two legs, and the animals have 
foiu;^; thus he places the two-footed man among the four-footed animals. 
Therefore, the Hotar ought to make Nyunkha with two sounds. At the 
beginning, he makes Nyunkha in the morning prayer (Prataranuvcxka) ; 
because creatures first eat food with the mouth. In this way, the Hotar 
places the sacrificer with his mouth (ready for eating) towards food. 

In the Ajya -^'astra, the Nyuiikha is made in the middle ; for, in the 
middle, he makes the creatures fond of food, and he places thus the 
sacrificer in the midst of food. In the midday libation, the Hotar makes 
Nyimkha at the beginning, because animals eat food with their mouth. 
Thus he places the sacrificer with his mouth towards food. Thus he 
makes Nyuiikha at both the libations (morning and'midday) for obtaining 


(The Character istics of the Fourth Day. The ^astras of 
the Morning and Midday Libations) 

The leading deity of the fourth day is the Vach. The Stoma is the 
twenty-one-fold, the Saman is Vair4ja, the metre is Anustubh. He who 
knows what deity, what Stoma, wdiat Saman, what metre ('are required) 
on the fourth day, succeeds through it (the fourth day). The terms d 
pra are the characteristics of the fourth day. The fourth day has all the 
characteristics of the first, viz., yuhta ratha asu pa (to drink) ; the 
mentioning of the deity in first pada, an allusion to this world. Other 
characteristics of the fourth day are the jdta^haca, suhra what has the form 
of speech (the Nyui3kha), what is by Vimada viriphita, what has different 
metres ivichhandas), what is wanting in eyllables,and [325} what has an 
excess of them ; what refers to Viraj and to Anustubh ; the tense in 
future {kari^yat). 

Agnim na svavriktibhih (10, 21) is the Ajya hymn of the fourth day. 

It is by the Risi Vimada, whose name is contained in an alliteration in 
it (in vi vo made), and has alliterations, consonances, and assonances 
(viriphitam),^ Such a hymn is a characteristic of the fourth day. It con- 

3 The word viriphitam has, it appears, been misunderstood by Sayana, who explains it 
by " nj/M/ifeJiita," 1. e., in which the NyOnkha 4s made. It is true, the Nyunkha is raado 
by the Hotar, when repeating the two Vimada hymns (agnim na svavrihtibhir 10, 21, and 
kuha 4ri(ta inrjr<\h 10, 22) on the morning and midday jof the fourth day (Sec Asv. 


sists of eigbt verses, and is in the Pafikti metre ; because the sacrilicc is 
a Pafikti (series of ceremonies) ; and cattle are of the Patikti nature {i. e., 
they consist of five parts) ; (it is done) for obtaining cattle. 

These eight verses make ten Jagatis, *, because [326] this morning 
libation of the middle three days (from the fourth to the sixth) belongs to 
the Jagat {i. e., Jagati). This (the connection of the Jagati with the 
morning libation) is a characteristic of the fourth day. 

These eight verses comprise ten Anustubhs ; for this is the Anus- 
tubh day, in the application of which metre one of the characteristics of 
the fourth day consists. 

These eight verses contain twenty Gayatris ; for this day is, again, 
a day of commencement (like the first, where Gayatri is the metre). In 
this consists a characteristic of the fourth day. 

Although this hymn is neither accompanied by the chants of the 
Sama singers, nor by the recitations of the Hotri priests, the sacrifice 
does not lose its essence by it, but the sacrificial personage is even 
actually present (in it) ; thence it serves as the Ajya Sastra of the 
fourth day. They thus develop (stretch) out (of the form of) the sacrifice 
(contained in this hymn), the sacrifice {i. e., this hymn is the external 
shape, in the boundary of which the sacrifice — conceived as a being — 
extends and thrives), and obtain (through the medium of this hymn) 
the Vach again. (This is done) for establihshing a connection (between 
the several periods of three days. Those who have such a knowledge move 
continually within the closely connected and uninterrupted periods of 
three days (required for having success in the sacrifice). 

Sr. S, 7, 11). But the term mji'ihkha being perfectly known to the author of our Brahtnanam, 
and its application even being accurately described by him (in 5, 3), it is surprising 
only -why he should call this peculiar way of lengthening the syllable 6 (m) in the midst 
of a verse, here viriphita. Besides, the Nyu nkha does not take place in the Vimada hymn 
only, but in the beginning verses, the PrStaranuvaka of which verse is by the Sudra Risi 
Kavasa Ailflsa. Viripliita must refer to some peculiarities which lie in the two hymns 
alluded to. On reference to them, every one will observe that in the first of them, each 
verse concludes with the word vivak^ase, and contains the words vi vo made, which are an 
allusion to the name of the Risi Vimada, who is therefore also called viriphita ; in the* 
second, there occurs in the two first verses in the same place (in the commencement of 
the second pada) the term adya, and at the end of several padas in the following verses, 
the word vaj'rivah. These repetitions of the same words, generally commencing with 
va, vi, vo is, no doubt, the proper meaning of the term " viriphitam," as understood by 
the author of our Brahmanam. 

4. This is brought about by repeating thrice the first and last verses. The pankti con- 
sists of 41 syllables. In this way of computation, one obtains 480 syllables, just as many 
as 10 Jagatis comprise (Sfly.) If they are divided by 32 (the number of syllables for tho 
Auuttubh niotre), then wo obtain 1-5 Anustubhs, and if divided by 24, 20 Gayatris. 


The Pra-uga Sastra, which is in the Anu§tubh metre, is composed 
of the following verses : Ydyo sukro (4, 47, 1), vihi hotrd avitd (4, 48, 1) 
vdyo satam harindm (4, 48, 5), indras cha vdyav esdm (4, 48 2-1), d chikitdna 
sukratH (5, 66, 1-3), d no visvdhhir iitibhij} (7, 24, 4-6), tyam u vo aprah- 
anam (6, 44, 4-6), apa tyam vrijinam ripum (6, 51, 13-15) amhitamc 
naditame (2, 41, 1-3). In them, there occur the words, [327] d pra, and 
sukra, which are characteristics of the fourth day. 

Tarn tvd yajilehhir imahe (8, 57. 10) is the beginning (pratipad) of the 
Marutvatiya ^astra. The word imahe *' we ask for " in this verse, means 
that this day's work is to be made long (in consequence of the multitude 
of rites) as it were (just as one has to wait long before a request is 
acceded to). This is a characteristic of the fourth day (for it indicates 
the multitude of its rites). 

The verses, Idam vaso sutam andhal} (8, 2, 1-2), Indra nedtyi (Val 
5. 5-6), prditu Brahmanaspatir (1,4, 34), Agnir netd (3, 20, 4), tvam Soma 
hratuhhiJ} (1, 91, 2), piwoanty apo (1, 64, 6), pra va indrdya hvihate (8, 78, 
3), which form part of the Marutvatiya Sastra of the first day, are also re- 
quired for the fourth day, and are a characteristic of it. Srudhi havam md 
ri^anya (2, 11, 1) is the hymn which contains the word hava (call), being 
a characteristic of the fourth day. In the hymn Marutvdih Indra vri^- 
ahho (3, 47), there is, in its last quarter (47, 5), in the word Jiuvema, the 
root hu perceptible, which is a characteristic of the fourth day. This 
hymn is in the Tristubh metre. 

By means of the padas of this hymn which stand firm, the Hotar keeps 
the libation lest it fall from its proper place (it should be kept in its proper 
place, like a piece in machinery). Imam nu mdyinam huva (8, 65, 13) 
is the setting (parydsa), containing the word huva, which is a characteristic 
of the fourth day. The verses (of this hymn) are in the Gayatri metre, 
for the Gayatri verses are the leaders of the midday libation in these latter 
three days. That metre is the leading one in which the Nivid is placed ; 
therefore one puts in (these) Gayatri verses the Nivid. 

Piha Somam Indra mandatu (7, 22, 1-2) and srudhi havam vipipd- 
nasyddrer (7, 22, 4-5) is the Vairaja Pristham of the Brihat days, to 
which the fourth day belongs. [328] This (reference to the Brihat) is 
a characteristic of the fourth day. 

Yad vdvdna (10, 74, 6) is the immovable Dhayysl. 
Tvdm iddhi hava.hcihe (6, 46, 1) forms the womb (central verse) to 
which the Hotar brings (all) back, after the Dhayya has been recited ; 
for this is a Brihat Sama day, according to its position (thence the 
Pragatha, constituting the text of the Bjihat Saman, is its womb). 


Tvam InJra pratitrtisu (8, 88, 5) *is the Sama Pragatha ; (the third 
pada) asastihd janitd contains the term " jdta," which is a characteristic 
of the fourth day. Tyam it ?u vdjinam UO, 178} is the immovable 


{The Remainder of the Ni^kevalya ^astra, and the 

Sastras of the Evening Libation) 

Kuha sruta indrah (10, 22) is the Vimada hymn, with alliterations, 
assonances, and consonances, by the Risi whose (name) is contained in 
an alliteration {vi vo made in 10, 21 being taken as equal to vimada). 
This is one of the characteristics of the fourth day. The hymn yudhmasya 
te vvi^ahhasya (3, 46) contains (in the fourth verse) the word janu^d 
(from the root jan " to be born "), which is a characteristic of the fourth 
day. It is in the Tristubh metre. By means of the padas of this 
hymn which stand firm, the Hotar keeps the libation, lest it fall from 
its proper place. 

Tyam uvaT} satrdsdham (8, 81) is the setting. Its words, visvdsu gir^ 
dyatam, indicate that this day's work is to be made long, as it were, which 
is one of the characteristics of the fourth day. They are in the Gayatrl 
metre ; the Gayatris are the leaders of the midday libation in these three 
* (latter) days. 
£329] The Nivid is to be put in that metre which leads (the day) ; 
therefore they put the Nivid in the Gayatris. Visvo devasya netus (5, 
50, 1), tat savitur varenyam (3, 62, 10-18), d visvadevam saptatim (5, 82, 
7-9), are the beginning and sequel of the Vaisvadeva ^astra on the 
fmrth day, which is a Brihat day, being one of the characteristics of 
the fourth day. A devo ydtu (7, 45) is the (Nivid) hymn for Savitar ; 
it contains the term d, which is a characteristic of the fourth day. 

Pra dydvd yajndil} prithivi (7, 53) is the (Nivid) hymn for Dyava- 
prithivi ; it contains the term pra, which is a characteristic of the fourth 
day. Pra fihhuhhyo diXtam iva vdcham i^ya (4, 33) is the (Nivid) hymn 
for the Ribhus ; it contains the words pra and vdcham i^ya, which are 
characteristics of the fourth day. Pra suhrditu devimani^d (7, 34) is 
the (Nivid) hymn for the Vi^vedevah ; it contains the terms pra and 
sukra, which are characteristics of the fourth day. It has different metres, 
such as consist of two padas, and such as consist of four padas. This 
is a characteristic of the fourth day. 

Vaiivdnarasya ^sumatdu s?/(£ma (1, 98Hs the beginning of the Agni- 
maruta Sastra ; it contains the term ;ato, which is a characteristic of 
the fourth day. Ka im vyahtd (7, 56) is the (Nivid) hymn for the Marutas. 


(In tlic tliird puda of its first verse) there are tlie words, nahir hy e^dm 
jam\mi vcda, which contain the root jan to be born (in januns^i), which 
is a characteristic of the fourth day. The verses of this hymn are in 
unequal metres ; some have two padas, some four. This constitutes a 
characteristic of the fourth day. 

Jdtavedase sunavdma somam (1, 99, 1) is the immovable Jatavedas 
verse. Agnim naro didhitibir (7, 1) m the (Nivid) hymn for Jatavedas; 
it contains .the term janayanta, which is a characteristic of the fourth 
[330] day. Its meters are unequal ; there are in it Virajas and Tri3- 
^ubhs. This constitutes a characteristic of the fourth day. 


{The Characteristics and Sastras of the Fifth and 

Sixth Days of the Doddasdha) 


The Characteristics of the Fifth day. The Sastras 

of the Morning and Midday Lihations) • 

The leading deity of the fifth day is Gdus (the cow). Its Stoma is the 
Trinava (twenty-seven-fold), the Saman is the Sakvaram, the metre is 
Pankti. He who knows what deity, what Stoma, what Saman, what 
metre (are required on this day), succeeds by it. What is not d and 
not pra, what is fixed (standing), that is a characteristic of the fifth 
day. Besides, the characteristics of the second day re-occur in the fifth, 
such as urdhva, prati, antar, vrisan, vridhan : the mentioning of the 
deity in the middle pada, an allusion to the airy region. (In addition 
to these, there are the following peculiar characteristics), dngdha, (duh to 
milk) udha (udder), dhenu (cow) pvi'sni (cloud, coav) mad (drunk), the 
animal form, an increase (acZ/j^asa/i), ' for the animals differ in size, as 
it were, one being smaller or bigger than the other/ This (fifth) day 
is jdgatam, i.e., it refers to the movable ijagat) things (or the Jagatl 
metre), for [331] the animals are movable ; it is hdrhatam, for the animals 
have reference to the Brihati metre ; it is pdnktam, for the animals refer 
to the Pafikti metre; it is vdmam, i.e., left, because the animals are of 
this quality.' It is havi^mat, i.e., having offerings ; because the animals 

* The Pasitis considered to have five feet, the mouth being reckoned as the fifth. Say. 

2 The original viksudrd iva hi pasavo cannot be literally translated. I therefore must 
content myself with a paraphrase, based chiefly on Sdyana ; ksiidra means small, low ; and 
vi expresses " different, manifold," 

° Say. interprets the word mmahere differently. He takes it to mean " lovely, beautiful." 
This, he says, refers to the song (what song, he does not specify) which is pleasing to hear 
on account of its sweet tones and sounds ; op to the beautiful view which animals, such 

are an offering (serve as an offering) ; it is vapu^mat, i.e., having a 
body ; for the animals have a body ; it is sdkvaram pdnlttam, and has the 
present tense, just as the second day. 

Imam H suvo afithim (6, 15) is the Ajya ^astra. It is in the Jagati 
metre with additional other metres (such as ^akvari, Atiti akvari, &c.) ; 
this is the animal characteristic of the fifth day. 

The Pra-uga Sastra of the fifth day, which is in the Brihati metre, 
consists of the following verses : A no yajnam divisprisam (8, 90, 9-10), 
a no vdyo (8, 46, 25), rathena prithapdjasd (4, 46, 5-7) bahavah silrachak- 
$asd (7, QQ, 10-12), ima u vdm divistaya (7, 74, 1-3), pibd sutasya rasino 
(8, 3, 1-3), devam devam vo vase devam (8, 27, 13-15) bfihad u gdyi^e 
vacha ( 7, 96, 1-3). 

In the verse yat pdnchajanyaydvisd (8, 52, 7), which is the beginning 
of the Marutvatiya Sastra, there is the word panchajanyayd (consisting 
of five families) which (five) is a characteristic of the fifth day (it being 
pdfikta, i. e., five-fold.) 

Indra it somapa ehaJ} (8, 2, 4), Indra nediya edihi (Val. 5, 5), utti^tha 
Brahmariaspate (1, 40, 1), Agnirnetd (3, 20, 1), tvam soma 'kratubhi}).{\, 91, 
2), [332] pinvanty apo (1, 64, 6), bfihad Indrdya gdyata (8, 78, 1) is the 
extension (of the Marutvatiya Sastra) of the fifth day, which is identical 
with that of the second day. 

Avitdsi sunvato (8, 36) is a hymn which contains the word mad "to 
be drunk." There are (in the first verse) five padas, which is in the Paiikti 
metre, all these are characteristics of the fifth day. Ttthd hi soma in mada 
(1, 80) is another hymn in the Pafikti metre, consisting of five padas 
which contains the word mad also. 

The hymn Indra piba tnbhyam suto maddya (6, 40), composed in the 
Tristubh metre, contains the word mad also. By means of this pada 
which remained firm, the Hotar keeps the libation in its proper place, 
preventing it from slipping down. The triplet viarutvdm indra midhva 
(8, 65, 7-9) is the setting containing neither the word a nor pra which is a 
characteristic of the fifth day. These verses are in the Gyatri metre, which 
lead the midday libation of the three days' sacrifice. The Nivid is placed 
in that metre which is the leading one. Therefore the Hotar places 
the Nivid in (these) Gayatris. 

as cows, horses, &c., represent to the eye of the spectator. But these explanations have 
no sense at all, and appear to be mere guesses. I think it better to take the word in 
the meaning «* left " according to which the animals are, the " left part " ia creation, opposedi 
to men and gods who represent the right. 



(On the ^dkvara Sdman and the Mahdni5,mnis. 
The Nhhevalya ^astra.) 

On the fiftk day, which is a Rathantara day, the Sama singers chant 
the Mahanamni verses* according to the Sakvara tune ; this is a charac- 
teristic of the fifth day. Indra (having had once a desire of becoming 
great), made himself great by means of these verses ; therefore they are 
called Mahanamni. These worlds (also) are Mahanamnis, for they are 

[333] Prajapati had, when he created the universe, the power (of making 
all) this and everything. The power possessed by Prajapati to make 
all this and everything when creating these worlds, became the Sakvari 
verses. Thence they are called Sakvaris (from saknoti, he has the power). 
He (Prajapati) made them (these Mahanamnis) to extend beyond the 
frontiers. All that he created as extending beyond the frontiers, turned 
cords (sima). Thence comes the word siman, from sima a cord. 

The verses Svddor itthd vi§uvato (1, 84, 10), upa no haribhiT} sutam 
(8, 82, 31), indram visvd avivridhann (1, 111, 1), are the Anurupa (of 
the Niskevalya Sastra) ; they contain the words vri^an, prisni, mad, 
vridhan, which are characteristics of the fifth day. Yad vdvdna (10, 74, 6) 
is the immovable Dhayya. By repeating Ahhi tvd sura nonumo after the 
Dhayya, the Hotar returns to the womb of the Rathantaram (as the receptacle 
of all ceremonies), this (fifth) day being a Rathantara day by its position. 
Mo §u tvd vdghatas chana (7, 32, 1-2) is the Sama Pragatha with an addi- 
tional foot, having the animal form (five parts), which is a characteristic 
of the fifth day. Tyam jJ su vdjinam is the immovable Tarksya. 


(The 'Remainder' of the "Niskevalya Sastra. The 

Sast7'as of the Evening Libation.) 

The hymn, predam hrahma (8, 37) is in the Pafikti metre, comprising 
five padas. The hymn, Indro rriaddya vdvridha (1, 81) is in the Paikti 
metre, consisting of five padas, and containing the term ''mad." By 
means of the hymn Satrd maddsas tava (6, 36, 1) which contains the term 
"mad" also, and is in the Tristubh metre, the Hotar keeps through 
its padas which remain firm, the libation in its proper place, [334] 
thus preventing it from falling down. The triplet, tarn Indram vdjay- 
dmasi (8, 82, 7-9) is the setting (parydsa). (Its third pada) sa vrisd vris- 
abho hhuvat, contains the animal from (there is the word I'^fisan, i. e.,^ 
" These are t'idd maghavav. Bee 4, 4. '' 


male, in it). It is in the Gayarti metre, for the Gayatris are the leading 
metres at the midday libation in this Tryaha (the three days from the 
fourth to the sixth). The Nivid is placed in that metre which is the 
leading. Therefore the Hotar places the Nivid in (these) Gayatris. 

The verses, tat savitur vrimmahe (5, 82, 1-3) aclyd no deva savitar (5, 
82, 13-15), are the beginning and sequel of the Vaisivadeva Sastra on 
the Rathantara day, of which the fifth is one. Ud u ?ya deva}} savitA 
damund (6, 71, 4-6) is the (Nivid) hymn for Savitar. In it there is the 
word mmam (in the last pada), i.e., left, which is a characteristic of the 
animal form. In the Dyavaprithivi hymn, mahi dydvdprithivi (4, 56) 
the words ruvad dhohsd (in the last pada) contain the animal form (be- 
cause the word dhok^d, from the root duh, to milk, is in it). 

Ribhur vibhvd vdja (4, 34) is the Rlbhu hymn. Because the animals 
are vdjal}, i. e., property, booty, which {odjal}) is an animal form. Stu^e 
janarh suvratarh navyasihhir (6, 49, I) is a hymn (in the Tristubh metre) 
with an additional pada (in the last verse, which is in the Sakvari, instead 
of in the Tristubh metre). This is the animal form (animals being 
supposed to have five feet instead of four, the mouth being counted aa 
the fifth) which is a characteristic of the fifth day. Havis pdntam ajaram 
(10, 88, 1) is the beginning of the Agnimaruta Sastra. It contains the 
word havis, i. e., offering, which is a characteristic of the fifth day. Vapur 
na tachehikituse (6, 66) is the (Nivid) hymn for the Marutas, which con- 
tains the word vapus, i. e., from. Jdtavedase sunavdma is the invariable 
Dhayya. Agnir hotd [335] grihapatil} (6, 15, 13) is the (Nivid) hymn 
for Jatavedas, with an additional pada (at the end) ; this is the animal 
form, which is a characteristic of the fifth day. 

(On the Eituydjas of the Sixth Day.) 

The sixth day is deva ksetra, i. e , the field of the gods. Those who 
enter on the sixth day, enter the field of the gods who do not live to- 
gether, but each in his own house. They say, No Ritu (season) lives 
in the house of another Ritu. Therefore the priests perform the Ritu- 
yajas (offerings to the Ritus), each for himself, without appointing 
another one to do it for them.' Thus the priests prepare all the Ritus 

' This refers to the circumstance that at the common Soma sacrifices, such as the 
Agnistoma, the Rituyaja mantra for the Adhvaryu and the sacrificer are repeated by the 
Hotar, and not by the Adhvaryu'and the sacrificer themselves. But at a Sattra, to •which 
class of sacrifices the Dvadas'aha belongs, this is not allowed ; each must act for himself, 
each member of the body of priests who are performing a Sattra, being alternately priest 
and sacrificer. The RituySja mantras for the Adhvaryu and sacrificer are the elovonth 
and twelfth in order. See the note on page 135-30. 


-without foregoing such or sucli one (and make them fit for their own use), 
that the whole assemblage enjoys happiness, each in his own place. 
They say, No order for making the Ritu offering is required, nor is the 
formula "vaw^at" to be repeated. Because the order given (by the Maitr4- 
varuna), for the Ritu offerings are the Vach, who is wearied on the sixth 
, day. When they would give the order (for repeating the Yajyas) for the 
Ritu offerings, and call " vdu^at,^^ then they would have Vach wearied, 
tired, sinking under her load^ (the number of mantras recited on the 
previous days) and faltering in her [336] voice.' But if the priests do not 
repeat the order for the Ritu offerings, nor repeat vausat after the Yajyas, 
then they fall from the line of the sacrifice which should not be broken 
and (consequently they fall) from the sacrifice, from the prana (breath), 
Prajapati and cattle, and will (henceforth) walk crooked. Therefore the 
order (prai§a) to repeat the mantras, as well as the Yajya verse (at the 
end of which the Vasatkara occurs) should be preceded by a Rik verse.' 
Thus they will not have the Vach wearied, tried, sinking beneath her load, 
faltering in her voice, nor will they fall from the line of sacrifice which 
should not be broken, nor from the sacrifice, nor from the prana, nor from 
Prajapati, nor from the cattle, nor walk crooked. 

{On the T^Jature and Meaning of the Paruehhepa Verses.) 
They place at the two first libations a Paruehhepa verse (one seen by the 
Risi Paruehhepa) before each of the Yajyas, which are repeated by the 
seven Hotars in their order (the so-called prasthitas).^ The name of their 
metre is Rohita. By means of it Indra ascended the seven heavens. 
Thus he who has this knowledge ascends the seven heavens. They say, 
Verses which consist of five padas (steps) are a characteristic of the fifth 
day, and such ones as consist of six padas are fit for the sixth day, why 
then are metres of seven padas (as the Rohita is) [337] recited on the 
sixth day ? (The reason is) By six steps the sixth day is reached ; but by 
cutting off, as it were, the seventh day (by taking it single) they settle 
with the seventh step down (in heaven after having reached it by six). 
Thus they regain the Vach for the connection (of the whole). Those who 
are possessed of such a knowledge have the three days connected and un- 

' Riknavahi; rifena=b^agna, broken, stands, as Sfiy. observes, instead of tMnkjia. 

' Valmrdvini. 

• The verse to be prefixed to the Praisa and YSjya is tuhliyani Mnvdnd (2, 36, 1). 

' Previous to the recital of every Yajya, one of the Paruehhepa verses is to be 
repeated. These are, vri§ann indra vri§a pdndsa indavah (1, 139, 6-11) and pibd somam 
4.iidra suvdnam(l, 130, 2-10). 



(On the Origin of the Paruchhepa Vei'ses.) 

The Dev^s and Asuras waged war in these worlds. The Devas turned 
the Asuras by means of the sixth day's ceremonies out of these worlds. 
The Asuras seized all things which they could grasp, took them and threw 
them into the sea. The Devas following them behind'" seized by means 
of this metre (of the Paruchhepa verses which have seven padas) all they 
(the Asuras) had grasped. Just this pada, viz., the additional pada (the 
seventh in the Paruchhepa verses) became a hook for the purpose of 
gathering the treasures (thrown into the sea by the Asuras). Therefore 
he who has this knowledge, deprives his enemy of his fortune and turns 
him out of all these worlds. 

{The Characteristics of the Sixth Day. The Sasti^as of the Morning and 

Midday Libations.) 

Heaven (Dydius) is the leading deity of the sixth day. The Stoma is 
the thirty-three-fold, the Saman is Raivatam, Atichhandas the metre. 
What has the same end (refrain) is a characteristic of the sixth day. [338] 
The sixth day has the same characteristics as the third, viz. the words, 
asi:a, anta, end, repetition, consonance, cohabitation, paryasta (set), three, 
what has the form of anta ; the mentioning of the deity in the last pada, 
an allusion to that world (heaven). The peculiar characteristics of the 
sixth day are, the Paruchhepa hymns comprising seven padas, the 
Narasaihsam, the I^dhhdnedi^tham, the Raivatam the Atichhanddl}, and 
the past tense. 

Ayam jdyata manu^o dharimavi (1, 128) is the Ajya Sastra, which 
is a Paruchhepa hymn, an Atichhandah (a metre exceeding the normal 
measure) comprising seven padas, which is a characteristic of the sixth 

The Pra-uga Sastra consists of the following verses, which all are 
Paruchhepa, and Atichhandah, comprising seven padas : stirnatn harhir 
up no ydhi vitaye (1, 135, 1-3), a vdm ratho niyutvdn (1, 135, 4-6); 
susuma yatam adrihhir (1, 137, 1-3} ; yuvdm stomebhir devayanto (1, 139, 
4-6); avar maha '1, 133,6-7); astu srdu^al (1, 139, 1); o $m no ague 
srhiLuhi tvdm ilito (1, 139, 7) ; ye devdso dity ekoda'sa (1, 139, 11); iyam 
adaddd rahhasam (6, 61, 1-3). 

Sa purvyo mahdndm (8, 52, 1-3) is the beginning of the Marutvatiya 
Sastra, because mahan is a word in anta (ace. mahdntam), and anta, i. e., 
'" 4HM/wi/a=p»' gaivd S. 


end, is a characteristic of the sixth day, being the end (the last of the 
second series of three days). The verses, Traya indrasya Soma (8, 2, 7-9) 
Indra nediya edihi (Val. 5, 5-6) ; pra nCinam Brahmaiiaspatir (1, 40, 5-6) 
Agnir neta (3, 20, 4); tvam Soma kratubhiJ} (1, 91, 2), pinvanty ap6 (1, 64, 6) 
and naliili suddso ratham are the extension (dtdnal} of the Marutvatiya 
Sastra) and identical with those of the third day. 

Yam tvam ratham indra medhasdtaye (1, 129) is a Paruchhepa hymn 
in the Atichhandah metre, consisting [3391 of seven padas. Sa yo vri§d 
vri^nyehhih (1, 100) is the hymn whose verses have the same refrain** 
(samdnodarka). Indra Mar utvd iha pdlii (3, 51, 7) is the hymn,^* which 
contains an anta, (a participle of present tense form in ant, or its equiva- 
lent) in the words Cverse 9), tebhil} sdlcam pibatu vritrakliddaljt, ; because 
vritrakJiddo (ddo being taken as equivalent to anta) is the anta, and the 
sixth day is the end (anta). By means of this hymn, which is in the 
Tristubh metre, the Hotar keeps through its padas which remain firm, 
the libation in its proper place, preventing it from falling. Ayarh ha yena 
(10, 65, 4-6) is the triplet which serves as a setting, for in its words, svar 
marutvatd jitam, there is an anta, jita is an anta.^ ^ These verses are in 
the Gayatri metre ; the Gayatris are the leading metres at the midday 
libation during these three days. The Nivid is put in the leading metre ; 
thence the Hotar puts the Nivid in the Gayatri metre. 

The verses, revatir na sadhamdde (1, 30, 13-15), and revdn id (8, 2, 
13-15), form the Raivata Pristha (the Raivaita Sama), which is used on 
a Brihat day, to which the sixth day belongs. The verse yad vdvdna is the 
invariable Dhayya. By " tvdrh iddhi havdmahe " (6, 46, 1-2) which follows 
the Dhflyya, the Hotar returns all to the womb of the Biihat Sama ; for 
this is a Biihat day according to its position. Indram id devatdtaya (8, 
3,5-6) is the Sama Pragatha which has the characteristic of ninrita 
(has a consonance).''' Tyam ti su vdjinam is the invariable Tarksya. 


[2^0] [The Remainder of the Niskevalya Sastra and the ^astras of the 

Evening Libation.) 

Endra ydhy upa nali (1, 130) is the Paruchhepa hymn, in the Atichhan- 
dah metre, comprising seven padas. Pra gha nvasya (2, 15) is the hymn 
whose several verses have the same refrain.*' In the hymn ahhiir eko 

1^ This is Manitvdn no hhavatv indra Uti. 

" In the present state of the Samhita it is incorporated with another one. 
1' This appears to be an error, the form ant is to be sought in marutvatd. 
" Because in every pada there is the word Indra, the repetition of which rosembloa 
the sounding of a bell metal instrument.— Say. 
" This is mada indra chakara. 


rayipate (6, 31), the words occur (verse 5) ratham dtistlia iuvinrimna 
hhimarn ; in it the word sthd " to stand, " marks an end (standing being the 
end of going) which is a characteristic of the sixth day. By means of this 
hymn, which is in the Tristubh metre, the Hotar keeps, through its padas 
which remain firm, the libation in its proper place, preventing it from 
falling. UiM no harihhilj. stiitam (8, 82, 31-33) is the setting which has the 
same refrain. It is in the Gayatri metre, which is the leading one of the 
midday libation of the three (latter) days. Therefore the Nivid is to be 
placed in it. Ahhi tayni demm Savitdram (Vaj. Sariih. 4, 25) is the 
beginning of the Vaii^vadeva 6astra, in the Atichhanda metre. Tat Savitur 
varej^yam (3, 62, 10-11) and doso agdt from the sequel, because gata, i.e., 
gone, signifies an end, which is a characteristic of the sixth day. 

Ud u sya devdl} savitd savdya (2, 38) is the (Nivid) hymn for Savitar ; the 
words therein, sasvattamam tadapa vahnir asthdt, contain an anta, for sthita, 
i.e., standing is an anta. 

Katard purvd (1, 185, 1) is the (Nivid) hymn for Dyavaprithivi, whose 
verses have the same refrain. i» 

Kim u sresthal} kirn yavistho (1, 161) and upa no vdjd adhvaram 
rihhuksa (4, 37) form the Arbhavam [341] Naras^arbgam hymns, in which 
the term " three " occurs, being a characteristic of the third day. 

The two hymns Idam ittlid rdudram (10, 61), and ye yajilena daksi- 
nayd samaktd (10, Q2) form the Vaisvadeva (Nabhanedistha) hymns. 

{The Story of Ndhhdnedistha, the son of Manu.) 

He recites the Nabhanedistham. Nabhanedistha was a son of Manu, 
who was given to the sacred study (after his investiture in the house of 
his Guru) ; * ' his brothers deprived him of his share in the paternal pro- 
perty. He went (to them) and said, " What portion is left to me ? " They 
answered, " Go to the adjudicator ^* and arbitrator. " By "adjudicator 
and arbitrator " they meant their father. He went to his father and said, 
" They have divided the property including my share among themselves." 
The father answered, " My dear son, do not mind that. There are the 
Angirasah just engaged in holding their sacrificial session (Sattra) for 
going to heaven. As often as they commence the ceremonies of the sixth 
day, they are puzzled (frustrated in their design). Let them recite on the 
sixth day those two hymns (abovementioned, Rigveda 10, 61-62), then they 
will give thee the sum of a thousand which is contributed by all the 

" This is dijdvd rak^atam prithivi no nbhvdt. 

" This is the meaning of the term hrahmachuruam vasantam. 

" I^istdva. 


sacrificers wlio participate in the sacrificial session, ^* when they go to 
heaven." He said, " Well, let it be so." He then went to them, 
saying, " Receive me, the son of Manu, among you, ye wise !" They 
said, "What dost thou wish, that thou speakest thus ? " He answered, 
[342] " I will show you how to perform the sixth day, then give me the 
reward for the sacrificial session of a thousand (cows or other valuables), 
when you go up to heaven." They said, " Well, let it be so." He made 
them recite on the sixth day those two hymns ; then they became aware 
of the Yajfia (the sacrifice regarded as a person, leading to heaven), and 
of the heaven-world. Therefore the Hotar recites those two hymns on 
the sixth day, in order that the sacrificer might become aware of the 
sacrifice, and to have subsequently pointed out the heaven- world. When 
they were going up, they said, " This thousand, Brahmana, belongs to 
thee." When he was putting all together (the thousand pieces), a man 
clothed in a blackish (dirty) dress '® alighted and approaching him, said, 
" This is mine ; I have left it here." He answered, " The Angirasah have 
given it to me," The man said " Then it belongs to either of us, thy 
father may decide." He went to his father. He asked him, " Have they 
not, my dear son, given you (the reward) ? " He said, " They have given 
me ; but a man clothed in a blackish dress alighted, and approaching me 
said, ' This is mine, I have left it here.' So saying, he took it." The 
father said, " It is his, my dear son ! but he will give it to thee." He 
went back to him, and said, " Sir, this belongs only to you ; so says my 
father." He said, " I give it to thee, because you have spoken the truth, (i.e., 
acknowledged that it is my property)." Therefore a man who is learned 
must speak only the truth. This is the mantra of " the thousand gifts," the 
Nabhanedistha hymn. Upon that man who has this knowledge, a thousand 
gifts shower, and he gets a glimpse of heaven by means of the sixth day. 


[343] On the auxiliary ^astras at the Evening Libation, 'Ndhhdnedi^tha, 
Vdlahhilyd, the Siikirti Hymn, Vrisdkapi, and Evaydmarut. The Ayni- 
mdruta Sastra of the Sixth Day. {See 6, 27-30.) 

The Hotar ought to repeat those Sastras which are called the 
accompaniments (of the others on the sixth day), viz., the Nftbhanedis- 
tham, Valakhilya, Viisakapi and " Evay^maruta only as auxiliaries 
(to the Vai^vadeva-^astra). If the Hotar foregoes only one of them, 

" This is the translation of sattra-parive?ai;a«i. 

*" say. says that according to another Sakha, this man is Rudra, the master of cattle. 


(tliese additional -^astras), the sacrificer Tvill lose something. If he 
foregoes the Nabhanedistham, then the sacrijScer will lose his semen ; 
if he foregoes the Valakhilyas, then the sacrificer will lose his breath ; 
if he foregoes the Vj-isakapi, the sacrificer will lose his soul; and 
if he foregoes the Evayamarutam, then he will turn the sacrificer 
out of his divine and human position. By means of the Nabhanedis- 
tham, he (the priest) poured the semen into the sacrificer ; by means of the 
Valakhilya verses, he transfoi med them (to make an embryo). By means 
of the hymn " ' by Sukirtj, the son of Kaksivat, he made the womb 
set forth the child, because therein (in the first verse is said), " Let us 
rejoice in thy shelter, Indra ! (just as people find pleasure in a large 
commodious room)." Thence the child (garhha), though being larger, does 
not damage the womb which is (much) smaller. If the womb is pre- 
pared by (this) sacred hymn (Brahma, the Sukirti hymn), then the 
Hotar imparts to the sarcificer the faculty of walking by means of the 
Evayamaruta hymn (5, 87). If he has done all required for making 
the sacrificer walk, then he walks (he has obtained the faculty of 

Ahascha krii^rt<^m aliar arjunam (6, 9, 1-33) is the beginning of the 
Agnimaruta ^astra, because ahas [344] is a repetition, and a consonance, 
which is a characteristic of the sixth day. Madhvo vo nama mdrutam 
yajatrd (7, 57) is the Maruta hymn. Here is the plural (because tbe 
Marutas are many) to be urged ; because the plural is an anta, and this 
is a characteristic of the sixth day. 

Jdtavedase sunavdma (1, 99, 1), is the invariable Jatavedas verse. Sa 
pratnatM sahasd (1, 96, 1) is the (Nivid) hymn for Jatavedas, whose 
verses have the same refrain, which is a characteristic of the sixth day. 

The priest, apprehending the anta, i. e., ends of the sacrifice, might fall 
down, keeps them up by repeating twice the word dhdrayan,^'^ i. <?,, 
they may hold, just as one ties and unties successively the ends of a 
cord, '* or just as one (a tanner) is driving in the end of a (wetted) skin 
a peg, in order to keep it (expanded^. It is done to keep the sacrifice 
uninterrupted Those who have such a knowledge have the three days 
continuoLis and unbroken (undisturbed). 

'' Apa prdcha India {10, 131). 
" It is in the last pada of all versos of this hymn. 
»3 la order to make of thorn a largo ring. 


(The Characteristics and ^astras of the Seventh and Eighth Bays) 

{The Characteristics of the Seventh Day. The ^astras of the Morning 

and Midday Libation.) 

The terms a and pra are the characteristics of the seventh day. The 
seventh day is just like the first, yukta, ratha, dm, piba, the deity 
mentioned in the first pada, the allusion to this world (earth,) jdta, 
aniruhta, hari^yat (future), these are the characteristics of the seventh 

[345] Samudrdd ilrmim (10, 123, 2) is the Ajya hymn. Here is 
something hidden {aniruktam, i. e., not explicitly stated) which is a 
characteristic of the seventh day. In the sea (Samudra) is Vach ; because 
neither the sea becomes (ever) extinct, nor Vach. Thence this (hymn) is 
the Ajya (Sastra) of the seventh day. From the Yajna (sacrifice) only, 
the Hotar thus extends the sacrifice,* and thus they recover Vach again 
(to contimie the sacrifi:ce). The Stomas are at an end, the meters are at 
an end on the sixth day. Just as (at the Dartiapurnamasa Isti) they 
cause to drip upon the pieces of sacrificial food drops of melted butter 
{djya\ in order to make them hot again " for recovering its essence 
already gone ; in the same way, they recover the Stomas and meters 
for regaining (the essence of) the sacrifice again by this Ajya Sastra 
of the seventh day. It is in the Tristubh metre ; because this is the 
metre at the morning libation during the (last) three days. 

The Pra-uga Sastra consists of the following mantras : a vdyo 
bhu^a (7, 92, 1), praydbhir ydsi (7, 92, 3) d no niyudbhi^ satinir 
(7, 92, 5), pra sotd jiro adhvaresv asthdt (7, 92, 2), ye vdyava indra 
mdda ndsa (7, 92, 4), yd vdm satam (7, 91, 6),' pra yad vam Mitrdvarund 
(6, 67, 9-11), d gomatd tidsatyd (7, 72, 1-3), d no deva savasd (7, 30, 1-3) 
pra vo y(^7ie§u (7, 43, 1-3), pra ksodasd dhdyasd (7, 95, 1-3). In these 
verses there are the characteristics of the [346] seventh day, a and pra^ 
contained. They are in the Tristubh metre, becatise this is the metre 
at the morning libation during the (last) three days. 

' "With the sixth day, the sacrifice is finished. V4ch is done up ; but the priest 
commences now developing the Yajna again. This can be done only by starting from the 
Yajna itself (without any other help), and recovering the Vach in the form of this allusion. 

2 AH this is implied in the expression pratijabhighdrayan . 

' These six verses form two triplets ; they all are sO called ekapdtinls, and consti- 
tute the two triplets for Vayu and Indra respectively, which are always required at 
the Pra-uga Sastra. 


A tvd ratliam yathotaya, (8, 57, 1-2) idamvaso sutam andah (8, 2, 1-2), 
Indra nediya ed ihi (Val. 5, 5-6), praitu Brahmanaspatir (1, 40, 3-4), 
Agntr netd (3, 20, 4:\ tvam soma kratuhhih (1, 91, 2), pinvanty apa/i (1, 
64, 6), pra va indrdya hrihate (8, 78, 3), are the extension (of the Marut- 
vatiya ^astra) of the seventh day, identical with that of the first. 

la the hymn, Kayd subhd savayasah (1, 165) (9th verse), in the 
words na jdyamdno nasate, na jdta the term jdta occurs, which is one 
of the characteristics of the seventh day. This is the Kaydsuhhiya 
hymn which effects unanimity (among people) and prolongs life. By 
means of it Indra, Agastya, and the Maruts became (unanimous). By 
reciting the KaydsiihMyam hymn, the Hotar produces unanimity. • But 
it bears upon the prolongation of life also. Who desires that, may have 
repeated the KaydsiihMyam. It is in the Tristubh metre. By means 
of its pada which remains firm, the Hotar keeps the libation in its proper 
place, preventing it from falling down. 

The hymn, tyam su mesam mahayd (1, 52) contains (in the second pada 
of the first verse) the words atyarfi na vdjam havanasyadatnratham^ the 
term ratha, i.e., carriage, being a characteristic of the seventh day. It is 
in the Jagati metre, for the Jagatis are the leading metres at the 
midday libation of these three last days. The Nivid is placed in that 
metre which is the leading ; thence one places (here) the Nivid in the 

The hj^mns representing cohabitation are now repeated ; they are in 
the Tristubh and Jagati metres. Because cattle is represented by 
cohabitation and [347] the Chandomas * are cattle and calculated for 
obtaining cattle. Tvdm iddhi havdviahe, and tvam hy ehi [348] eherave 
{S, 50, 1-2) form the Biihat Pristha on the seventh day. The same 
Pristhas take place as on the sixth day. The Vairupam (Sama) belongs 

*The Chandomah are three peculair Stomas, which are required on the three last days 
of Navardtra, or the seventh, eighth, and nimth days of the Dvfidas'Sha and the name, of 
these three days themselves. They are minutely described in the TSndya lir^hmanam 
3, 8-13, These Stomas are, the tv?enty-fou7-foLd (chaturvirhsa), the forty-four^fold {chatvi- 
ehatvdrimsa), and the forty-eight-fold (astdcl'Mtvarimsa). The verses required foi* 
chanting the Chandomah on the three last days of Navaratra are (according to the Udgd- 
tri prayoga of the Dvddasdha) all put together in the second part of the S§mavedarchi- 
kam, coDimencing vyith the second Ardha of the fourth Prapathaka (pra Mvyam usaneva), 
and ending with the fiftli PrapSthaka (with the verso Yuiiksz/d hi kesinA hari). The 
order is, on the seventh day, all 8ama verses ?,re put in. the twenty-four-fold Stoma, on 
the eighth all are chanted according to the forty- four-fold Stoma in three varieties, on 
the ninth all are put in the forty-eight-fold Stoma, of which there are two varieties 
enumerated. There is here no change of the Stomas according to the libations, as it is 
m the Agnistpma and the cognate sacrifices. That Stoma, in which the first Stotram 


to the Ratbantaram ; the Vairajam to the Biihat ; the Sakvaram to the 
Rathantaram, and the Raivatam to the Brihat. Therefore (because the 
Eaivatam representing the Brihat was chanted on the sixth day) the 
Brihat Pri§tha takes place (on the seventh day) ; for they fasten through 
that Brihat (of the sixth day), the Biihat (of the seventh day) to prevent 
the cutting off of the Stomas ; for, if. the Rathantaram (which is opposed 
to the Brihat) is used, then the union (of the sixth and seventh days) is 
destroyed. Therefore only the Brihat is to be used (on the seventh day.) 

Yad vdvdna is the immovable Dhayya. By the subsequent recital of 
the Rathantaram ahhi tvd sura nonumah, the Hotar brings all back to the 
womb ; for this is a Rathantara day according to its position. Tihd suta- 
sya rasinal} (8, 3, 1-2) is the Sama Pragatha, which has 'piba, one of the 
characteristics of the seventh day. Tyam it su vdjinam is the invariable 


{The Bemainder of the Niskevalya ^astra. The Sastras of the Even- 
ing Libation.) 

Indrasya nu virydni (1, 32) is a hymn which has the characteristic 
word pm of the seventh day. It is [349] in the Tristubh metre. By 

(the Bahis-pavamana) is chanted, remains in force for the whole day. The Bahis-pava- 
manas of all three days, generally contain as many verses as the Stoma has members. 
So, for instance, the Bahis-pavamana of the seventh day consists of 24 verses (Samaveda 
ii, 465-88), for the twenty-four-fold Stoma is reigning during this day ; the Bahis-pava- 
mana of the eighth day consists of forty-four verses (Samaveda ii. 524-67), for the Stoma 
reigning during this day is the forty-four-fold, &c. The four Samans which follow the 
Bahis-pavamana Stotras at the midday libation, are called afydni, the four which follow 
the Pavamana Stotras at the midday libation, go by the name of Pristhdni, and the four 
which follow the Arbhava-pavamana Stotra at the evening libation are called ^lkthdni. 
Now the diydni, pristJidni and tikthdni generally consist either of three or even 
only two verses. If they consist of only two verses, they are to be made three, just as 
is the case with the Rathantara, Naudhasa, and Kaleya Pristha at the Agnistoma. The 
three verses then are, in three turns, so often to be repeated, as to yield twenty-four, 
forty-four, or forty-eight. Bach turn of the twenty-four-fold Stoma contains, for ins- 
tance, eight verses, in three divisions, in the following order : — 

I. 8-a, 3; b, 4;c, 1: II. 8-a, 1 ; b, 3 ; c, 4 : III. 8-o, 4 ; b, 1 ; c, 3. 
In the forty-four-fold Stoma, the repetitions are arranged in the following way :— 
I. t5-u, 3 ; b, 11 ; c, 1 : II. 14-a, 1 ; b, 3 ; c, 10 : III. 15— a, 11 ; b, 1 ; c, 3. 
The forty-eight-fold Stoma is as follows :— 

I. 16-a, 3 ; b, 12 ; c, 1 : II, 16-a, 1 ; b, 3 ; c, 12 : III. 16 -a, 12 ; b, 1 ; c, 3, 
The forty-eight-fold Stoma is the last of the Stomas ; thence it is called anta. The 
Chandoraah are said to have the animal form. According to the Tat'dya BrShm. (3, 8), 
the animals have eight hoofs, thence are eight verses required in each turn when the 
twenty-fonr-fold Stoma is made ; or, they are said (3, 12) to consist of sixteen pieces ; 
thence are sixteen verses in each turn required when the fort}-eight-fold.Stoma is made. 


means of ihe padas which remain firm, the Hotar keeps the libation in its 
proper place, preventing it fiom falling down. 

Ahhi tyam me^am yuruhHtam (1, 51, 1) is a hymn in which pra is 
replaced by ahhi, forming a characteristic of the seventh day. It is in 
the Jagati metre, because the Jagatis are the leading metres at the midday 
libation. There lore the Nivid is to be placed in it. 

These hymns representing cohabitation are now repeated, which are 
in the Tristubh and Jagati metres ; because cohabitation represents 
cattle, and the Chandomas represent cattle ; (this is done) in order to 
obtain cattle. 

Tat savitar vinimahe (5, 82, 1-3), adya no deva Savitar (5, 82, 3-5) 

are the beginning and sequel of the Vaisvadeva ^astra in the Rathan- 
tara days, on the seventh day. Ahhi tvd deva Savitar (1, 24, 3) is the 
(Nivid) hymn for Savitar, which contains instead of pra the word ahhi, 
which is identical with pra, a characteristic of the seventh day. 

Pretdm yajiiasya (2, 41, 19) is the (Nivid) hymn for Dyavaprithivi, 
which contains the word pra. Ayam devdya janmana (1, 20\ is the (Nivid) 
hj^mn for the Ribhus, which contains the word jan, to be born. 

He repeats now the verses, consisting of two padas, commencing 
dydhi ranasd saha, (10, 172, 1) ; for man has two feet, and animals have 
four ; animals are represented by the Chandomas. (This is done) for 
obtaining cattle. If he repeats these verses which consist of two feet, 
then he places the sacrificer, who has two legs, among the four-footed 

Ahhlr ague duvo (1, 14) is the (Nivid) hymn for the Vis'vedevah, which 
has the characteristic a of the seventh day. It is in the Gayatri metre; 
for [350] the third libation is headed by the Gayatri during these three 

Visvdnaro ajijanat is the beginning of the Agnimaruta ^astra, which 
contains the word jan, to be born. Pra yad vas tri^tuhham (8, 7) is the 
(Nivid) hymn for the Marutas, which has the word pra. Jdtavedase 
sunavdma (1, 99, 1) is the invariable Jatavedas verse. Bdtam vo visvave- 
dasam (4, 8) is the (Nivid) hymn for Jatavedas, where the name (Jatave- 
das) is not explicitly mentioned (only hinted at). All these are in the 
Gayatri metre ; for the third libation on these three days is headed by 
the Gayatri. 

" He makes him obtain them. 



{The Characteristics of the Eighth day. The Sastras of the Morning 
and Midday Libations.) 

Neither the words d nor pra, but what is " standing " is the character- 
istic of the eighth day ; because the eighth is identical with the second. 
The characteristics are, ilrdhva, prati, antar, vrisan, vridhan, the men- 
tioning of the deity in the middle pada, an allusion to the airy region, 
twice the name Agni (in the same pada), the words mahad, vihUta punar, 
the present tense. 

Agnim vo devam agnibhih (7, 3) is the Ajya of the eighth day ; bacauss 
it contains twice the word agni. It is in the Tristubh metre ; for the 
Tristubh is the leading metre at the morning libation during these three 
days. The Pra-uga Sastra is composed of the following verses : Kuvid 
ahga namasd (7, 91, 1,) pivo annan (7, 91, 3,) uchhan u$asaJ} (7, 90, 4^, 
u'santd dutd (7, 91, 2,) ydvat taras (7, 91, 4-5,) prati vdrfi sura udite (7, 65,^ 
1-3,) dhenuli pratnasya (3, 58, 1-3), Brahmdna indropa (7, 28, 1-3,) urdhva 
agni]} siimatim (7, 39, 1-3) uta syd nali sarasvati (7, 95, 4-6). In these versea 
are the characteristics [351] prati, antar, vihuta, urdhvai contained ; they 
are in the Tristubh metre, which is the leading metre at the morning 
libation on these three days. 

The extension (of the Marutvatiya Sastra) consists of the following 
verses : Viscdnarasya vaspatim (8, 57, 4), Indra it Somapd ekah (8, 2, 4), 
Indra nediya ed ihi (Val. 5, 5-6), utti^tha Brahmanspate (1, 40, 1-2), agnir 
netd tvani Soma kratuhhifi, pinvanty apo, hrihad indrdya gdyata. This 
•Sastra is identical with that of the second day. 

Now follow the Mahadvat hymns, i. e., such ones as contain the word 
mahat, great. (These are) sa?hsd mahdm (3, 49), mahaschit tvam (1, 169),. 
pihd somam ahhi yam (6, 17), in the words urvam gavyam mahi, mahdm 
indra nrivat (6, 19). This hymn is in the I'ristubh metre ; by means 
of its padas which remain firm, the Hotar keeps the libation in its proper 
place, preventing it from falling down. 

Tarn asya dydvd prithivi (10, 113) is a mahadvat hymn also ; for, in 
the second pada of the first verse, the word mahimdno occurs. It is in 
the Jagati metre. The Jagatis are the leading metres at the midday liba- 
tion during the three last days (above-mentioned). Thence the Nivid is 
placed in it. These hymns represent cohabitation ; they are in the Tris- 
tubh and Jagati metres, for cattle is represented by cohabitation, and, for 
obtaining cattle, the mahadvat hymns are repeated. The air is mahad ; 
in order to obtain the airy region, five hymns (there are five, four in Tris- 


tubh, and one in Jagati) are required. For the Paiikti metre comprises 
five padas, the sacrifice belongs to this metre, cattle belong to it ; cattle is 
represented by the Chandomas. 

Ahhi tvd sHra nonumah, and abM tvd pilrvapUaye form the Rathanta- 
ram Pristham of the eighth day. Yad vdvdna is the invariable Dhayya. 
By tvdm iddhi havdmahe all is brought back to the womb ; [352] for this 
day is a Barhata day according to its position. Uhhayarh srinavachcha 
(8, 50, 1-2) is the Sama Pragatha ; the meaning of uhhayam i. e., both, in 
it is, what is to-day and what was yesterday. This is a characteristic of 
the eighth day, which is a Brihat day. Tyam -A §m vdjinam is the invari- 
able Tarksya. 


{The Mahadvat Hymns of the "Ni^kevalya ^astra. 
The Sastras of the Evening Libation.) 

The five Mahadvat hymns are, apurvyd purutamdni (6, 32), tdm su ie 
kirtim (10, 54), tvmh mahdn Indra yo ha (1, 63), tvam mahdn indra 
tuhhyam (4, 17). These (four) hymns are in the Tristubh metre ; by 
means of its padas which remain firm, the Hotar keeps the libation in its 
proper place, preventing it from falling down. The fifth is in the Jagati 
metre, viz., divaschid asya varimd (1, 55), which contains in the words, 
indram na mahnd, the term mahat, great. For obtaining cattle these Mahad- 
vat hymns are repeated. The air is mahat, and for obtaining the airy 
region two times five hymns must be repeated. Because a Pafikti (a 
collection of five hymns) has five feet, the Yajna consists of five parts, 
cattle consist of five parts. Twice five makes ten ;^ this decade is Virat, 
Virat is food, cattle are food, the Chandomas are cattle. 

Visvo devasya netus (5, 50, 1), tat savitur varenyaih d vis vedevam sapta- 
tim (5, 82, 7-8), are the beginning and sequel of the Vais^vadeva Sastra. 
Eiramjapdnim utaye (1, 22, 5-7), which contains the word urdhva, is the 
(Nivid) hymn for Savitar. Mahi dyduh prithivi chana (1, 22, 13-15) is the 
(Nivid) hymn for Uyavaprithivi, which contains the word mahat. Yuvdnd 
[353] pitard pimar (1, 20, 4-8) is the (Nivid) hymn for the Ribhus, 
which has the characteristic word ''punah.'' 

Imd nu kam bhuvand (10, 157) is the hymn which contains only verses 
of two feet.' For man has two feet, whilst the animals have four, and by 

• Sdtj —The five Mahadvat hymns of the Marutvatiya, and the five of the Niskevalya 
Sastras are to be understood, 

' It contains five vei'scs, which arc called Dvipad^ Tristubh. (H&y, in his Commentary 
on the SamhitS.) 


means of this hymn he places the two-footed sacrificer among the four- 
footed cattle. Dev^ndm id avo mahad (8, 72, 1) is the (Nivid) hymn for the 
Vin^vedevas, which contains the term mahat. These verses are in the 
Gayatri metre (except the Dvipads), because the Gayatri is the leading 
metre at the evening libation during these three (last) days. 

By ritdvdnam vaisvdnaram (Asv. Sr. S. 8, 10\ commences the Agni- 
maruta ^astra ; because in the word agnir vaisvdnaro malion, there is the 
word mahat contained. Krilam vali sardho mdrutam (1, 37) is the (Nivid) 
hymn for the Marutas ; because it contains (in the fifth verse) the word 
vavfidhe, which is a characteristic of the eighth day. 

Jdtavedase sunavdma is the invariable Jatavedas verse. Agne mrila 
malidn asi (4, 9) is the (Nivid) hymn for Jatavedas ; it contains the cha- 
racteristic term mahad. All these verses are in the Gayatri metre, which 
is the (leading) metre at the evening libation during these three (last) days. 


(The "Nivth and Tenth Days of the Dvddasdha. Conclusion 

of this Sacrifice.) 


{The Characteristics of the tJinth Day. The ^astras of the Morning and 

Midday Libations.) 
What has the same refrain, is a characteristic of the ninth day. This day 
has the same characteristics as [354] the third, viz., a'sva, anta, punard- 
vrittam, punarninrittam^ rata, paryasta, the number three, antarupa, the 
mentioning of the deity in the last pada, an allusion to that world, 
suchi splendour, «a%a truth, hseti to reside, gata gone, oka house, the 

past tense. 

Aganma mahd na^nasd (7,12, 1) is the Ajya hymn of the ninth 
day, because it contains the word " gone " (in aganma, we went), it is 
in the Tribtubh metre. 

The Pra-uga ^astra consists of the following verses : pra viryd (7, 90, 
1), te te satyena manasd (7, 90, 5), divi li^ayanta (7, 64, 1), a vi'sva vdrd (7, 
70, 1-3), ayam soma indratuhhyam sunva (7, 29, 1-3), pra Brdhmano (7, 42, 
1-3}, Sarasvatim devayarito {10, 17,7-9), a no divo hrihatafy {5, ^3, 11-13), 
Sarasvaty ahhi no (6, 61, 14-16). These verses have the characteristics, 
.s?(c7ii i.e., splendour ; satya, i.e., truth ; Jt^eti, i.e., residence ; gate, i.e., gone ; 
oha, i.e., house. They are in the Tristubh metre, which is the 
(leading) metre at the morning libation, during the three (last) days. 


The extension (of the Marutvatiya ^astra) is the same as on the third 
day. The five hymns representing cohabitation which contain the cha- 
racteristics of this day, and represent cattle, are, Indra svdhd pihatu (3, 50) ; 
evdhd here is an anta ; gdyat sdrna nahhanyam (1, 173\ -which contains an 
anta in the word svar ; tistlid hari ratha (335\ which contains an anta 
in sthd, to stand ; ima u tvd purutam asya [6, 21), which contains an anta 
in rathestha. These four are in the Tri&tubh metre. The fifth is in the 
Jagati metre, pramandine pitumat (1, 101), whose verses have the same re- 
frain. The Jagatis being the leading metre on the three (last) days, the Nivid 
is to be put in them. These hymns in the Tribtubh and Jagati metres are 
repeated as (representing) cohabitation. For cattle is cohabitation ; the 
Chandomas are [355] cattle. (This is done) for obtaining cattle. Five 
(such) hymns are repeated. For the Pafikti consists of five padas ; the 
sacrifice has the nature of the Pafikti, and so have cattle (also) ; the 
Chandomah are cattle ; (this is done) for obtaining cattle. 

Tvdm iddhi havdmahe and tvdm hyehi cherave, form the Brihat Pristha. 
Yad vdvdna is the invariable Dayy^. By ahhi tod siira nonumo all is 
brought to the womb, because the ninth day is a Fiathantara day accord- 
ing to its position. Indra tridhatu sarayiam (6, 46, 9-10) is the Sama 
Pragdtha containing the characteristic ** three. " (The Tarksya just as on 
the other days.) 


{The Remainder of the tiiqkevalya ^astra. The Sastras of the Evening 

There are five other pair-hymns enumerated, the four first are in the 
Tristubh, the fifth in the Jagati metre. These are, sarii cha tve jagmur 
(6, 34), which contains the word *' gone ; " kadd hhitvan (6, 35) which con- 
tains the word *' k§i " to reside, (in k^ayani), which is an antarilpa, " he 
resides as it were, gone to an end (having gained his object)," d satyo ydtu 
(4, 16) which contains satya truth, tat ta indriyam paramamil, 103), which 
contains an anta in the word '^ paramain," i.e., highest. Aharh hhiivarh 
(10, 48, 1), which contains an anta in jaydmi, 1 conquer\ 

The commencement and sequel of the Vaisivadeva Sastra is, tat Savi- 
tur vrinimahe, and adyd no deva Savitar. (The Nivid) hymn for Savitar 
is do^o dgdt (?). The (Nivid) hymn for Dyavaprithivi is, pravdm mahi dyavi 
ahhi (4, 56, 5-7). 

[356] Indra ise daddtu nah (8, 82, 34), te no ratndni (1, 20, 7-8) form 
the (Nivid) hymn for the Ribhus, the words trir d saptdni (1, 20, 7) contain 

' For the sontonces hero omittod in the translation (they are only repetitious) sec 5, 19. 


tlie characteristic " three. " Bahhrur eko msumh (8, 29) is tKe Dvipada. 
By fi repeating a Dvipad, the Hotar puts the two-legged sacrificer among 
the four-legged animals. Ye trimsati trayas para (8, 28) is the (Nivid) hymn 
for the msvedevah, because it contains the term " three. " Vaisv^naro na 
(ItayeliAiv Sr. S. 8, 11) is the Pratipad of the Agnimaruta Sastra ; it 
contains the term pardvatah, which is an anta. 

Maruto yasya hi ksaya (1, 86) is the (Nivid) hymn for the Marutas. 
It contains the term ksi, to reside, which is an antarHpam ; for one resides, 
as it were, after having gone to a (certain) object. 

The (Nivid) hymn for Jatavedas is, prdgnaye vaoham iraya flO, 
187) (each verse of which ends with) sa nal} parsad ati dvi^dfy^ 
i. e., may he (Agni) overcome our enemies, and bring (safely our 
ceremonies) to a conclusion. He repeats this refrain twice. For in this 
Navaratra sacrifice (which is lasting for nine days), there are so many 
ceremonies, that the committal of a mistake is unavoidable. In order 
to make good (any such mistake, the pada mentioned must be repeated 
twice). By doing so, the Hotar makes them (the/j riests and sacrificers) 
free from all guilt. These verses are in the Gayatri metre ; for the Gaya- 
tri is the (leading) metre at the evening libation during the three (last) 


{To What the Different Parts of the Dvadasdha are to he likened. The 
Tenth Day.) 

The six Pristha days (the six first in the Dvadasaha) represent the 
mouth ; the Chandomah days, from the seventh to the ninth, are then 
what is [357] in the mouth, as tongue, palate, and teeth ; but that by 
which one produces articulate sounds of speech, or by which one distin- 
guishes the sweet and not sweet, this is the tenth day. Or the six Pris- 
tha days are comparable to the nostrils, and what is between them, to the 
Chandomah days ; but that by which one discerns the different smells, 
this is the tenth day. Or the six Pristha days are comprable to the eye ; 
the Chandomah are then the black in the eye, and the tenth day then is 
the pupil of the eye, by which one sees. Or the six Pristha days are 
comparable to the ear ; while the Chandomah represent what is in the ear ; 
but by what one hears, that is the tenth day. 

The tenth day is happiness ; those who enter on the tenth day, enter 
on happiness, therefore silence must be kept during the tenth day ; for 


" we shall not bespeak the (goddess of) fortune,'* "because a happy thin£< is- 
not to be spoken to. 

Now the priests walk, clean themselves, and proceed to the place of 
the sacrificer's wife (patnUdld).^ That one of the priests, who should 
know this invocation offering (dhidi), shall say : 

" Hold one another ;" then he shall offer the oblation by repeating 
the mantra, " here be thou happy, here be ye happy, here may be a hold,, 
here may be a hold for all that is yours ;* may Agni carry it (the 
sacrifice) up ! Svaha !* may he take it up ! " 

When he says, " be happy here," then he makes happy (joyful) all 
those (sacrificers) who are in this [358] world. When he says, " enjoy 
yourselves," then he makes joyful their offspring in these worlds. 
When he says, " here may be a hold, a hold for all that is yours," 
then he provides the sacrificers with children, and speech (the power 
of speech). By the words " may Agni carry it up " (vdt), the 
Rathantaram Saman is to be understood, and by "Svaha ! may he 
carry it up!" the Brihat Saman is meant. For the Rathantaram and 
Brihat Saman are the cohabitation of the gods ; by means of this cohabi- 
tation of the gods one obtains generation ; by means of this cohabitation 
of the gods generation is produced. (This is done) for production. Ho 
who has this knowledge, obtains children and cattle. 

Now they all go and make ablution and proceed to the place of the 
Agnidhra. That one who knows the invocation offering (dhuii) shall say 
" hold now one another," then he should bring the offering and recite, 
*' he who produced besides us this ground (our) mother, he, the preserver 
who feeds (us), may preserve in us wealth, vigour, health, and strength,, 
Svaha !" Who knowing this, recites this formula, gains for himself, as well 
as for the sacrificers, wealth, vigour, health, and strength. 


{The Chanting and Repeating of the Serpent Mantra. The Ghaturhotri 
Mantra. Its effect. Who Ought to Repeat it.)- 

All the other priests (except the Udgatris) go from thence (the Agni- 
dhriya fire) and proceed to the Saclas (a place in the south-east of the Utta- 

2 This is a very common superstition spread in Europe ; not to speak, for instance, on 
finding some treasure in the earth. S&y. explains a vavad by " to blame >" bat this is noi; 
required, and is not good sense. 

' To make Homa. 

"All that you have, all your possessions may be upheld and remain in the same pros- 
perous state, 

• The formula Sviiha is personified, and taken as a deity. 


ravedi) all walking each in his owa way, in this or that direction. But 
the Udgatris walk together. They chant the verses (seen) by the Queen 
of the Serpents (Sarpa-rajni) ; because the earth {iyam) m the Queen of 
the Serpents, for she is the queen of all that [359] moves (sarpat). 

She was in the beginning without hair, as it were (without trees, 
bushes, &c.) She then saw this mantra, which commences, dyam 
gaiih prisnir aliramit (10, 189). In consequence of it, she obtained a 
motley appearance, she became variegated vbeing able to produce) any 
form she might like (such as) herbs, trees, and all (other) forms. 
Therefore the man who has such a knowledge obtains the faculty of 
assuming any form he might choose. 

The three Udgatris, Prastotar Udgatar, and Pratibartar, repeat their 
respective parts in their mind (i. e. they do not utter words), but the 
Hotar repeats (aloud) with his voice ; for Vach (speech) and Manas (mind) 
are the cohabitation of the gods. By means of this cohabitation of the 
gods, he who has such a knowledge, obtains children and cattle. 

The Hotar now sets forth the Chaturhotii mantras;' he repeats them 
as the Sastra accompanying the Stotram (the chanting of the verses just 
mentioned) by the Udgatris. The sacrificial name of the deities in the 
Chaturhotris was concealed. Therefore the Hotar now sets forth these 
names, and makes public the appropriate sacrificial name of the deities, 
and brings what has become public, to the public. He who has this 
knowledge, becomes public {i.e., celebrated). 

A Brahman who, after having completed his Vedic studies, should not 
attain to any fame, should go to a forest, string together the stalks of 
Dharba grass, with their ends standing upwards, and sitting on the right 
side of another Brahman, repeat with a loud voice, the Chaturhotri 
mantras. (Should he do so, he would attain to fame). 


([3601 When and How llie Priests BreaJi their Silence on the Tenth Day ) 

All touch now the branch of an Udumbara tree (which is at the 
sacrificial compound behind the seat of the Udgatar) with their hands, 
thinking ** I touch focd and juice ; " for the Udumbara tree represents 
juice' and food. At the time that the gods distributed (for the earth) 

' This is generally done before the singing of a mantra by the tJdgfitar ; but the 
TJdgatar not being allowed at this occasion to utter words, his office is taken by the 

' The sap of the Udumbara tree is to be understood. It grew out of the food scatterecl 
by the gods on the earth. — Sdij. compare 7, 32. 


food and juice, the Udurabara trees grew up ; therefore it brings forth 
every year three times ripe fruits. If they take the Udumbara branches 
in their hands, they then take food and juice. They suppress speech, 
for the sacrifice is speech; in suppressing the sacrifice (by abstaining 
from it) they suppress the day ; for the day is the heaven- world, and 
(consequently) they subdue the heaven-world. No speech is allowed 
during the day ; if they would speak during the day, they would hand 
over the day to the enemy ; if they would speak during the night, they 
would hand over the night to the enemy. Only at the time when the sun 
has half set, they should speak ; for then they leave but this much space 
(as is between the conjunction of day and night) to the enemy. Or they 
should speak (only) after thte sun has completely set. By doing so, they 
make their enemy and adversary share in the darkness. Walking round 
the Ahavaniya fire, they then speak; for the Ahavaniya fire is the 
sacrifice, and the heaven-world ; for by means of the sacrifice, which is the 
gate of the heaven-world, they go to the heaven-world. By the words, " if 
we have failed, by omission, or improper application, or by excess, of 
[361] what is required, all that may go (be taken away) to (our) father, who 
is Prajapati, " they recommence speaking. For all creatures are born after 
Prajapati (he being their creator). Prajapati, therefore, is the shelter 
from (the evil consequences of) what is deficient, or in excess (in his 
creatures) ; and thence these two faults do no harm to the sacrificers. 
Therefore all that is deficient or in excess with them who have this 
knowledge, enters Prajapati. Thence they should commence speaking 
by (repeating) this (mantra). 


{The Chaturhotri Mantras, The Bodies of Prajapati. The Brahmodyam. 
The Sacrificers take their Seats in Heaven.) 

When the Hotar is about to repeat the Chaturhotri mantra, he cries, 
" Adhvaryu ! " This is the proper form of dhdva (at this occasion, and 
not sorhsrlvom). The Adhvaryu then responds, '" Om, Hotar ! tathd Hotar !" 
The Hotar (thereupon) repeats (the Chaturhotri mantras), stopping at each 
of the ten padas ! 

(1) Their sacrificial spoon was intelligence ! 

(2) Their offering was endowed with intellect ! 

(3) Their altar was speech ! 

(4) Their Barhis (seat)' was thought ! 

(5) Their Agni was understanding ! 
6) Their Agnidhra was reasoning ! 


(7) Their ofltering (havis) was breath ! 

(S) Their Adhvaryu was the Saman ! 

(9) Their Hotar was Vachaspati ! 

(10) Their Maitravaruna {upa-vakta) was the mind ! 

(11) They (sacrificers) took (with their mind) the Graha t 

(12) ruler Vachaspati, giver, name ! 

(13) Let us put down thy name ! 

(14) May'st thou put down our (names) ; with (our) [362] names go to 

heaven (announce our arrival in heaven) ! 

(15) What success the gods who have Prajapati for their master, 

gained, the same we shall gain ! "® 

The Hotar now reads the Prajapati tanu (bodies) mantras, and the 

(1 & 2) Eater of food, and mistress of food. The eater of food is 
Agni ; the mistress of food is Aditya. 

(3 & 4) The happy and fortunate. By " happy " Soma, and by " fortu- 
nate " cattle are meant. 

(5 & 6) The houseless and the dauntless. " Houseless " is Vayu, who 
never lives in a house, and " fearless " is Death, for all fear him. 

(7 & 8) The not reached, and not to be reached. " The not reached" is 
Earth, and " the not to be reached " is Heaven. 

(9 & 10) The unconquerable, and the not to he stopped. " The unconquer- 
able" is Agni, and " the not to be stopped " is Aditya (sun). 

(11 & 12j Who has no first (material) cause (apitrvd), nor is liable to 
destruction. " Who has no first (material) cause " is the mind 
{manas) and " what is not liable to destruction " is the year. 

These twelve bodies of Prajapati make up the whole Prajapati. On 
the tenth day, one reaches the whole Prajapati. 

They now repeat the Brahmodyam.® " Agni is [363] the house-father ; 
" thus say some, for he is the master (house-father) of the world (earth). 
" Vayu is the house-father, thus say others ; for he is the ruler of the airy 
" region. That one (Aditya, the sun) is the house-father ; for he burns 

8. Heaven-world. The gods ascended to heaven by sacrifice. The same is the 
object of the sacrificers. This is the Graha mantra, recited by the Hotar, Now follow 
the Prajapati tanu mantras, and the Brahmodyam. There are twelve PrajSpati tanu 
mantras ; they are repeated by pairs, every time two. 

9. That is, what Brahmans ought to repeat. It begins with the words, Agnir grihapatih, 
and ends with ardtsma. This Brahmodyam is no proper mantra, bat a kind of BrShmanam,^ 
or theological exposition. However, the whole is repeated by the Hotar as a mantra» 
See the whole of it also in the Asv. Sr. S. 8, 13. 

f 247 

**' (with his rays). The Ritus are the houses. He who knows what 
" god is their (the Ritu's) house-father, becomes 'their house-father, and 
•^'succeeds. Such sacrihcera are saccessful (they become masters them- 
" selves). House-father (master) becomes he who knows the god who 
" destroys the evil consequences of sin (Aditya, the sun). This house- 
" father destroys the evil consequences of sin and becomes (sole) 
" master. These sacrificers destroy the evil consequences of their sin 
""(and say), Adhvaryu ! we have succeeded, we have succeeded." 

(The Agnihotram. On the Duties of the Brahmd Priest). 


(The Agnihotram. ^ When the Saerifieer has to Order his Priest to Bring 
Fire to the Ahavaniya. The Sixteen Phrts of the Agnihotram.) 

The Agnihotrl says to his Adhvaryu, " Take from " (here the Garha- 
patya fire) the Ahavaniya fire." Thus he says at evening ; for what 
good he was doing during the day, all that is taken away (together with 
C364] the fire and brought) eastwards and put in safety. If he says at 
morning time, " Take from (here) the Ahavaniya," then he takes with 
him all the good he was doing during the night (brings it) eastwards 
and puts it in safety. The Ahavaniya fire is the sacrifice (sacrificial fire) ; 
the Ahavaniya is the heaven-world. He who has this knowledge, 
places the heaven-world (the real heaven) in the heaven-world, which 
(is represented by) the sacrifice alone. Who knows the Agnihotram 
which belongs to all gods, which consists of sixteen parts, and is placed 
among cattle, is successful by means of it. 

What in it (the ofiering of which the Agnihotram consists) is of the 
€0W (such as milk) belongs to Rudra. What is joined to the calf, belongs 
to Vayu. What is being milked, belongs to the Ai^vins. What has 
been milked, belongs to Soma. What is put on the fire to boil, belongs 
to Varuna. What bubbles up (in boiling) belongs to PQsan, What 
is dripping down, belongs to the Maruts. What has bubbles, belongs to 
Visvedevas. The cream (of the milk) gathered, belongs to Mitra. What 

1 The Agnihotram is a burnt offering of fresh milk, brought every day, twice during the 
whole term of life. Before a Brahman can take upon himself to bring the Agnihotram, he 
has to establish the three sacred fires, Garhapatya, Taksina and Ahavaniya, This cere- 
mony is called AgnyadMna. The performers of these daily oblations are called "Agni- 
hotris". They alone are entitled to bring the I^tis and Soma sacrifices. There are, up to 
this day, Agnihotris in the Dokkhau, who may b© regarded as the true followers of the 
ancient Vedic religion. 


falls out (of the potj, belongs to Heaven and Earth. What turns up 
(in boiling), belongs to Savitar. What is seized (and placed in the vessel), 
belongs to Visnu. What is placed (on the Vedi) belongs to Brihaspati. 
The first offering is Agni's, the latter portion is Prajapati's, the 
offering itself (chief portion) belongs to Indra. This is the Agnihotram, 
belonging to all gods, which comprises sixteen parts. 


(How the priest has to make good certain casualties which may happen 
when the Agnihotram is offered.) 

If the cow of an Agnihotri ' which is joined to her calf, sits 
down during the time of being milked, what is the penance for it ? 
He shall repeat over it this [365] mantra. *' Why dost thou sit 
down out of fear ? From this grant us safety ! Protect all our cattle ! 
Praise to Rudra the giver ! " (By repeating the following mantra) 
he should raise her up. " The divine Aditi (cow) rose, and put long 
life in the sacrifice, she who provides Indra, Mitra and Varuna with their 
(respective) shares (in the sacrifice)." Or he may hold on her udder and 
mouth a vessel filled with water and give her (the cow) then to a Brahman. 
This is another Prayaschitta (penance). 

If the cow of an Agnihotri, which is joined to her calf,- cries during 
the time of being milked, how is this to be atoned for ? If she cries out of 
hunger, to indicate to the sacrificer what she is in need of, then he 
shall give her more food in order to appease her. For food is appeasing. 
The mantra suyavasdd hhagavati (1, 164, 40) is to be repeated. This is the 

If the cow of an Agnihotri which is joined to her calf moves during 
the time of being milked, what is the Prayat^chitta ? Should she in mov- 
ing spill (some milk) then he shall stroke her, and whisper (the following 
words), " What of the milk might have fallen to the ground to-day, what 
" might have gone to the herbs, what to the waters, — may this milk be in 
• * my houses, (my) cow, (my) calves, and in me." He shall then bring a 
burnt offering with what has remained, if it be suflficient for making the 
burnt offering (Homa). 

Should all in the vessel have been spilt (by the moving of the cow) 
then he shall call another cow, milk her and bring the burnt offering with 
that milk, and sacrifice it. It is to be offered alone in faith.* 

' The cow herself is called Agnihotri. 

' The meaning of the sentence : ^i?^ SRfl^ ^Tci«^ is : this (substitute) is to be offered 
(completely) even including the sroddhd. This is the formula : %(^ ^j:^'! ^fT^ (i.e) "I offer 
(this) in faith (as a believing one)." 


[366] This is the Prayas^chitta. He who with such a knowledge offers 
the Agnihotram, has (only) offerings in readiness Cwhich are fit) and has 
(consequently) all (accepted by the gods). 

(On the Meanmg of the Agnihotram, if Performed. in Perfect Faith. It 

represents Dak^ind. The Asvina Sastra, Mahdvrata, and Agnicha- 

yana are hinted at in it.) 

That Aditya (the sun) is his (the Agnihotri's) sacrificial post, the 
earth is his altar, the herbs are his Barhis (seat of grass), the trees are his 
fuel, the waters his sprinkling vessels, the directions the wooden sticks 
laid round about (the hearth). If anything belonging to the Agnihotrt 
should be destoryed, or if he should die, or if he should be deprived of 
it, then he should receive all this in the other world, placed, as it were, 
on the Barhis (sacrificial litter). And the man who, having this know- 
ledge, performs the Agnihotram, will actually obtain (all this). 

He brings as Daksina (donation) both gods and men mutually, 
and everything (the whole world). By his evening offering he presents 
men to the gods, and the whole world. For men, if being fast asleep 
without shelter, as ^t were, are offered as gifts to the gods. By the 
morning offering he presents the gods as gifts to men, and the whole 
world. The gods, after having understood the intention (of men that the 
gods should serve them) make efforts (to do it), saying " I will do it, I will 
go." What world a man, who has presented all this property to the gods, 
might gain, the same world gains he who, with this kaowledge, performs 
the Agnihotram. 

By offering the evening oblation to Agni, the Agnihotri commences 
the Ai^vina Sastra (which [367] commences with a verse addressed to 
Agni). By using the term vaeh, i. e., speech (when taking out the 
Agnihotram) he makes a (pratigara), i. e., response (just as is done at 
the repetition of a Sastra). 

By (thus) repeating every day " Vach," the Asvina Sastra * is recited 
by Agni at night, for him who, having this knowledge, brings the Agni- 

* The Asvina fe'astra is required at the commencement of the GavSm ayanam, when 
making Atiratra. See 4, 17-11. The author of our Brahmana here tries to find out some 
resemblance between the performance of the evening Agnihotram and the As'vina Sas- 
tra. He finds it in the circumstance, that this offering belongs to Agni, and the Asvina 
Sastra commences with a verse addressed to Agni (4, 7). Having thus obtained the 
commencement of the Sastra, he must find out also the pratigara or response which 
belongs to every Sastra. This he discovers in the formula: viichu tvd hotre, which the 
Agnihotri repeats as often as the offering is taken out for being sacrificed. 


By offering tiie morning oblation to Aditya, lie commences the Maha- 
vrata * ceremony. By using (a term equivalent to) 'prd.'ij.a. i. e., life (when 
eating the remainder of the Agnihotram) he makes a 'pratigara (also). By 
(thus) repeating everyday the word " food " (life), the Mahavrata (^as- 
tram) is recited by Aditya at day for him who, with this knowledge, per- 
forms the Agnihotram. 

The Agnihotri has to perform during the year 720 evening offerings 
and also 720 morning offerings, just as many bricks (1440) marked by 
sacrificial formulas as are required at the Gavam ayanam. He who with 
such a knowledge brings the Agnihotram, has the sacrifice performed with 
a Sattra [368] lasting all the year (and) with Agni Chitya ^ (the hearth 
constructed at the Chayana ceremony). 


(Whether the Morning Oblation of the Agnihotri is co be Offered Before or 

After Sunrise. 

Vrisasusma, the son of Vatavata, the son of Jatiikarna, said, " We 
shall tell this to the gods, that they perform now the Agnihotram, which 
was brought on both day^ (on the evening of the preceding, and the 
morning of the following, day) only every other day." And a girl, who 
was possessed by a Gandharva, spoke thus, " We shall tell it to the Pitaras 
(ancestors), that the Agnihotram which was performed on both days, is 
now performed every other day." 

The Agnihotram performed every other day is performed at evening 
after sunset, and at morning before sunrise. The Agnihotram performed 
on both days is performed at evening after sunset, and at morning after 
sunrise. Therefore, the Agnihotram is to be offered, after sunrise. For 
he who offers the Agnihotram before sunset, reaches in the twenty- 
fourth year the Gayatri world, but if he brings it after sunrise, in the 

' This concludes the Gavam ayanam. See the note to 4, 12. The resemblance between 
the Mahavrata and the morning Agnistoma is found by our author in the following 
points : The morning Agnihotram belongs to Aditya, and the Niskevalya feastra of the 
Mahavrata commences with a mantra addressed to the same deity. The Pratigara he 
finds in the mantra, annam Tpayo reto snufsii, which the Agnihotri repeats as often as ho 
eats the remainder of his offering. 

* At each Atiratra of the Gavam ayanam, the so-called Ohayana ceremony takes 
place. This consists in the construction of the Uttara Vedi (the northern altar) in the 
shape of an eagle. About 1440 bricks are required for this structure, each being conse- 
crated with a separate Yajus mantra. This altar represents the universe. A tortoise 
is buried alive in it, and a living frog carried round it and afterwards turned out. The 
fire kindled on this new altar is the Agni Ohitya. To him are the oblations of flesh and 
Soma to bo given. The whole ceremony is performed by the Adhvaryu alone. 


twelfth. When he bringa the Agnihotram before sunrise during two 
years, then he has actually sacrificed during cue year only. But if he 
sacrifices after sunrise, then he completes the yearly amount of offerings 
in one year- Therefore [369] the Agnihotram is to be brought after 
sunrise. He who sacrifices after sunset at evening, and after sun- 
rise in the morning, brings the offering in the lustre of the day-night 
(Ahoratra). For the night receives light from Agni, and the day from the 
sun (Aditya). By means of this light the day is illuminated. Therefore 
he who sacrifices after sunrise, performs the sacrifice only in the light 
of Ahoratra (that is, he receives the light only once, instead of twice, the 
offering brought before sunrise belonging to the night, and being illumi- 
nated by Agni, not by Aditya). 


{Several Stanzas Quoted Regarding the 'Necessity to bring the Agnihotram 

Ajter Sunrise). 

Day and night are the two wheels of the year. By means of both, ho 
passes the year. He who sacrifices before sunrise, goes by one wheel, as 
it were, only. But he who sacrifices after sunrise, is going through the 
year with both wheels, as it were, and reaches his destination soon. 
There is a sacrificial Gatha (stanza) which runs as follows : 

" All that was, and will be, is connected with the two Samans, Brihat 
"and Rathantaram, and subsists through them. The wise man, after having 
" established the sacred hearths (the Agnihotri), shall bring a different 
" sacrifice at day, and a different one at night {i. e., devoted to different 

The night belongs to the Rathantaram, the day to the Brihat. Agni 
is the Rathantaram, Aditya the Brihat. Both these deities cause him to 
go to the heaven-world, to the place of splendour (hradhna), who with 
this knowledge sacrifices (the Agnihotram) after sunrise. Thence it is to 
be sacrificed after sunrise. Regarding this, there is a sacrificial Gatha 
chanted, which runs as follows : 

" Just as a man who drives with one pack-horse [370] only without 
" purchasing another one, act all those men who bring the Agnihotram 
" before sunrise." 

For all beings whatever follow this deity (Aditya) when he stretches 
(the arms at sunrise and sunset). He who has this knowledge, is followed 
by this deity, after whom all follows, and he follows her. For this Aditya 


is the *' one guest " wlio lives among those who bring the sacrifice after 
sunrise. Concerning this there is a Gatha (stanza, which runs as fol- 
lows) : 

" He who has stolen lotus fibres, and does not receive (even) one guest 
"on the evening, will charge with this guilt the not guilty, and take off the 
** guilt from the guilty."' 

This Aditya is the "one guest" (ekdtithih) he is it "who lives among 
the sacrificers. " The man who [371] thinking, it is enough of the 
Agnihotram, does not sacrifice, to this deity (Aditya), shuts him out from 
being his guest. Therefore this deity, if shut out, shuts such an Agnihotri 
out from both this world and that one. 

Therefore he who thinks, it is enough of the Agnihotram, may 
nevertheless bring sacrifices. Thence they say, a guest who comes at 
evening is not to be sent away. It happened that once a learned man, 
Jdnasruteya, a resident of a town (a Nagari;, said to an Aikadasdk^a, a 
descendant of Manutantu, " we recognise from the children, whether one 
brings the Agnihotram with or without the proper knowledge." Aikada- 
i^aksa had as many children as are required to fill a kingdom. Just 
as many children will he obtain who brings the Agnihotram after sunrise. 


{The Agnihotram is to he Offered After Sunrise). 

In rising, the sun joins his rays to the Ahavaniya fire. Who, therefore, 
sacrifices before sunrise, is like a female giving her breast to an unborn 

' Sayana makes the following remarks on this rather obscure stanza : 

^\^% w Tiq?f|# 3^% f^^f^^q^TTm^ ^ci^T m sTcn^T??: qtf^JT: 5^^^ ^i^ mi 

The stealing of bisdni, i.e., lotus fibres, from a tank appears to have been a great 
offence in ancient times. Not to receive one guest (at [least) on the evening was consi- 
dered as equally wicked. The man who has committed such crimes will, in order to clear 
himself from all guilt, charge an innocent man with it. The forms ubhisastdt and apahardt 
have evidently the sense of a future tense, as is the ease in other instances also. The 
stanza in question appears to be very old, and was hardly intelligible even to the author 
of our BrShmanam. He means by ekdtithih " the one guest," the sun, which, according 
to the context, cannot have been the orisinal sense. 


child, or a cow giving her udder to an unborn calf. But he who sacrifices 
after sunrise is like a female giving her breast to a child which is born, 
or like a cow giving her udder to a calf which is born. The Agnihotram 
being thus offered to him (Surya), he (Surya) gives to the Agnihotri in 
return, food in both worlds, in this one and that one. He who brings the 
Agnihotram before sunrise, is like such an one who throws food before 
a man or an elephant, who do not stretch forth their hands (not caring 
for it). But he who sacrifices after sunrise, is like such an one who 
throws food before a man or an elephant who stretch forth their hands. 
He who has this knowledge, and sacrifices after sunrise, lifts up with 
this hand (Aditya's hand) his sacrifice, and puts it down [372] in the 
heaven- world. Therefore the sacrifice is to be brought after sunrise. 

When rising, the sun brings all beings into motion (pranayati). 
Therefore he is called prcltja (breath). The offerings of him who, knowing 
this, sacrifices after sunrise, are well stored up in this prdva (Aditya). 
Therefore it is to be sacrificed after sunrise. 

That man is speaking the truth, who in the evening after sunset, and 
in the morning after sunrise, brings his offering. He commences the 
evening sacrifice by the words, " Bhiir, Bhuvah, Svar, Om ! Agni is 
Light, Light is Agni ; ^' and the morning sacrifice by '' Bhur, Bhuvah, 
Svar,Om! Sun is Light, Light is Sun." The truth-speaking man offers 
thus in truth, when he brings his sacrifice after sunrise. Therefore it 
must be sacrificed after sunrise. This is well expressed in a sacrificial 
stanza which is chanted. 

" Those who sacrifice before sunrise tell every morning an 
" untruth ; for, if celebrating the Agnihotram at night which ought to be 
" celebrated at day, they say. Sun is Light, but then they have no light 
" (for the sun has not risen)." 


{On the Creation of the World. The Origin of the Vedas and the Saered 
Words. The Penances for Mistakes committed at a Sacrifice.) 

Prajapati had the desire of creating beings and multiplying himself. 
He underwent (consequently) austerities. Having finished them, he 
created these worlds, viz., earth, air and heaven. He heated them (with the 
lustre of his mind, pursuing a course of austerities) ; three lights were 
produced : Agni from the earth, Vayu from the air, and Aditya from 
heaven. He heated them again, in consequence of which the three Vedas 
were produced. The Rigveda came from Agni, the Yayurveda from 


Vajm, and the Samaveda from Aditya. He heated tliese Vedas, [373] 
in consequence of whicli three luminaries arose, viz., Bhur came from 
the Rigveda, Bhuvah from the Yajurveda, and Svar from the Samaveda. 
He heated these luminaries again, and three sounds came out of them 
a, u and m. By putting them together, he made the syllable om. There- 
fore he (the priest) repeats " Om ! Om !," for Om is the heaven-world, and 
Om is that one who burns (Aditya). 

Prajapati spread the sacrifice^ Cextending it), took it, and sacrificed 
with it. By means of the Rich (Rigveda), he performed the duties of the 
Hotar; by means of the Yaj us, those of the Adhvaryu ; and by means 
of the Saman, those of the Udgatar. Out of the splendour (seed) which 
is inherent in this three-fold knowledge (the three Vedas), he made the 
Brahma essence. 

Prajapati offered then the sacrifice to the gods. The gods spread it, 
took it, and sacrificed with it, and did just as Prajapati had done 
(regarding the oflBice of the Hotar, &c). The gods said to Prajapati, " If 
a mistake has been committed in the Rik, or in the Yaj us, or in the 
Saman in our sacrifice, or in consequence of ignorance, or of a general 
misfortune, what is the atonement for it ? " Prajapati answered, " When 
you commit a mistake in the Rik, you shall sacrifice in the Garha- 
patya, saying Bhiih. When you commit one in the Yajus, then you shall 
sacrifice in the Agnldhriya fire^ or (in the absence of it, as is the case) 
in the Havis offerings, ^° in the cooking fire (Daksina Agni) saying, 
BhuvaJf. When a mistake is committed in the Saman, then it is to be 
sacrificed in the Ahavaniya fire by saying, Svar. When a mistake has 
been committed out of ignorance, or in consequence of a general 
[374] mishap, then you shall sacrifice in the Ahavaniya fire, reciting all 
three words, Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svar. These three " great words " (vyahriti) 
are like nooses to tie together the Vedas, It is just like joining one 
thing to another, one link to another link, like the stringing of anything 
made of leather, or of any other thing, and connecting that which was 
disconnected, that one puts together by means of these great words all 
that was isolated in the sacrifice. These Vyahritis are the general 
Prayas^chitta (penance) ; thence the penances (for mistakes ) at a sacrifice 
are to be made with them. 

® It is regarded as a person. 

' This is used only in the Soma sacrifices. 

^'' Such as the Darsapiirnamiiga isti, Chatarmasya isti, &c. 



(On the O^ce of the Brahmct Priest. He ought to remain Silent during all 

the Principal Ceremonies.) 

The great sages (mahdvadali) ask, " When the duties of a Hotar are 
performed by the Rik, those of the Adhvaryus by the Yajus, and those 
of the Udgatar by the Sarnan, and the three-fold science is thus properly 
carried into effect by the several (priests employed), by what means then 
are the duties of the BrahmS, priest performed ? " To this one should 
answer, ** This is done just by means of this three-fold science." 

He who blows (Vayu) is the sacrifice. He has two roads, viz., speech 
and mind. By their means (speech and mind), the sacrifice is performed. 
In the sacrifice^there are both, speech and mind, required. By means of 
speech the three priests of the three-fold science perform one part 
(assigned to Vdch) ; but the Brahma priest performs his duty by the 
mind only. Some Brahma priests, after having muttered the Stomabha- 
gas 11 when all arrangements have been made for [375] the repetition of 
the Prataranuvaka (the morning prayer) sit down, and speak (without 
performing any of the ceremonies). 

Respecting this (the silence on the part of the Brahm^ priests), a Brah- 
man,who saw a Brahma priest at the Prataranuvaka talk, said (once) ** they 
(the priests and the sacrificer) have made one-half of this sacrifice to 
disappear." Just as a man who walks with one foot only, or a carriage 
which has one wheel only, falls to the ground, in the same manner the 
sacrifice falls to the ground {hhre^an nyeti), and if the sacrifice has 
fallen, the sacrificer falls after it too (if the Brahma priests talk during 
the time they ought to be silent). Therefore the Brahma priest should, 
after the order for repeating the Prataranuvaka has been given, refrain 
from speaking till the oblations from the Upam^u and Antaryama 
(Grahas) are over. After the order for chanting the Pavamana Stotra has 
been given (he ought also to refrain from speaking) till the last verse (of 
the Stotra) is done. And [376] again, he should during, the chanting of 
the- (other) Stotras, and the repeating of the Sastras, refrain from 
speaking, till the Vasatkara (at the end of the Yajy& verse of the 
Sastra) is pronounced. Likewise, as a man walking on both his legs, 

^^ The Stomabhagas are certain Yajus-like mantras which are to be found in 
the BrS.hmanas of the Samaveda only (not in the Yajus or Rlgveda). Each of these 
mantras consists of four parts : (a) To what the Stoma is like, such as a cord, a joint, &c. ; 
(6) To what it is devoted or joined; (c) An order to the ^toma to favour the object to 


and a carriage going on both its wheels, does not suffer any injury ; in 
the same way such a sacrifice (if performed in this manner), does not 
suffer any injury, nor the sacrificer either, if the sacrifice be not 


(O71 the Work done -by the Brahma. Re Permits the Chantera to Ghant) 

They say, When the sacrificer has the reward {daksiv-a) given to the 
Adhvaryu, he thinks, " this priest has seized with his hands my Grahas 
(Soma cups), he has walked for me, he has sacrificed for me." And when 
he has the reward given to the Udgatar, he thinks, " he has sung for me ; " 
and when he has the reward given to the Hotar, he thinks, " this priest 
has spoken for me the Anuvakyas, and the Yajyas, and repeated the 
^astras." But on account of what work done is the Brahma priest to 
receive his reward ? Shall he receive 12 the reward, thinks the sacrificer, 
without having done any work whatever ? Yes, he receives it for his medi- 
cal attendance upon the sacrifice, for the Brahma is the physician of the 
sacrifice (which is regarded as a man). Because of the Brahma priest 
performing his priestly function with the Brahma, which is the quintess- 
ence of the metres. He does one-half of the work, for he was at the head 
of the other priests, and the others (Adhvaryu, Hotar, Udgdtar) do the 
other half. (The Brahma priests tell if any mistake has been commit- 
[377] ted in the sacrifice, and perform the Prayaschittas, as described 
above. )i^ 

which it is joined ; (d) Au order to the chanters to chant the Stoma by the permission 
of Savitar in honour of Brihaspati. The last (fourth) part is in all the Stomabhaga 
mantras the same. I give here some of these mantras, which are all to be found in 
the Tandya Br&hmanam (1, 8-9). They commence : 

1 {a) i^m^ (h) '^^\^ cwr (c) ^ f^?^ (d) ^^^st^cTT ^f^?a^ ^5^ 

2 (a) a%ff^ (6) vj^?^ ^m (c) ^ ^r^ {d) ^f^o 

3 (a) ^f?^^^ (b) f^# c^ (c) f^ f^?^ id) ^no 

4 (a) ^fw5i?^ (b) ^Fcrf^giq f^T (c) ^5af^ f^J^ {d) g^o , 

5 (a) f^gj^ts^ (6) 1S§ ?fi (c) ffg f^J^ (fee. 

The proper meaning of the repetition of these and similar mantras by the Brahm4 priests 
is, to bring the chant (Stoma), which is about to be performed, into contact with the 
external world, with day, night, air, rain, the gods, and secure the favour of all 
these powers and beings. 

^2 In the original, haratd, which is to be taken in the sense of a future. 

" I have not translated the passage regarding the PrSyaschitta to be performed by 
the Brahma priest if any mistake has been committed ; for it is only a repetition from 



The Prastotaris says, after the order for chanting the Stotram has been 
given, ** Brahma, we shall now chant, our commander ! " The Brahma 
then shall say at the morning libation, *' Bhur ! filled with the thought of 
Indra, ye may sing !" and at the evening libation, [378] he says, "Svar ! 
filled with the thought of Indra, ye may sing." 

At the time of the Ukthya or Atiratra sacrifice, all the thi-ee great 
words, Bhur Bhuval} Svar are required. If the Brahma says, " Filled 
with the thought of Indra, ye may sing," this means, that the sacrifice is 
Indra's, for Indra is th« deity of the sacrifice. By the words, " filled with 
the thought of Indra," the BrahmS priest connects the Udgitha (the 
principal part of the chant) with Indra. This saying of the BrahmS 
means, " Do not leave Indra ; filled with him, ye may sing." Thus he 
tells them. 

^* The announcement of the Prastotar, that the chanters are ready to perform their 
chant, as well as the orders to do so given by the BrahmS. and Maitravaruna, are contained 
in full in the Asval. 6r. S. (5, 2), and in the Sank. Sr. 8. (6, 8). I here give the text from 
the Asv. S. :— 

i^H^ ^^rarro: spm^^rf^ ^cfkr^rrf^^Rfd i^^f^^^^d) ^jRsv^^^rr; ^ f^^si^di f% mf^t^m 

(When the Prastotar calls) " BrahmS, we shall chant, O commander !" then the two priests 
(the BrahmS, and Maitravaruna) whose duty it is to allow (the chanters to sing) give their 
permission. The Brahma, after having first muttered the words " hhilr, be ye filled with 
Indra, created by Savitar (or permitted by Savitar)," at the morning libation, says, "chant ;" 
at the midday libation he uses, instead of bliiir, bliuvah ; and at the evening libation, 
svar (the remainder of the Japa being the same). Before all the Stotras which follow the 
Agnim^ruta Sastra ( which concludes the Sastras of the Agnistoma), that is to say, at 
the Ukthya, s'olasi, Atiratra sacrifices, &c., the Brahma mutters all the three great words 
{hhiir, hhuvah, svah along with the remainder of the formula) at the same time. The 
Maitravaruna, after having muttered, " Speak what is right and true, ye who are created 
by Savitar, the god to whose honour praises are chanted, do not lose the sacred verses 
(chanted by you) which are life, may he protect both bodies of the Sfiman (the verses and 
the tune) Om !" says aloud " chant V 

[378] SIXTH BOOK. 

{On the Offices of the Qrdvastut and Suhrahmai^yot,) 


{On the Origin of the Office of the Grdmstut,^ The Serpent 
Ri§i Arhuda.) 
The gods held (once upon a time) a sacrificial session in Sarvacharu, 
They did not succeed in £380] destroying the consequences of guilt. 
Arbuda, the son of Kadru, the Serpent Risi, the framer of mantras, 
said to them, " You have overlooked one ceremony which is to be 
performed by the Hotar. I will perform it for you, then you will destroy 
the consequences of guilt." They said, ** Well, let it be done." At 
every midday libation, he then came forth (from his hole), approached 
them, and repeated spells over the Soma, squeezing stones. Thenco 
they repeat spells at every midday libation over the Soma squeezing 
stones, in imitation of him (the Serpent Risi). The way on which this 
Serpent Risi used to go when coming from (his hole) is now known 
by the name Arhudodd, Sarpav-t (at the sacrificial compound). 

^See also him about Aav, s'r. 8, 5, 12. His services are only required at the midday 
libation. He performs his function of repeating mantras over the Soma, squeezing stonea 
before the so-called Dadhi Gharma ceremony. He enters through the eastern gate, and 
passes on to the two Havirdh9,nas (the two carts, on which the sacrificial offerings are 
put, and the two covered places, in which these two carts are). Having arrived north-east 
of the exterior front of the axe {aki^asiras) of the southern Havirdhftna, he throws off 
a stalk of grass held in his hand, which ceremony is called nirasanum (it is performed 
often by other priests also). He then faces the Soma shoots, assuming a peculiar posture. 
The Adhvaryu gives him a band (us>f/so), which he ties round his face. As soon as 
the Adhvaryu and his assistants take the Soma sprouts from below, the adhisavana 
board (see the note to 7, 32), he ought to repeat the mantras over the Grdvanas, which 
are now being employed for extracting the Soma juice. He commences with verses 
containing the term su, to squeeze, or derivatives of it. The first is : abhi tvd deva savitar 
(1, 24, 3). After some more single verses follow, the three principal GrSvdna hymns, viz., 
praite vadantu (10, 94), a va riThjase (10, 76), and pra vo grdvdnah (10, 175). The first 
and the last are said to have been seen by Arhuda, the Serpent Risi, the second by Jarat 
Ttarna, one of the Serpent tribe also. These hymns very likely formed part of the so-called 
Sarpaveda or Serpent Veda (see the Gopatha Brahmanam 1, 10, according to whose 
statement this Veda came from the east), and were originally foreign to the Rigveda. 
They may be, nevertheless, very ancient. The two latter hymns are to be repeated 
before the last verse of the first, and are thus treated like a Nivid at the evaning libation. 
Either in the midst, or before, or, after these two hymns, the Gravastut must repeat the 


The King (Soma) made tlie gods drunk. They then said, " A poison- 
ous serpent {asivi§a) looks at our King ! Well, let us tie a band round 
his eyes." They then tied a band round his eyes. Therefore they recite 
the spells over the Soma squeezing stones, when having tied (round the 
eyes) a band in imitation (of what the gods did). The King (Soma) 
made them drunk. They said, " He (the Serpent Risi) repeats his own 
mantra over the Soma squeezing stones. Well, let us mix with his 
mantra other verses." They then mixed with his mantra other verses, 
in consequence of which he (Soma) did not make them drunk.' By 
mixing his mantra with other verses for effecting propitiation, they 
succeeded in destroying the consequences of guilt. 

£3811 In imitation of this feat achieved by the gods, the Serpents destroyed 
all consequences of their own guilt. Having in this state (being quite 
free from guilt and sin) left oS the old skin torn, they obtain a new one. 
Who knows this, destroys the consequences of his own guilt. 


(How Many Verses are to he Repeated over tlie Grdvams. How they 
ought to he Repeated. They are Required only at the Midday Libation. 
No Order for Repeating them Necessary.) 

They say, With how many mantras should he (the Gravastut) pray 
over the Soma squeezing stones ? The answer is, with a hundred ; for 
the life of a man is a hundred years, he has a hundred powers, and a 
hundred bodily organs ; by doing so, he makes man participate in age, 
strength, and bodily organs. (Others) say, He ought to repeat thirty-three 
verses, for he (the Serpent Rishi) destroyed the sins of thirty-three gods, 
for there are thirty-three gods. (Others) say, He ought to recite an 
unlimited number of such mantras. For Prajapati is unlimited ; and 
this recital of the mantras referring to the Soma squeezing stones belongs 
to Prajapati, and in it all desires are comprised. Who does so, obtains 
all he desires. Thence he ought to repeat an unlimited number of such 

Now they ask. In what way should he repeat these mantras (over 
the Soma squeezing stones) ? Syllable by syllable, or should he take 
four syllables together, or pa da by pada, or half verse by half verse, or 

so-called Pavamfini verses (Rigveda 9.) He has to continue his recitation as long as 
the squeezing of the juice lasts, or he may go on till it is filled in the Qrahas (a vd gralia 
grahandt) ; he then must conclude with the last verse of the first Gravana hymn. Besides 
this ritual for the GrSvastut, another one is given by Asvalftyana, which ho traces to 

' These mantras were the antidote. 


verse by verse ? With whole verses (repeated without stopping) one 
does not perform any ceremony, nor with stopping at every pada. If 
the verses are repeated with stopping at every syllable, or every four 
syllables, then the metres become mutilated, for [382] many syllables 
(sounds) would thus be lost. Thence he ought to (repeat) these mantras 
one half verse by another. For man has two legs, and cattle are four-footed. 
By doing so, he places the two-legged sacrificer among the four-legged 
cattle. Thence he ought to repeat these mantras by half verses. 

Since the Gravastut repeats^ only at every midday libation mantras 
over the Soma squeezing stones, how do mantras become repeated over 
them at the two other (morning and evening) libations ? By repeating 
verses in the Gayatri metre, he provides for the morning libation ; for 
the Gayatri metre is appropriate to the morning libation ; and by repeat- 
ing verses in the Jagati metre, he provides for the evening libation ; 
for the Jagati metre is appropriate to the evening libation. In this 
way he who, with this knowledge, repeats the mantras over the Soma 
squeezing stones only at the midday libation, supplies these praises for 
the morning and eveving libations. 

They say. What is the reason, that, whilst the Adhvaryu calls upon 
the other priests to do their respective duties, the Gravastut repeats 
this mantra without being called upon (without receiving a prdi^a) ? 
The ceremony of repeating mantras over the Soma squeezing stones is of 
the same nature as the mind which is not called upon. Therefore the 
Gravastut repeats bis mantra without being called upon. 


(The Suhrahmanyd Fomula. On its Nature. By whom it is to be Repeated. 
The Oblation from the Pdtnivata Graha. The Ydjyd of the Agnidhrd.) 

The Subrahmanya " is Vach. Her son is the [383] king Soma. At 
the time of buying Soma, they call the Subrahmanya (thither), just as 
one calls a cow. 

2 The Subrahmanya formula is contained in the Kfityayana Srfiuta Stitras (1, 3), the 
Agnistoma Sama Prayoga, the Satapatha Brahm. (3, 3, 4, 17-20), and the Taittiriya 
Aranyaka (1, 12, 3-4). The peculiar pronunciation of this formula is noted by Panini 
(1,2, 37-38). The most complete information on its use being only to be found in the 
Samaveda Satras, I here give the passages from Katyayana referring to it, along with 
the formula itself: — 


[384] Thi-ough this son, the Subrahmanya priest milks' (obtains) all 
desires for the sacrificer. For Vach grants all desires of him who has 
this knowledge. They ask, What is the nature of this Subrahmanyd ? 

After the Atithya Isti has been finished, he (the SubrahmanyS) should stand in the front 
part of the enclosure made for the wife of the sacrificer inside the Vedi, and when 
touching the sacrificer and his wife, after having called thrice '* subj-ahmauyom," recite 
the following formula, " Come, Indra ! come owner of the yellow horses ! " ram of Me- 
" dhatithi ! Mena of Vrisanas'va ! thou buffalo (gaura) who ascendest the female 
'* (avaskandin), lover of AhklyS ! son of Ku3ika ! BrShmana ! son of Gotaraa ! (come) 
•'thou who art called" (to appear) at the Soma feast in so and so many days how 
many there might intervene (between the day on which the Subrahmanya calls 
him, and that of the Soma festival at which his presence is requested). The Subrah- 
manya is required on the second, third, fourth and fifth day of the Agnistoma, and 
almost on every day of the other Soma sacrifices. On the second day, the terms, trya/ie 
sutydm, " three days hence,'' i.e., on the fifth) ; on the third day, dvyahe sutyam, i.e., two 
days hence ; on the fourth, sz/as, i. e., to-morrow ; and on the fifth (the day of the Soma 
feast) adya, i. e. to-day, are used to mark the time when the Soma banquet, to whicJi 
Indra is by this formula solemnly invited, is to come off. As far as ST^T^ which is 
followed by the mentioning of the time appointed 7^^, 5^, &c., there is no difference 
anywhere observable. But the few sentences which follow, and which conclude the 
formula, differ according to different schools. Some were (according to Katyayana) 
of opinion, that only 'sH T q-cgg " come hither " is to follow ; others recommenSed ^{H-^^ 
97^^ " come hither, O Maghavan." Others, such as Grautama, were of opinion, that 
either is to be omitted, and the concluding formula, ^m s \ ^\i^ ^TJl^^^JH^^ m-t.^^ 
•' come, ye divine BrahmS. priests, come, come. " has to follow immediately upon ^qr» 

The name of the tune (Saman), according to which it is chanted (or rather recited) 
is Brahmasri, the metre is called Safhpdtf the Risi is Aditya, and Indra is the deity. 

At the so-called Agnishtnt sacrifices, which open the Chaturda^aratra Sattras (sacrifi- 
cial sessions lasting for a* fortnight), (As'v. Sr. S, 11, 2), the Subrahmanya calls Agni 
instead of Indra (Katyay. 1, 4), according to Gautama, by the following "formula : 

», e., " Come, O Agni, with (thy) two red ones (horses), thou brightly shining, thou blaz- 
ing in smoke, Jatavedas, thou wise 1 Angiras ! Brahmana, (come) called, " &c. In the 
concluding formula ^giT ?^o, ^W( fires, is used instead of ^qx According to Dhanan jay 
the Subrahmanya formula for Agni runs as follows : SIST^rnx^ ^%rfW ^TTH^ 
«T^5IFn5r ?rfH: sq^r ^Tn^H>P<^«-«JM^ 3ITrtf5t^^, (the remainder as above), i. e., 
•• Come, Agni ! master of the red horses, goat of Bhardvaja, son of power, thou who 
ascendest (the female) ; lover of Usas, " Sec. The latter formula is just like that one 
addressed to Indra, Agni, as well as Indra, are in both these formulas, which must be 
very ancient, invoked as family deities, the first pre-eminently worshipped by the 
Angirasa, the latter by the Kusikas. Both gods are here called " Brahmans." In later 
books, Indra appears as a Ksattriya, and as a model of a king. 

On the so-called Agnistomiya day, of all sacrifices (in the Agnistoma, it is the 
fourth and precedes the Soma day), on which day the animal for Agni and Soma 
is slain and sacrificed, an extension of the Subrahmanya formula takes place. The 
Subrahmanya priest has on this day to announce to the gods, that such and such 
one (the name of the sacrificer must be mentioned), the son of such and such one, 
the grandson of such and such one, offers, as a Dikbita, (as initiated into the sacrifi- 
cial rites) a sacrifice (^f^'^T'Rl^) The term, 'Diksita, ' forms then henceforth part 
of the name of the sacrificer, and his descendants down to the seventh degree. In 
this part of India, there are many Brahmans distinguished by this honorary epithet, 
which always indicates that, either the bearer of it or his immediate ancestors have 
performed a Soma sacrifice, and have been proclaimed \dik?itu by the Subrahmanya in 
all due form, 

2 Duhe must be a 3rd person singular, as Say. explains it. 


C385] One should answer, She is Vach. For Vach is Brahma, and Sub* 
rahma (good Brahma). 

They ask. Why does one call him (the Subrahmanya priest) who is 
a male, a female ? (They answer) Subrahmanya represents Vach (which is 
in the feminine gender). 

They further ask, When all the other priests are to perform their 
respective duties within the Vedi, and the Subrahmanya outside the 
Vedi, how is it that the duty of the Subrahmanya (in this particular 
case) becomes performed inside the Vedi) ? One should answer, The 
Vedi has an outlet where things (which are no more required) are 
thrown ; if the Subrahmanya priest calls (the Subrahmanya) when stand- 
ing in this outlet, then, in this way (his duty is performed within the " 
bounds of the Vedi). They ask, Why does he, standing in the outlet, 
repeat the Subrahmanya ? On this, they tell the following story.) 

The Risis held once a sacrificial session. They said to the most aged 
man among them, " Call the Subrahmanya. Thou shalt call the gods 
standing among us (on account of thy age), as it were, nearest to them." 
In consequence of this, the gods make him (the Subrahmanya) very aged. 
In this way, he pleases the whole Vedi. 

They ask. Why do they present to him (the Subrahmanya) a bull as 
a reward for his services ? (The answer is) The bull is a male (vri^a), the 
Subrahmanya is a female, both making thus a couple. This is done 
for producing offspring from this pair. 

The Agnidhra repeats the Yajya mantra for the Patnivata Graha (a 
Soma vessel), with a low voice. For the Patnivata is the semen virile, 
and the effusion of the semen virile passing on without noise, as it were, 
he does not make the Anuvasatkara. For [386] the Anuvasatkara is a 
stop. Thinking, I will not stop the effusion of the semen, he does not 
make the Anuvasatkara, for the semen which is not disturbed in its 
effusion, bears fruit. Sitting near the Ne§tar, he then eats, for the 
Nestar is in the room of women. Agni (Agnidhra) pours semen in wo- 
men, to produce children. He who has this knowledge, provides through 
Agni his females with semen, and is blessed with children and cattle. 

The Subrahmanya ends after the distribution of the Daksina,' for she 
is Vach. The Daksina is food ; thus they place finally the sacrifice in 
food, which is Speech. 

* He represents Agni. 

• The Dakshinft is distributed at the midday libation. 


i^On the Sastras of the Minor Hotri-priests at the Sattras.) 


{On the ^astrm of Minor Hotri-priests at the Morning and 
Evening Libations.) 

The Devas spread the sacrifice. When doing so, the Asuraa approach- 
ed them, thinking, let us obstruct their sacrifice. They attacked them 
from the right side, thinking this to be the weak point. The Devas 
awoke, and posted two of their number, Mitra and Varuna, on the right 
Bide. Through the assistance of these two, the Devas drove the Asuraa 
and Raksasas away from the morning libation. And thus the sacrificers 
drive them away (if they have the Maitravaruna Sastra repeated) ; thence 
the Maitravaruna priest repeats the Maitravaruna Sastra [387j at the 
morning libation. The Asuras, defeated on the right side, attacked the 
centre of the sacrifice. The Devas awoke, posted then Indra, and defeated 
through his assistance the enemies. Therefore the Brahmanachchhamsi 
repeats at the morning libation the Indra Shastra. 

The Asuras, thus defeated, attacked the sacrifice on the northern 
side. The Devas posted on this side Indragni, and defeated thus the 
Asuras. Therefore the Achhavaka repeats the Aindragna Sastra at the 
morning libation. For, by means of Indragni, the Devas drove the Asuraa 
and Raksasas away from the northern side. 

The Asuras, defeated on tlje northern side, marched, arrayed in battle 
lines towards the eastern part. The Devas awoke and posted Agni east- 
wards at the morning libation. Through Agni, the Devas drove the 
Asuras and Raksasas away from the eastern front. In the same way, the 
sacrificers drive away from the eastern front the Asuras and Raksasas. 
Thence the morning libation is Agni's. He who has such a knowledge, 
destroys the evil consequences of his sin. 

The Asuras, when defeated eastwards, went westwards. The Devaa 
awoke and posted the Vii^ve Devah themselves (westwards) at the third 
libation, who thus drove the Asuras and Raksasas away from the western 
direction at the third libation. Likewise, the sacrificers drive through 
the Visve Devah themselves at the third libation the Asuras and Raksaa 
away. Thence the evining libation belongs to the Vii^ve Devah. He who 
has such a knowledge, destroys the consequences of his sin. 

In this manner, the Devas drove the Asuras out of the whole sacrifice. 
Thence the Devas became masters of the Asuras. He who has this know- 


ledge becomes therefore througli himself (alone) master of his adversary 
and enemy, and destroys the consequences [388] of his sin. The Devas 
drove away the Asuras and destroyed the consequences of sin by means 
of the sacrifice arranged in such a way, and conquered the heaven-world. 
He who has this knowledge, and he who, knowing this, prepares (these) 
libation required in the said manner, drives away his enemy and hater, 
destroys the consequences of his guilt, and gains the heaven-world. 


(jOhe Stotriya of the Following Day is made the Anuvdpa of the Preceding 
Day in the ^astras of the Minor Hotri-priests at Soma Sarcrifices last- 
ing for Several Days.) 

They use at the morning libation the Stotriya (triplet) (of the following 
day) as Anurupas^ (of the preceding day). They make in this way the 
following day the Anurupa (corresponding to the preceding day). Thus 
they commence the performance of the preceding day with a view to that 
of the following. But this is not done at the midday libation ; for the 
Pristhas" (used then) are happiness (they are independent) ; they have 
at this (the midday libation) not that position (which the verses have at 
the morning libation) that they could use the Stotriya (of the following 
day) aa Anurupa (of the preceding day). Likewise they do not use at 
the third libation, the Stotriya (of the following day) as Anurupa (of the 
preceding day). 

e. • 

13891 {The Opening Verses of the ^astras of the Minor Eotri-priests at the 
Ahargaijta Soma Sacrifice, i.e., such ones as last for a Series of Days.) 

Now follow the opening verses (of these Sastras after the Stotriyas 
have been repeated). Rijuniti no Varuv.a (1, 90, 1) is that of the Mai- 
travaruna ^astra ; for in its second pada is said, "Mitra, the wise, may 
lead !" for the Maitravaruna is the leader of the Hotri-priests. There- 
fore is this the leading verse. 

By Indram vo visvatas pari (1, 7, 10) commences the Brahmana- 
chchhamsi ; for by the words " we call him (Indra) to the people" they call 

» See on the meaning of the terms stotriya and anurupa, note 41 on page 199. The 
first contains always those verses which the Saraa singers chant, the latter follows its 
form, and is a kind of supplement. 

' The S&mans of the midday libation are called Pristlias ; and the Stotriyas aid 
Anurflpas which accompany them, go by the same name. 


Indra every day. When the BrS,hmanachchhariisi, with this knowledge, 
recites this verse every day, then no other sacrifieer, notwithstanding 
he (Indra) might be called by different parties (at the same time), can 
get Indra away. 

Yat soma a sute nara (7, 94, 10) is the verse of the Achchhavaka. By its 
words " they called hither Indragni," every called Indragni every day. 
When the Achchhavaka is doing this every day, no other one can wrest 
(from them) Indragni. These verses (rijuniti &c.) are the boats which 
lead to the shores of the heavenly world. By their means the sacrificers 
cross (the sea) and reach the heavenly world. 


{The concluding vei'ses of the same ^astras at the Ahargaiice 
Soma sacrifices.) 

Now follow the concluding verses of these ^astras : Te sydma deva 
varuna (7, 66, 9) is that of the Maitravaruna Sastra. For by its words, 
" we contemplate food {isam) and light {svar),'' they get [390] hold of 
both worlds ; for " food" is this world, and " light" is that world. 

By the triplet vyantai'iksam atirad (8, 14, 7-9), which has the char- 
acteristic vi, i.e. asunder, the Brahmanaehchhamsi opens the gates of the 
heavenly world. The words, "Indra, inebriated by Soma, cleft the bole 
and made appear the lights" (8, 14, 7), refer to the passionate desire of 
those who are initiated into the sacrificial art (for heaven) ; thence it is 
called the Balavati verse.' The words, "He drove out the cows, and 
revealed them which were hidden, to the Angiras, and flung away Bala'^ 
contain the expression of a gift to them (the Angiras). By the words, 
" indrena rochand divi (verse 9) the heaven-world is alluded to." By the 
words, "The fixed lights (stars) of heaven have been fastened by Indra, 
the fixed ones he does not fling away," the sacrificers approach every 
day heaven and walk there. 

Aham sarasvativator (8, 38, 10), is the verse of the Achchhavaka. For 
Sarasvati ig the voice ; (the dual is used) for this day belongs to the "two 
who have the voice." (As to who they are is expressed by the words) " I 
choose the tone of Indragni." For the voice is the beloved residence of 
Indragni. Through this residence one makes both successful. Who has 
this knowledge, will be successful in his own residence (his own 

' There is the word vala hole, in it, which may bo regarded as a proper name of an 
Asura also. 



(0?? the Ahina and Aikdliika eonduding verses of the Sastras of the 

mi72or Hotri-priests.) 

The concluding verses of the Hotri-priests (Maitravarnna, Brahmana- 
chchharasi, and Achchhavaka) are, at [391] the morning and midday liba- 
tions of two ¥mds, viz. aliina (which are proper for Soma sacrifices, which 
last for several daj^s successively) and aikdhika (which are proper 
for Soma sacrifices which last for one day only). The Maitravaruna uses 
the aikahikas preventing (thus) the sacrificer from falling out of this 
world. The Achchhavaka uses the ahinas for making (the sacrificer obtain 
heaven). The Brahmanachchhmsi uses both ; for thus he holds both 
worlds (with his hands) and walks in them. In this way he (the 
Brahmanachchhamsi) walks holding both, the Maitravaruna and the 
Achchhavaka, the Ahina and Ekaha, and (farther) the sacrifical session 
lasting all the year round (such as the Gavam ayanam) and the Agnistoma 
(the model of all Aikihikas). 

The Hotri-priests require at the third libation Ekahas only for con- 
cluding. For the Ekaha is the footing, and thus they place the sacrifice 
at the end on a footing.* 

At tlie morning libation he must read the Yajya verses without stop- 
ping {anavdnam). The Hotar shall not recite one or two additional 
verses (atisamsanam) for the Stoma. It is just the same case as if _ one 
who asks for food and drink must be speedily supplied. Thinking, I 
will quickly supply the gods their food, he speedily gets a footing in 
this world. He should make the Sastram at the two latter libations 
with an unlimited number of verses ; for the heaven-world is unlimitted. 
(This is done) for obtaining the heaven-world. The Hotar may, if 
he like, recite those verses which the minor Hotri-priests used to repeat 
on a previous day. Or the Hotri-priests (may, if they like, repeat 
those verses) which the Hotar (used to repeat on the previous day) 
(For Hotar as well as the Hotri-priests form parts of one [392] body 
only). For the Hotar is the breath, and the Hotri-priests are the limbs. 
This breath goes equally through the limbs. Thence the Hotar should, 
if he like, receite those verses which the minor Hotri-priests used to 
recite on the previous day. Or the Hotr^-priest (may, if they like, repeat 
those verses) which the Hotar (used to repeat on the previous day). The 
last verses of the hymns with which the Hotar concludes, are the same 
with the concluding verses of the minor Hotri-priests at the evening 

'For the Ekfiha sacrifices are the models of the others. 


libation. For the hotar is the soul, and the Hofcri-priesta are the limb 
the ends of the limbs are equal, therefore the (three) Hotri-priests use, 
at the evening libation, the same concluding verses. 


{The hymns for lifting the Ghamasa {Soma cups). The Prasthita Ydjyds 
of the seven Botars concluding this ceremony. The two different kinds 
of Hotars. Explanation of some apparent anomalies in the perfor- 
mances of the minor Hotris. The Jagati hymns for Indra. The 
concluding verses of the minor Hotri-priests. On a peculiarity in the 
Sastras of the Achchhdvdha.) 

{The number of verses which the Rotar has to repeat at the time of the 
Soma cups being lifted at the three libations.) 

When at the morning libation the Soma cups are lifted and filled 
he (the Maitravaruaa) recites the hymn d tea vahantu harayah (1, 116.) 
the several verses of which contain the words vrisan (male), pita (drunk), 
suba (squeezed), mad (drunk), are complete in their form and are addressed 
to Indra, for [393] the sacrifice is Indra's. He repeats Gayatris ; for 
Gayatri is the metre of the morning liabation. At the morning libation 
he recites nine verses only ; one less (than tenl For the semen is poured 
in to a place made narrow (nydna). At the midday libation he repeats 
ten verses '; for the semen which was poured in a narrow place grows 
very large, after having reached the centre of the woman's body. At 
the evening libation he repeats nine" verses, one less (than ten) ; for 
from a narrow place (represented by the third libation; men are born. 
If he recites these hymns complete, than he makes the sacrificer bring 
forth the embryo of his (spiritual body) begotten in the sacrifice, which is 
the womb of the gods. 

Some recite every time only seven verses at the morning, midday 
and evening libations, asserting that there must be as many Puronuvakyaa 
as there are Yajyas. Seven (Hotri priests) having their faces turned 
(towards the fire) receite the Yajyas, and pronounce Vausat ! Now 
they assert that those (seven verses) are the Puronuvakyas of these (seven 

' They arc tho hymn, asdvi devam gorichikam (7' 21). 
' They aro tho hymn, ihopaydta iayaso (4,35). 


Yajyas) ; but the Hotar ought not to do so (to recite only seven verses.) 
For in this way they spoil the semen of the sacrificer, and conseqnently 
the sacrificer himself. 

The Maitravaruna carries in this way the sacrificer, for the sacrificer 
is the hymn, by means of nine verses from this world to the airy region ; 
but by means of ten he carries him further on to that (heaven) world ; 
for the airy region is the oldest ; from that world he takes him by 
means of nine verses up to the celestial world. Those who recite 
[395] only seven verses, do not wish to raise the sacrificer to heaven. 
Therefore the hymns are to be recited complete onlys. 


{On the Prastliila Ydjyds^ of the Eotars at the morning libation.) 

Some one (a theologian) has asked, When the sacrifice is Indra's, why 
do only two, the Hotar and Brahmanachhamsi, at the morning libation, 
for the Soma drops which are in readiness, repeat Yajyas where Indra's 
very name is mentioned, the Yajya of the Hotar being idam te somyam 
madhu (8, 54, 8), that of the Brahmanachchhamsi, indra tva vrisabham 
vayam (3, 40, Ij ? 

When the other (priests) repeat verses addressed to different deities, 
how do they concern Indra ? For the Yajya of the Llaitravaruna is mitram 
vayam havdmahe (1, 23, 4), " we invoke Mitra ;" but in its words varunam 
somapUaye i.e. " we call Varuna to the Soma beverage;" there is an allu- 
sion to Indra ; for whatever word refers to "drinking", hints at Indra, 
and pleases him. 

The Yajya of the Potar is, Maruto yasa hi ksaye (1, 86, 1) ; its words 
sa sugopdtamo janali i.e. " he is the best protector," allude to Indra ; for 
India is the gopd, which is a characteristic of Indra. Thus he pleases 

The Yajya of the Nestar is, agne patnir ihd vaha (1, 22, 9) ; in its 
words, tvast^zram somapUaye, [395] there is an allusion to Indra ; 

3 The hymns mentioned for the morning and evening libations contain each nine, 
that mentioned for the midday libation ten verses, 

* These YajySs are at each libation seven in number, and repated successively by the 
so called 'seven Hotars' (Hotar, Maitravaruna, Brahmanachchhamsi, Potar, Nestar 
Agnidhra, and Achchhavaka) when the Chamasa Adhvaryu or cup-bearers, are holding up 
the cups filled with ttoma. As often as one of them has repeated his Yajya, libations 
itoiu seven cups are thrown at the same time in the fire. The rest is to be drunk by them. 


for Indra is Tvastar, whicli is a characteristic of Indra. Thus he 
pleases him. 

The YkjysL oi the Agnidhra is, Uk^dnndy a {8, 4:3, 11); in its worda 
Soma pri^thdya vedhase, there is an allusion to Indra ; for Indra is Vedhas 
(striker, beater) which is a characteristic of Indra. Thus he pleases him. 

The verse of the Achchhavaka, which is directly addressed to Indra, is 

complete, viz : prdiarydvahhir (8, 38, 7), (for in the last part of it there is 

the term Indrdgni). Thus all these verses refer to Indra. Though there are 

different deities mentioned (in them) ('such as Mitra, Varuna, &c.) the 

sacrificer does not satisfy other deities (alone). The verses being in the 

Gayatri metre, and this being sacred to Agni, sacrificer gains, by means 

of these verses, the favour of three deities, i. e. Indra, the ndnddevatds or 

different deities, and Agni. 


{The hymn to he repeated over the Soma cups being lifted, and the Pras^ 
thita Ydjyds at the midday libation.) 

At the midday libation, when the Soma cups are being lifted, the Hotar 
repeats, Asdvi devavi gorichikam (7, 21. 1.). This hymn contains the words, 
vri^an, pita, suta, m,ad ; its verses are complete in form and addressed to 
Indra. For the sacrifice belongs to Indra. The verses are in the 
Tristubh metre ; for this metre is appropriate to the midday libation. 
They say, if the term mad "to be drunk " is only appropriate to the third 
libation, why do they recite such verses (containing this term) at the midday 
libation as Anuvakyas and Yajyds? The gods get drunk, as it were, at 
the midday libation, and are then consequently at the third libation in a 
state of [396] complete drunkenness. Thence he repeats verses contain- 
ing the term mad as Anuvaky^s and Y^jyas at the midday libation. 

At the midday libation all the priests repeat Yajyas addressed to 
Indra by his very name (for the Soma drops) which are in readiness. 
Some (the Hotar, Maitravaruna, and Brahmanachchhamsi) make the Yajyas 
with verses containing (besides the name of Indra) the words, abhi trid. 
So the Hotar repeats, pibd somam abhi yam ugra tarda (6, 17, 1) ; the 
Maitravaruna, sa im pdhi ya rijishi (6, 17, 2) ; and the Brahman- 
achhamsi, evd pdhi pratnathd (0, 17, 3). 

The Yajya of the Potar is, arvdfig ehi somal-dmam (1, 104, 0). The 
YA jya of the Nestar is, tavd yam somas tvam (3, 35, G). The Ynjya of 
the Achchhavaka is, indrdya somah pra divo viddnd (3, 36, 2). The Yajya 
of the Agnidhra is, dpitrno asya halasah svdhd (3, 32, 15). 

" These tlirce verses contaia forms of the verb trid (Lat. trudoro) "to injure, to kill," 
with the preposition abhi. 


Among these verses there are those containing the words ahhi trid, 
For Indra once did conquer at the morning libation ; but by means of 
these verses he broke down the barriers and made himself master 
{ahhi trir}at) of the midday libation. Thence these verses. 


(The hymn and the Prasthita Ydjyds at the evening libation.) 

At the third libation the Hotar repeats at the time when the Soma 
cups are being lifted, the hymn ihopaydta savaso napdtah (4, 35, 1). Its 
verses which are complete in form, are addressed to Indra, and belong 
to the Ribhus, contain the words vrisan, pita, [397] suta mad. They ask, 
Why is the Pavamana Stotra at the evening libation called Arbhava, 
though they do not sing Ribhu verses? (The answer is) Prajapati, the 
father, when transforming the Ribhus who were mortals, into immortals, 
gave them a share in the evening libation. Thence they do not sing 
Ribhu verses, but they call the Pavamana Stotra Arbhava. 

One (great Risi) asked about the application of metres, viz, for what 
reason does he use the Tristubh metreat the third libation, whilst the 
appropriate metre for this libation is Jagati, as well as the Gayatri that 
for the morning, and the Tristubh for the midday libation ? One ought 
to say (in reply). At the third libation the Soma juice is done ; but if they 
use a sparkling ( sukriyam) metre as the Tristubh, the juice of which 
is not done, then they provide the (third) libation with juice (liquor). 
Then he makes Indra participate in this libation also. One says, Vv^hy, 
since the third libation belongs to Indra and the Ribhus, and the Hotar 
alone makes the Yajyas for the Soma which are in readiness (prasthita) 
with an Indra-Ribhu verse, at the third libation, do the other Hotri- 
priests use verses addressed to various other deities for their Yajyas ? 
In the Yajya of the Hotar, rihhuhhir vajadhhil} samuhsitam (not in the 
Rigveda) the Ribhus are mentioned, but in the Yajyas of the other 
priests they are only hinted at. 

The Maitravaruna repeats, indrdvaruiia sutapdvimam sutam{6, 68, 10); 
in the words, yuvo ratho adhvaram devavitaye, there is a plurality (in the 
words devavUaye = devdndm vitaye, i.e. for the enjoyment of the gods) which 
is a characteristic of the Ribhus. 

The Brahmanachchhamsi repeats the verse, indrascha somam pibatam 
(4, 50, 10) ; in its words, vi'santu iridavah, i. e. " may the drops come," a 
[398] plurality is expressed, which is a characteristic of the Ribhus. 


The Yajya of the Potar is, d vo vahantu saptayo (1, 85, 6 ) ; in its 
words, raghu aivdnal} prajigdta bahuhhir there is a plurality (these 
three words are in the plural) expressed, which is the characteristic of 
the Ribhus. 

The Yajya of the Nestar is, ameva nah, suliavd (2, 36, 3), in it the 
word gantana "go ye! " expresses a plurality. 

The Yajya of the Achchhav^ka is, indravi^riu pibatam madhvo (6, 69, 7) ; 
its words, d vdm amdhdmsi madirdni expresses a plurality. 

The Yajya of the Agnidhra is, imam stomam arliate (1, 94, 1) ; in its 
words ratham iva sariimahemd (this is first person plural) there is a plurality 

In this way all these verses become Aindra — Arbhavah. By repeating 
verses being (apparently) addressed to various deities, he pleases other 
deities (also), save Indra and the Ribhus. They are the conquerors of the 
jagat i. e. world ; therefore the Jagati metre is required for the evening 
libation, to make it successful. 


(On the relationship of those Rotars who have to repeat a ^astra to those 
who have none. How the ^astras of the minor Hotri-priests are supplied 
at the evening libation.) 

Some one asks. Some of the duties of the Hotri-priests being performed 
without Sastra,^ some with oastra, how are then all these ceremonies (as it 
[399] should be) provided with their respective ^astras, and consequent- 
ly equal and complete ? (The answer is) They call the performance (i.e. 
the repetition of Yajyas) of those (Hotris) who like the Potar, Nestar, and 
Agnidhra, have no ^astra (to repeat) Hotrd (also), on account of their 
reciting their (respective) verses along with (the other Hotri-priests, such 
as the Hotar, Maitravaruna &c. who repeat proper ^astras). In this way 
they are equal. But in the fact that some Hotri-priests perform their 
duties with ^astras, others without ^astras, lies their inequality. Thus 
(both kinds of Hotri performances) become provided with ^astras, 
equalised and successful (for the Yajyas of allj seven Hotri-priests are 
repeated one after the other). 

6 Besides the Hotar only the Maitravaruna, Biahman&chhamsi, and A cbh&A-aka repeat 
Bhastras ; the others, such as the Potar, &c. do not do it. But the former repeat them at 
the Agnishtoma, only at the morning and midday libations. 


Now tbe Hot 1 i-priests (Maitravaruna, Brahmanachchhamsi, Achchha- 
vaka) repeat Sastras at the morning and midday libations only, in what 
way is this duty performed at the third libation ? One ought to answer, in 
this way, that they (these three priests just mentioned) repeat at the mid- 
day libation two hymns each. Some one may ast, In what way do the 
Hotri-priests (who properly speaking repeat one Sastra only) repeat two 
Sastras, as many as the (chief) Hotar' does ? One ought to answer. 
Their Yajyas are addressed to two deities. 

[400] (How the Sastras of the Agnidhra, Potar and Nestar are supplied. 
On the two Praisas to the Potar and Ne.^tar. On the additional verse of 
the Achchhdvkka. How the Praisa formula, hota yahsat, is applicable to 
the Potar, Nestar, and Agnidhra. The Praisa for the chanters. The 
Praisa for the Achchhdvaka. On the inequality of the the deities of the 
oastras and Stotriyas of the evening libation.) 

Some one asks further. If there are the performances of three Hotri- 
priests only provided with a Sastra, how are these Sastras supplied 
for the performances of the others (the three remaining Hotri-priests) ? 
(The answer is) The Ajyam is the Sastra for the Yajya repeated by the 
Agnidhra ; the Marutvatiya that one for the Potar's Yajya ; the Vaii^- 
vadevam that one for the Nestar's. These Yajyas have the characteristic 
sign of the respective Sastra.'' 

Some one asks further, If the other Hotri-priests are requested only 
once (to repeat their Sastras), why are the Potar and Nestar requested 
twice ? 

(Regarding this the following story is reported). At the time when 
the Gayatri having assumed the shape of an eagle, abstracted the Soma 
(from heaven), Indra (out of anger) cut off from these (three) Hotri-priests 
(Agnidhra, Potar and Nestar) their Sastras, and transferred them to 
the Hotar, saying, " Do not call me, you are quite ignorant of it." The 
gods said, " Let us give more strength to the performances of these two 
Hotri-priests (Potar and Nestar) through Speech (by requesting them once 

' The Aguidhra addresses the Yajya to Agni, to whom the Ajya Sastra belongs ; tho 
Potar to the Marutas, to whom the Marutvatiya Sastra belongs, and the Nestar to the 
Visvedevas, to whom the Vaisvadeva s'astra belongs. 

' The Hotar repeats at the morning libation the Ajya and Pra-uga Sastra, at the 
midday libation the Marutvatiya and Ni^kevalya ftastra, and at the third libation the 
Vai-ivadeva and Agnimaruta 8astra. 

The Agnidhra addresses the Yajya to Agni, to whom the Ajya Sastra belongs; 
the Potar to the Murutas, to whom the Marutvatiya Sastra belongs, and the to 
the Visvedevas, to whom the A''aisvadeva Sastra belongs. 


t40l1 more tban tlie other's). Thence come the two requests (for Nestar 
and Potar). The performance of the Agnidhra was strengthened by one 
additional verse to his Yajya ; therefore his Yajyas are supernumerary 
by on6 verse. 

Some one asks, When the Maitrflvaruna calls upon the Hotar by the 
words, " may the Hotar repeat the Y<\jya ! may the Hotar repeat the 
Yajya!" why does he call upon those who are no Hotras, but only the 
repeaters of Hotfi verses, by the same words, ^* may the Hotar repeat 
the Yajya ?" (The answer is) The Hotar is life, and ail the (other) sacrifi- 
cial priests are life also. The meaning (of the formula " may the Hotar 
repeat his Yajya," is) *' may the life repeat the Yajya, may the life repeat 
the Yajya ]" 

If some one asks further. Are there requests for the Udgatri priests 
(to chant) ? One should answer. Yes, there are. For if all (the priests) 
are ordered to do their respective duties, then the Maitravaruna, after 
having muttered with a low voice (a mantra), says, "'praise ye !"* These 
are the summons for the Udgatri priests. 

Some one asks, Has the Achchhavaka any preference (to the other 
priests) ?^ The answer is, Yes, he has ; for the Adhvaryu says to him, 
** Achchhavaka, speak what you have to speak (and no more) !" 

Some one asks. Why are at the evening libation the Stotriya 
and Anurupa verses addressed to Agni, whilst the Maitravaruna at that 
time repeats an Indra-Varuna Sastra? (The answer is) The Devas turned 
the Asuras out of the Sastras by means of Agni as their mouth. 
Therefore the Stotriya and Anurupa are addressed to Agni. 

[402] Some one asks, Why are both the Stotriya and Anurupa of the 
singers devoted to Indra at the evening libation, whilst the ^astram repeat- 
ed by the BrahmanS-chchhamsli is addressed to Indra and Biihaspati, and 
that of the Achchhavaka to Indra and Visnu ? (The answer is) Indra turned 
the Asuras out from the iSastras (of which they had got hold) and defeated 
them. He said to the Devas, " Which (from among you) follows me ?," 
They said, " I, I,'" (we will follow)," and thus the Devas fellowed. But 
on account of Indra having first defeated Cthe Asuras) the Stotriya and 
Anurupa of the singers (they precede the Shastram) are addressed to 
Indra. And on account of the other deities having said, '* I, I, (will 
follow)" and (actually) followed, both the Brahmanachhamsi and Achchha- 
vaka repeated hymns addressed to several deities. 

' See note to 5, 34. 

'That is, is there anything exceptional to be seen in the performance of his duties? 
This refers to the peculiar praifa given to him, which is mentioned in the context. See 
also Asv. 8r. S. 5, 7. '"Visnu and Brihaspati. 




(On the Jagati hymns addressed to Indra at the evening libation. On the 
hymn of the Achchhdvdha. The concluding verses of the Maitrdvarunct 
Brdhmamehchharifisi, and Achchhdvakxi. The last four syllables of the last 
^astra of the Soma, day to he repeated twice.) 

Some one asks further, For what reason do they repeat at the com- 
mencement of the evening libation hymns addressed to Indra, and 
composed in the Jagati metre, whereas the evening libation belongs to 
the Visvedevas? (The answer is) Having got hold of Indra {drabhya 
having commenced with him) by means of these (hymns), they proceed 
to act, being sure of success). The Jagati metre is used because the 
evening libation belongs to the Jagati, implying a desire for this world 
iJagat) ; and any metre [403] which is used after (this commencement) 
becomes related to the Jagati (jagat) if, at the beginning of the evening 
libation, hymns in the Jagati metre are repeated which are addressed to 

At the end (of the Sastra) the Achchhavaka repeats a hymn in the 
Tristubh metre, sarnvdrh harmam (6, 69, 1.) The word karma (ceremony) 
alludes only to the praise of drinking (the Soma).'* In the words 
sam isd the word i^d means food ; it (serves) for obtaining food (by means 
of this mantra.) (By the words of the last pada) " both (Indra and Visnu) 
carry us through on safe paths," he pronounces every day'* something 
relating to welfare. 

Some one asks. Why do they conclude the evening libation by Tris- 
tubhs, if properly the Jagati metre should be used at it ? Tristubh ia 
strength ; (by repeating at the end Tristubhs) the priests (who are at 
the Sattras the sacrificers themselve) get finally possessed of strength. 

The concluding verses of the Maitravaruna is, iyam Indram Varunam 
(7, 84, 5.) That of the Brahman achhamsi is, Brihasyatir na paripatu 
(10, 42, 11.) That of the Achchhavaka is, uhh^ jigijathur (6, 69, 8.) 
For "both (Indra and Visnu) had been victorious jigyathuh, i. e., they 
had not sustained any defeat, neither of them was defeated,"" 

1' The word alluded to is, paudyya, which is traced to a root pa>i = pan to praise • but 
it hardly can mean "praising" in general. It refers, as Sayana justly remarks, to the 
" drinking of the Soma juice." In the fifth verse of the hymn iu question, we have the 
word panaydyijtt, which is the same as pandyyu, where the words iudrdiii?\iu tat panuyd- 
yyum vdm evidently mean, " this is your praise for having drunk the Soma." 

'^ The hymn is to be repeated every day on the Soma sacrifices which last for several 

" This is a paraphrase by the author of the Brahmanam of the first half of the verse 6, 
69, 8 (ulhri /igi/at?iHr,) It differs little from the original, and retains most of tho terms 


[404] In the words indras cha Vmo yai apaspridhethdm^ ^ (there is 
hinted) that Indra and Visnu fought with the Asuras. After they had 
defeated them, they said to them, "Let us divide!" The Asuras accepted 
the offer. Indra then said, "All through which Visnu makes his three 
steps is ours, the other part is yours." Then Indra stepped through these 
(three worlds), then over the Vedas, and (lastly) over Vach. 

They ask, What is meant by the " sahasram,''^' a thousand? One 
should say in reply, these worlds, the Vedas, and Vach. The Achchhava- 
ka repeats twice the (last) word airayetMm, i.e., "you both (Indra 
and Visnu) strode," at the Ukthya sacrifice ; for the part (repeated) by 
the Achhavaka, is the last in it ; whereas at the Agnistoma and Atiratra 
the Hotar (repeats twice the four last syllables of his Sastra) ; for (the 
part recited by him) is in these [405] sacrifices, the last. At the Solas^i 
there it is questionable whether or not (the last four syllables) are to be 
repeated twice. They say. He ought to repeat them twice, for why should 
he repeat them twice on the other days, and not on this one ? Therefore 
he should repeat them twice (also at the Solasi.) 


{Why ike Aehchhdvdha at the end of his 6ilpa-^astra does not recite 
verses addressed to Nardsariisa.) 

Some one further asks. Why does the Achhavaka at the end, in his 
Silpas, recite verses not addressed to Naratlamsa at the third libation,, 
although this libation belongs to Narasamsa ? The Naras^amsa part repre- 
sents the change (of the semen into the human form) ; for the semen be- 
comes by and by somewhat changed ; that which then has undergone the 

of the verse without giving any substitute for them. This shows, that many verses and 
turns of speech in the mantras were perfectly intelligible to the author of the Brahma- 
nas. The only difference of the paraphrase from the original is the substitution of tayoh 
for enoh, which is an uncommon dual form (gen.) of a demonstrative form ; one ought to 
expect enayoh. 

'* This is the second half of the last verse of 6, 69, 8, which concludes the hymtt repeated 
by the Achchhavaka. The author of the Brahmanam explains it also by reporting a story 
to which he thinks the contents of thisllatter half allude. However he does not quite 
overlook the meaning of several terms ; apaapridhetdm he explains by yuyudhdte, "they 
two have fought," and vyairayethdm by vichakrame, ''he stepped through." The meaning 
of these words is certainly correct ; but the grammatical structure is misunderstood by 
our author ; airayetham is taken by him as a singular, though it is a dual, for it refers to 
both Indra and Visnu, and not to Visnu alone. 

** In the last pada of the last verse ubhci iigyathur. There the words tredha sahasram 
vi tad airayetham mean " ye both strode thrice through this thousand." The "thousand" 
refers to the booty they made in the battle, or perhaps to the " thousand cows" given sis 
leward at great sacrifices. 


change becomes the prajdtam (the proper form.)*^ Or the Nara^arb- 
B;im is a soft and loose metre, as it were ; and the Achchhav^ka is the last 
reciter ; therefore fit cannot be used), for (the priests think) We must 
put the end in a firm place for obtaining stability. Therefore the Achha 
vaka does not repeat at the end, in his ^ilpas, verses referring to Nara- 


{The ISampdta hymns. The Vklahhilyas. The Durohav.a'^.y 

(See 6, 5.) 

When they make at Soma sacrifices, which require several days for 
their performance (ahinas) in order to make them continuous, at the 
morning libation, the singing verse (Stotriya) of the following day, the 
Auurupa of the preceding day, it is just the same as with the performance 
of a Soma sacrifiice which lasts for one day only (ekdha.) For just as 
the (three) libations of the one day's Soma sacrifice are connected with 
each other, in the same way are the days of a Soma sacrifice which lasts 
for several days connected with one another. The reason that they make 
at the morning libation, the singing verse (Stotriya) of the following day, 
the Anuriipa of the preceding day, is to make the days during which the 
sacrifice lasts one continuous series. Thus they make the days of the 
Ahina sacrifices one continuous whole. 

The Gods and Risis considered. Let us make the sacrifice continu- 
ous by equalising (its several days.) They then saw this equality (of the 
several parts) of the sacrifice, viz. the same Pragathas, the same Pratipada 
(beginning triplets), the same hymns. For Indra walks in the sacrifice 
on the first as well as on the following day, just as one who has occupied 
a house. (The Soma days are thus equalised) in order to have (always) 
Indra (present.) 

'• Say. says, *' Pop seven nights after the coition the semen has the form of a bubble 
a fortnight after it is changed into a ball, which, if the change has been completed, 
assumes the proper (human or animal) form." The Narasamsaii is the state of transition 
for the semen from the bubble into the ball form. Therefore in order not to disturb 
and stop the course of this change, no verses, referring to the imperfect state, can bo 

" See ou them 6, 32. 



On the Sathpdta hymn. The counterSanh'pkta hymns. On a peculiarity 
in the use of the hymn of the Achchhdvdka. 

Visvamitra saw for the first time (the so-called) [407] Sampata 
hymns ; but Vamadeva made those seen by A^i^vamitra known to the 
public {asrijata). These are the following : evd tvam indra (4, 19) ; 
yanna indro (4, 22) ; hatha mahdm avridhat (4, 23). He went at once 
after them (samapatat) and taught them his disciples. ^ Thence they 
are called Sampdtas. 

Visivamitra then looked after them, saying, "The Sampata hymns 
which I saw, hare been made public* by Vamadeva ; I will counteract 
these Sariipatas by the publication of other hymns which are like them. 
Thus he made known as counterparts the following hymns : sadyo ha 
jdto vfi^ahha}} (3, 48) ; indral} pilrbhid dtirad (3, 34) ; inidmii ?w prabhri- 
tim (3, 36) ; iehhanti tvd somydsah sahhayah (3, 30) ; sdsad vahnir duhitur 
(3, 31) ; ahhi tasteva didhayS manisdm (3, 38) ; (Other iSampata hymns 
are), the hymn of Bharadvaja, ya eka id dhavyas (6, 22) ; those of Vasis- 
tha, yas tigmasrimgo vri^ahho na hhivia (7, 19), ud u bi'ahmdijtairata 
(7, 23) ; and that of Nodhas asmd id u pratavase (1, 61). 

These Hotri-priests (.Maitravaruna, Brahmanachhamsi, and Achchha- 
vaka) after having recited at the morning libation of the six days' sacrifice 
the Stotriya verses, repeat at the midday libation the hymns or the 
several days' sacrifices (ahina). These hymns are d satyo ydtu maghavan 
(4, 16) ; for the Maitravaruna (by whom it is to be repeated) is endowed 
with satya, i. e. truth. The Brahmanachhamsi repeats, asma id 21 pratavase 
(1, 61) ; for in this hymn there occur the words indrdya brahmdn& rdtatamd 
(in the fourth pada of the first verse), and Indra brahmdrii Gotamdso afe- 
rann (verse 16), i. e. the Gotamas have made the prayers, Indra ! in which 
the word " brahma " is mentioned. The Achchhavaka [408] repeats sdsad 
vahnir {3, 31), in which the -woida janayanta voTimm (verse 2) occur ; 
for he is the Vahni (guide). 

Some one asks, Why does the Achchhavaka repeat in both kinds of 
days' (of the Gavam ayanam sacrifice) this Vahni hymn in those days 
which stand by themselves (pardnchi) as well as those which form 

' This is the meaning of the expression samarutut. 

» The term is sri; to emit. 

3 This refers to two classes of days of which a great Sattra consists, x. c. single 
days, which only once occur in the course of the session, and regular periods of the 
fianie length which follow one another. See page 279. 



regular periods (of six days) one following the other (ahhyavarti) ? The 
answer is, the Bahvricha (Rigveda) priest {i.e. one of the Hotris) i» 
endowed with power, and the Vahni hymn leads (vahati) ; for the Vahni 
(guide horse) draws the beams to which he is yoked. Therefore the 
Achchhavaka repeats the Vahni hymns in both classes of days. 

These Ahina* hymns are required during the five days (in the 
Gavam ayanam), viz. on the Chaturvimt^a, Abhijit, Visuvat, Vii^vajit 
and Mahavrata days ; for these (five) days (though the performance of 
each lasts for one day only) are aMnas, for nothing is left out (na- 
MyateY in them ; they (further) "stand aloof" and do not re-occur 
in the other turn (as is the case with the Salahas). Thence the Hotri- 
priests repeat on these (five) days the Ahina Suktas. When they repeat 
them, then thay think, ** may we obtain the heaven-worlds undiminished, 
in their full forms and integrity." When they repeat them, they call 
hither Indra by them. Just as one calls a bullock to a cow. They 
repeat them for making uninterrupted the series of sacrificial days. Thus 
they make them uninterrupted. 

[409] 19. 

{On what days, in what order, and by whom the Sarhpdta hymns are to he 

repeated. The Avapana hymns,) 

Thereupon the Maitriavaruna repeats on every day (of the Sajaha, 
but not on those five days mentioned) one of the three Sampatas, 
inverting their order® (in the second three days' performance of the Sa- 
laha). On the first day he repeats evd tvdm indra ; on the second, yanna 
indro jujube ; and on the third, hathd mahdm avridhat. 

The Brahmanachchhamsi repeats three Sarfapata hymns, every day one, 
inverting their order (in the second three days performance), vis. pilrhhid 
dtirad on the first day ; eha id dhavyas on the second ; and yas tigma's- 
rirhgo, on the third day. 

In the same manner the Achchhavaka repeat three Samp^tas, every 
day one, viz. imam il §u prabhritim on the fisrt day, ichhanti tvd somydsaT} 
on the second day, and sdsad vahni on the third day. 

These three (for there are every day three to be repeated) and nine (nine 
is the number of all taken together) hymns, to be recited day after day, 
make twelve in all. For the year consists of twelve months, Prajapati is 

" The Samp&tas whi'ih are mentioned here are meant. 

' They are here called ahina!, from a purely etymological reason. Strictly speaking, 
they are aikdhikas. 

" This is the real meaning of the term viparydsam. In the second Tryaha of the 
fe'alaha, the hymn which was the first in the first Tryaha is made the last, and the last 
the first. 


the year, the sacrifice is Prajapati. They obtained thus this sacrifice^ 
which is Prajapati, who is the year, and they place thus every day's 
pei-fornaance in the sacrifice, in Prajapati, and in the year. 

Between these hymns they ought to insert the Viraj verses by Vimada, 
to be recited without Nyfifikha on the fourth, the Paiikti verses on the fifth, 
and the Paruchhepa verses on the sixth day. Then on the [410] days 
when the Mahastomas are required (the Chhandoma days) the Maitravaruna 
inserts ho adya naryo deoakdma (4, 25, 1), the Brahmanachchharhsi, vanena 
vdijo nyadhdyi (10, 29, 1), and the Achchhavaka, dydhy arvdrhg upa> (3, 43, 
1). These are the Avapana hymns (intercalary hymns), by means of which 
the Gods and Risis conquered the heaven-world, and by means of which 
the sacrifice rs conquer heaven (also). 


{On the hymns repeated by the Maitravaruna ^ &c. which precede the 


Before the (Ahina) hymns are repeated, the Maitravaruna repeats 
every day, sadyo ha jdto vri^ahhah (3, 48). This hymn leads to heaven ; 
for by means of this hymn the Gods conquered the heavenly world, 
and the Risis did the same ; by means of it the sacrificers also conquer 
the heavenly world. This is a Vis^vamitra hymn, for Vis^vamitra (all- 
friend) was the friend of all ; therefore all will be friendly towards 
him who has this knowledge, if the Maitravaruna knowing this repeats 
(this hymn) every day before the Ahina Suktas. This hymn {sadyo 
ha) contains the word "bull," and is therefore apasumat (having cattle), 
serving for obtaining cattle. It consists of five verses ; five-hood com- 
prises five feet, and five-hood is food for obtaining (which this hymn 
is useful). The Brahmanachhamsi repeats eyery day the Brahma hymn, 
whice is complete, ud u hrahmdny airata (7, 23). 

This hymn leads to heaven ; by means of it the Gods conquered the 
heavenly world, and the Risis did the same ; by means of it the sacri- 
ficers conquered the heavenly world. It is a Vasistha hymn ; by means 
of it Vasistha obtained Indra's favour, and conquered the highest world. 
He who has such a [411] knowledge, obtains Indra's favour, and con- 
quers the highest world. It consists of six verses ; for there are six 
seasons ; in oider to gain the seasons {ritus), he repeats it after the 
Sampatas. For the sacrifiers have thus -a firm footing in this world, in 
order to reach the heavenly world (after death). 



The Achchhavaka repeats every day, alhi ta^teva didhaya (3, 38). This 
bymn contains the characteristic abhi (towards) in order to establish a 
connection (with the other world). Its words " ahhi priydni marmrisat 
pararii,'" mean that the other days (those in the other world) are lovely, 
and that they are seizing them (securing them). Beyond (para) this world 
is the heaven-world, to which he thus alludes. 

When repeating the words, liavimrichchMmi sarhdriie sumedhdy i. e. "I 
wish to see the wise prophets," he means by kavis the departed Risis. 
This hymn {ahhi tasteva) is a Vi^vamitra hymn, for Vis^vamitra was friend 
to all ; every one will be friendly to him who has this knowledge. 

He repeats this hymn which belongs to Prajapati, though his name 
is not expressly mentioned {aniruhtam only hinted at) in it. For Praja- 
pati cannot be expressed in words. (This is done) in order to obtain (com- 
munion with) him. In this hymn the name *' Indra " is once mention- 
ed' ; but this is only for the purpose of preserving the Indra form of the 
sacrifice (to Indra chiefly belongs the sacrifice). It consist of ten verses. 
For the Viraj consists of ten syllables, and the Viraj is food ; it serves 
for obtaining food. As regards the number ten (of these) verses, it is 
to be remarked that there are ten vital airs. The sacrificers thus obtain 
the vital airs, and connect them with one another. 

[412] The Achchhavaka repeats this hymn after the Sampatas in order 
to secure the heavenly world (for the sacrificers), whilst the sacrificers 
^ove in this world. 


(The Kadvat hymns. ^ The Trisiubhs). 
The beginning Pragathas of every day are the kadavntas (containing 
the interrogative pronoun has who?) viz. has tarn Indra {7, 32, 14-15), 
kannvayo (8, 3, 13-14), had il nv asya (8, 55, 9-10). By has i.e., who ? Pra- 
japati is meant ; these Kadvantah Pragathas are suitable for obtaining 

' In the last verse (3, 88, 10) ; but several times alluded to by the name " vri§ahlia^* 
i. e. bull . 

« The 6'astras of the minor Ho tri- priests being at the DvadasSha and Sattras rather 
complicated, I here give some hints as to the order of their several parts. At the 
midday libation, after the Hotar has finished his two Sastras, the Maitrfivaruna, BrSh- 
manachhamsi, and Achchhavaka repeat one after the other the several parts of their Sas- 
tras in the following order : (1) Stotriya and Anfirupa. (2) One of the three Tristubh 
verses as introductory to the Ahina hytpns and the Kadvantah PragSthas. (3) The Ahina 
hymns, of which each has to repeat two, viz. the Maitrfivaruna sadyo ha jdla, the BrSh- 
man&chhamsi asma id u pra tavase, and the AchchhavSka sdsad vuhnir ; and further, the 


Prajapati. Kam (old neuter form of has) signifies food ; the haclvantas there^ 
fore serve for obtaining food. For the sacrificers are every day joined to 
the Ahina hymns, which become (by containing the term knm i. e. happy) 
propitiated. They make by means of the kadvad PragAthas propitiation 
(for the sacrificers). When thus propitiated, these (Ahina hymns) become 
(a source of) happiness for them (the sacrificers) and thus carry them up 
to the celestial world. 

[413] They ought to repeat the Tristubhs as the beginning of the (Ahina) 
hymns. Some repeat them before these Pragathas, calling them (these 
Trshtubhs) Dhayyas. But in this way one should not proceed. For 
the Hotar is the ruler, and the performances of the minor Hotfi-priesta 
are the subjects. In this way (by repeating Dhayyas which ought to be 
repeated by the Hotar alone) they would make the subject revolt against 
his ruler, which would be a breach of the oath of allegiance.^ 

(The repetition of these Tristubhs by the minor Hotri-priests is, 
however, necessary). He ought to know, " these Tri§iubhs are the helm 
(pratipad) of my hymns," just as (one requires a helm) if crossing the 
sea. For those who perform a session lasting for a year or the Dvadanl- 
aha, are floating like those who cross the sea. Just as those who wish to 
land on the shore enter a ship having plenty of provisions, ^° in the same 
manner the sacrificers should enter {i.e., begin with) these Tristubhs. 
For if this metre, which is the strongest, has made the sacrificer go to 
heaven, he does not return (to the earth). But he does not repeat (at the 
beginning) of the several Tristubhs the call sorhsavoms ; for the metre 
must run in one and the same strain (without any interruption, through 
the call som'sawm, in order to be successful). 

The Hotar further ought to think, I will not make the Dhayyas, if 
they recite those (Tristubhs), and further, let us use as a conveyance 
the hymns with their well known introductory verses (the Tristubhs). If 
they then repeat these verses (Tristubhs), they [214] call hither by 
them Indra, just as a bullock is called to the cow. If they repeat them, 

Maitravaruna a satya ydtu, the BrShmanachhamsi, m du hrahmwii, andthe AchchhavSka 
ahhi ta^teva (see the reference in 6, 18') (4) The three Kadvantah PragAtha, of -which 
each has to repeat one. (5) The feampata hymns, see 6, 19. The principal partsof the 
Sastras of the minor Hotri-priests are only the two latter, the hymns and verses which 
precede being regarded only as intercalary {avapnna) ; thence the Kadvautah PragSthas 
are here called drambhaniya, t. e. beginning Pragathas. See on the whole Asval, br. 
S. 7, 4. 

' This is the translation of x^apa vnsyasam. 

*" Thus Sdy. explains, Sairavati, tracing it to ira = aniiam, T^iit I doubt the correct- 
ness of this explanation ; vory likely the front of the ship which might have had fho 
form of a plough (siro) is to bo understood. 



it is for making the sacrificial days continuous. Tims tb^Dy make the 
sacrificial days continuous. 


{The Tristulhs of the minor Hotris.) 

The Maitravaruna repeats every day before the hymns (the Tris- 
tubh) apaprdcha Indra (10, 131, 1), in which the idea of safety is expressed ; 
in the words, " Drive away iJ^om round about us all enemies : drive them 
away, conqueror ! May they b© in the south or north, prostrate (all) 
hero! that we may enjoy thy far-extended shelter!" For he fthe Mai- 
travaruna) wishes to be in safety (thence he has to repeat this 

The Brahmanachchharasi repeats every day Bruhmdna te hrahmayujd 
(3, 35, 4). By the word yimajmi, " I join," the idea of " joining" is inti- 
mated ; for the sacrificial days are joined, which is the characteristic of 
(all) sacrifices which last for a series of days (the Ahinas). 

The Achchhavaka repeats every day, urum no lokam anuneshi (6. 47, 8). 
For the term anu " after," implies the idea of going (after), as it were, which 
is a characteristic of the Ahina sacrifices (for one day follows the other) ; 
whereas nesi is a characteristic of a six monthly period of a sacrificial 

These verses are recited every day, as well as the concluding'* verses, 
which are every day the same. 

Indra is the occupant of their (of the sacrificer's) house, he is at 
their sacrifice. Just as the bull goes [415] to the cow, and the cow to 
her well-known stable, so does Indra go to the sacrifice. He ought 
not to conclude the Ahina with the verse sunam havema (3, 30, 22) ; 
for the king loses his kingdom if he calls him. who becomes his enemy 

How to join and disconnect the Ahinas. 
There is a joining as well as a disconnecting of the Ahina sacrifice. 
By the mantra vy antarik^am atirad (8, 14, 7-9) the Brahmanachchhamsi 
joins the Ahinas (at the morning libation) ; by eved Indra (7. 23, 6) he 
dissolves them (at the midday libation). 

11 These are according to Say., mi sttita indra (4, 16, 21) repeated by the Maitra- 
varuna ; eved indram (7, 23, 6) repeated by the Brahmanachchhauisi ; and nunam sd te (2, 
11 22) repeated by the Achchhavaka. 


By the mantra a ham sarasvattvator (8, 38, 10) the Achchhavaka joins 
them, and by nUnam sd te (2, 11, 22) (he dissolves them). 

By te sydma deva Varum (7, 66, 9) the Maitravaruna (joins them), and 
by nu qtuta (4, 16, 21) he dissolves them.*' 

He who knov7s how to join (at the morning libation) and to disconnect 
(at the midday libation ) is enabled to spread the thread of the sacri- 
ficial days (Ahinas). Their (general) junction consists in their being 
joined on the Chaturvimsa day ; and their (general) disconnection in 
disconnecting them before the concluding Atiratia (on the Mahavrata) day 
When the Hotri-priests would conclude on the Chaturvimsa day with 
verses appropriate to the Ekdhas, then they would bring the sacrifice 
to a close, without performing the ceremonies referring to the Ahinas. 
When they would conclude with the concluding verses of the Ahina days, 
then the sacrificers [416] would be cut off, just as (a bullock) who is tired 
must be cut off, (from the rope, for he does not move). They ought to 
conclude with both the Ekaha and Ahina verses, just as a man setting 
out on a long journey takes from station to station fresh animals. Thence 
their sacrifice becomes connected, and they themselves (the sacrificers) 
find relaxation. 

He ought not (o overpraise the stoma (i. e. not to repeat more verses 
than the singers chant) at the two (first) libations by (more than) one or 
two verses. When the Stoma is overpraised with many verses, {i. e. more 
than two) then they become for the Hotar like extensive forests (through 
which he has to pass without a resting place). At the third libation (he 
ought to overpraise the stoma) with an unlimited number of verses. For 
the heavenly world has no limits. (This serves) for obtaining the celes- 
tial warld. The Ahina sarifice of him who with such a knowledge extends 
it, remains, if once commenced, undisturbed. 

(The nature of the VdlaJchilya ^astra. 13 Uow to repeat k.) 

^' The verbs limunrhaii as well as yrihkte are here used iu an elliptical sense 
(^^^«TT^ . 'I'o t'^® former, yuhhte, and to the latter, vimiinchati is to be supplied, each 
thus implying its contrariety, 

** The way of repeating the so called Valakhilya Sastra, the text of which consists 

of the Valakhilya verses, now arranged in eight hymns, is very artificial, and considered 
as the most difficult task to be achieved by a Hotri-priest. It is repeated in a manner 
similar to the repetition of the Solasi Sastra (see page 258). The most general term 
for the peculiar way of repeating both the Valakhilya and Solas! /Sastras is vihdra, 
that is, the dissecting of a verse by joining to each of its padas, a p&da taken from 
another verse, and reciting then both parts in such a way as if they were forming only one 
verse. The way in which the Vaiakhilyas are repeated is a modification of the vihdra. 
It is called I't/afima^sci, This consists in a mutual transposition of the several p&das or 
half verses, or whole verses of the first and second Viilakhilya hymns, which, are repeated 
in sots, always two being taken together. The first two are to be repeated pfula by 



The gods after having perceived the cows to be in the cavern/* 
wished to obtain them by means of a sacrifice. They obtained 
them by means of the sixth day. ^ ' They bored at the morning liba- 
tion the cavern with the bore mantra {nahhaka). After having suc- 
ceeded in making an opening, they loosened (the stones), and then, at the 
third libation, broke up the cavern by means of the Valakhilya verses, 
with the Ekapada as vdehali Jtuta, which served as a weapon and drove 
the cows out. In this way the sacrificers bore the cavern at the morning 
libation by means of the Nabhaka, and make, by boring, its structure 
loose. Hence the Hotri- priests repeat at the morning libation the 
Nabhaka triplet. The Maitravarun.a repeats, yalj, kakuhho nidhdraya (8, 
41, 4-6) ; the Brahhmanachchhamsi), pit.rvista indra (8, 40, 9-11) ; the 
Achchhavaka, td hi madhyam hhardndm (8, 40, 3-5). 

pSda ; the third and fourth by half verses ; the fifth and sixth by whole verses (A-sv, 
6'r. S. 8. 2). The general rule for this transposition is expressed by Asval 1^^ SPTOT- 
grT^^ %ftl^TTl?^ SltWr 1^^ f^^T i. e. he must join the first verse (or half verse 
or pada, as the ease may be) of the first hymn with the second verse of the following 
hymn, and then the first of the following hymn with the second of the first. Two such 
verses form then one Pragatha. 

In order to better illustrate the way of transposition, I here subjoin an instance 
The first verse of the first Vaiakhilya hymn is as follows ; 

Abhi pra vah surddhasam indram archa yathd vide- 

Yo /aritribhijo maghavd piiruvasuh sahasreneva sik§ati 

Tha second verse of the second hymn is : 

Satanika hetaya asya dustard indrasyu sami§o mahth. 

Girir na bhujnid maghavastu pinvate yadirh sutd amandisuh. 

If the seveial padas of these two verses are to be mutually transposed, it is then 
done in the following way : 

(1) Ahhi pra vah surddhasam indrasya samUo mahth. 
Satanika hetayo asya dustard indram urchd yathd vidotn. 

(2) Yo jaritrihhyo maghavd puruvasar yadifh suta amandisuh. 
Girir na bhupnd maghavutsu pinvate sahasrena sik^atom. 

At the end of the five first Pragatha verses an EuapadS, or verse containing one pSda 
only is added. Four of them belong to the performance of the tenth day. These are 
according to Asval. (8, 2): (I) indra vis oasya goputih; (2) indra visvasya bhupatih ; (S) 
indra visvasya chetati ; {^) indra visvasya rdjati. The fifth is from the Mahavrata day, 
sanvendro visvam virajati. These five EkapadSs are not joined to the Pragatha without 
a stop after the latter. (smT^lf^ =grTg«T^rIT5I 5R[»TT^I5T^^"?^: ^^ -^^v. 8, 2.) 

The Pragatha with the Ekapada belonging to it is the vdchah ku^ah, i.e. the point 
of speech, according to Sayana. But this appears not to be quite correct. According 
to an unmistakable indication in Ait. Br. 6, 24 {upapto vdchah ktita ekapaddydm) it can 
mean only the Ekapada which is added to the Pragatha. 

'* This story is frequently alluded to in the Samhita of the Rigveda. 

" See page 335. 



At tlie third libation they break up the cavern with the Valakhilya 
verses, and the one footed Vdehah kuta which served as a weapon, and obtain 
the cows. There are six VS,lakhilya hymns. He repeats them in three 
terms ; for the first time he repeats them foot by foot, dissecting the 
verse by insertion ; for the second time half verse by half verse ; and for 
the third time verse by verse. When he repeats them foot by foot, dis- 
secting the verse by insertion, then he ought to put in every Pragatha 
verse (of which each hymn is composed) one additional foot (ekapadd ), 
which is the Vdehah kdtah, i.e. the point of the V4ch. There are five 
such Ekapadas, four of them being taken from the tenth day and one 
from the Mahavrata sacrifice. 

He ought (if the two verses joined should fall short of a proper Pragatha 
by eight syllables) to supply the eight syllables from the Mahanamnis^^ as 
often as they might be wanting ; for the other padas (of the Mahanamnis 
which he does not require for filling up the deficiency in the Pragatha) 
he ought not to care. 

When reciting the Valakhilyas half verse by half verse, he ought to 
repeat those Ekapadas ; and the [419] padas from the Mahi,namnis 
which consist of eight syllables. When repeating the Valakhilyas 
verse by verse, he ought (also) to repeat those Ekapadas, and the 
padas of eight syllables which are taken from the Mahalnamnia. 
When he repeats, for the first time, the six Valakhilya hymns, then 
he mixes {viharati) breath and speech by it. When he repeats 
them for the second time, then he mixes the eye and mind by it. 
When he repeats them for the third time, then he mixes the ear and the 
soul by it. Thus every desire regarding the mixing (of the verses) 
becomes fulfilled, and all desires regarding the Valakhilyas, which serve 
as a weapon, the Vachah kQta in the form of an Ekapada and the forma- 
tion of life will be fulfilled (also). 

He repeats the (Valakhilya) Pragathas for the fourth time without 
mixing the verses of two hymns. For the Pragathas are cattle. (It 
serves) for obtaining cattle. He ought not to insert (this time) an Ekapada 
in it Were he to do so, then he would cut off cattle from the sacrificer 
by slaying them. (If one should observe a Hotri-priest doing so) one 
ought to tell him at this occasion, thou hast cut off cattle from the 
sacrificer by slaying them with the point of speech {vdehah kiUa) thou hast 
deprived him of cattle (altogether). And thus it always happens. Thence 
one ought never to insert the Ekapadsfe at this occasion. 

'° See page 281. 


The two last Valakhllya hymns (the seventh and eighth^7) he adds as 
a setting (cover). Both are mixed. In such a way, Sarpi, the son of Vatsa, 
repeated them for a sacrificer, Suhala by name. He said, "I have now- 
grasped for the sacrificer the largest number of cattle, the best ones (as a 
reward for my skill) will come to me." He then gave [420] him (Sarpi) as 
much DaksinalS as to the great priests (Hotar, Adhvaryu, Udgttar^ 
Brahma). This Sastra procures cattle and heaven. Thence one repeats it 

{What kind of hymn ought to he chosen for the DuroharLam.) 

He recites a hymn in the Durohana way, about which a Brahmanam 
has been already told (4, 20). If the sacrificer aspires to cattle, then an 
Indra hymn is required for this purpose. For cattle belong to Indra ; it 
should be in the Jagati metre, for cattle have the nature of Jagati, they 
are (movable) ; it should be a great hymn (a mahdsiikta) ;l^ for then he 
places, by it, the sacrificer among the largest number of cattle. He may 
choose for making Diirohanam the Baru hymn (seen by the Risi Baru), 
which is a large hymn and in the Jagati metre.^O 

For one who aspires after a firm footing, an Indra- Varuna hymn is 
required ; for this performance of the Maitravaruna (his hotrd) belongs ta 
this deity ; (and) the Indra- Varuna^l (Yajya) is the conclusion of it. It ia 
the Daksina of the great priests. 

[421] This (Durohana repetition) puts (the reciter) finally in his own 
place (keeps him in his position). As regards thellndra- Varuna hymn, it is 
at this occasion (when performing the Diirohanam) a Nivid {i.e. like it). By-